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Fisk Unit 19


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Title: Fisk Unit 19

Fisk Unit 19
future of coal MIT study
Most coal plants in USA Average age 35
years Generate about 550MW Will operate for 30
years Most air blown Pulverized coal
combustion Average efficiency 33 gt35 uses PRB
Illinois Electric power net generation
6 Nuclear plants 24 Coal and Gas power plants 2
within city limits Fisk Crawford
Coal 47.6 Nuclear 48.9 Natural gas
2.8 Hydroelectric 0.1 Other Renewable
0.4 Petroleum 0.1 Other 0.1
IL GHGs by Gas (2003)
IL GHGs by Sector (2003)
2004 100,325,443 tons of CO2 from electricity
generation 385,213 tons of SO2
142,826 tons of NOx
Fisk 19
1111 W. Cermack ave Chicago IL
First built in 1903 (first to operate entirely
with steam turbines to generate electricity) Unit
19 became operational in 1959 18 previous
units Generates 350MW/year- mainly used to
maintain reliability of electrical grid during
peak hours Pulverized fuel boiler Uses Wyoming
PRB (subbitumous) coal and natural gas (to start
combustion) Only 35 efficiency 60 union
workers Operates 24/7
Power plant tour guide Gerald Delaney Chemical
Process Specialist for FISK Crawford
1. Coal Arrives from the barge
Arrives to Fisk 19 via the Chicago Sanitary and
Ship Canal No ground storage. Received just in
Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) Coal used
PRB coal used instead of Illinois 6 coal to
reduce SO2 emission (reduction in acid
rain) Despite lower efficiency and higher cost of
transport SO2 credit sold to other places
(non-significant revenue)
Shipped via train to Romeoville Stored there
until needed
PRB coal Pros - cheaper, lower sulfur
content Cons higher moisture content, lower
energy content, different ash content (which
could get stuck onto furnace walls)
Future of Coal MIT
3. Two furnaces burn the coal
2. Pulverize Coal 8 Grinding Mills
Coal particles are burnt in suspension at 4
different elevation levels in the furnace Run in
negative pressure at over 2000F temp Heat is
transferred to water tubes in the walls of the
chamber ? generates steam at high pressure and
temp. which is fed into a turbine Everything
closely monitored in the control room
One of the mills
Total of 8 grinding mills feeding 2 furnaces Uses
7000 tones of coal a day Coal is pulverized in
these mills and sent to the furnaces on the
higher level Powder coal sent to four corners of
the furnace
Control room
4. Allis-Chalmers steam turbine
Sample image of Allis-Chalmers turbine
Two turbines which rotates steam at 80F to
generate electricity
After combustion, whats left? bottom
ash which is sold to Laforge as soil stabilizer
(for airport runways) fly ash can
be mixed 11 with cement
Whats in the air after electricity generation?
4,747,062 tons of CO2 per year (4.7) of IL total
17,765 tons of SO2 per year (4.6) after
scrubbing 130 tons of soot 269 lbs of mercury
SO2 scrubbers installed after cleaner air
act was signed
In general for USA coal plants Only 1/3 has
desulfurization installed Only 10 has post
combustion NOx control 25 mercury is removed
Mercury removed
Outside of the power plant
NO CO2 scrubbers (not a large concern YET) If to
be installed it would go here! CO2 will reduce to
average efficiency of the plant by 30 - not
economical for a small plant such as FISK
19 Retrofit will include separate and capture
CO2 from the flue gas, dry and compress the gas
to supercritical fluid, transport and
Controversy regarding FISK 19?
Mortality All-cause ER visits Asthma Attacks Minor restricted-activity days
Fisk 15 200 1,000 13,000
Crawford 26 350 1,800 23,000
Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 1063-1075
Map of Particulate nitrate concentration (ug/m3)
Why is FISK 19 still in operation?
Only plant in chicago-land with Black Start
capability Process of restoring a power station
to operation in the case of a blackout without
relying on external energy sources A generator
at FISK will kick start FISK, which in turn will
generate enough electricity to start up the
surrounding nuclear plants Designed to prevent
complete grid failures such as the one in New
York state
Possible improvements?
According to Gerald Will rather increase
efficiency of turbine rather than install CO2
scrubbing like Dense packed turbine Will rather
install ultra-super critical furnaces (can not be
Probably wont be operating more than 30 years
According to us Can use more efficient Illinois
coal and reduce transportation cost Can install
better turbines or furnaces Install better SO2
scrubbers Implement carbon capture and storage
Perfect Example of a Market Failure
  • As mentioned earlier, Fisk produces certain
    negative externalities
  • SO2 -gt Acid Rain, Asthma..etc
  • CO2 -gtGlobal Warming and the ramifications of
    (Polar Bear Killers)

And while there are certain restrictions on SO2,
Fisk, being the old plant that it is, slips
through most regulation and has no financial
incentive to invest in better cleaning
technology, or to internalize these
externalities. Should any regulation arise they
could just shut down
Soon we will have to address the CO2 issue. But,
  1. Most applicable today chemical absorption using
    amine solvent
  2. Can use other solvents ammonia, chilled
    ammonia, advanced amines (chemical additives),
    membrane process
  3. Adsorption using solids such as zeolites or
    activated carbon
  4. Pre-combustion partially oxidize the fuel in a
    gasifier (easier to separate CO2)
  5. Oxy-fuel combustion combustion in high oxygen
    environment (easier to separate CO2)
  6. Chemical looping combustion using metal oxides
    as solid oxygen carriers
  7. Micro-algea for biofixation of CO2

Majority of these methods are still at early
stages of RD Significant funding required to
develop and test best CCS method Especially if we
want to retrofit existing power plants! Not
much funding from the state available!!!!
It is important to remember that for a long time
we will rely on coal for electric power
generation. So better to find better ways of
using it soon.
Scenarios for CO2 capture in subcritical coal
Future of Coal MIT
In the case of using Illinois 6 coal instead of
PRB There will be a significant loss in
Possible out come for FISK 19
Operate as is without any improvements Burn PRB
Build a new IGCC plant (Integrated gasification
combined cycle plant) Or a new PC plant with CCS
Burn Illinois 6 coal or PRB Install CO2
scrubbers Install more efficient turbine Better
combustion method
Cost- benefit calculations will be done for these
three scenarios
Things to consider
To be continued ..
Carbon Capture and Storage methods Amine
  • How does it work?
  • Flue gas goes through amine packed absorption
    column. (mono-ethanol amine)
  • Heating to separate CO2 from the solvent in
    regeneration column.
  • CO2 must be compressed to 150 bar in a
    multi-stage compressor for storage and

Integrated Gasification combined Cycle (IGCC) and
CO2 can be captured and compressed for transport
Future Policy Assumptions
  • A Cap and Trade Policy
  • Based on Kyoto and other National / Local
    legislation 5 reduction of GHGs1990 level
  • For Illinois this means a 43 Million ton
    reduction of CO2
  • Most plans incorporate 10 year time frame
    (Illinois Climate Change Advisory Group)
  • Current Price for Carbon 41.40 (Europe)

Implications for Fisk
  • Reduce to 1990 levels (472,662 tons CO2)
  • Reduction of 4,274,440 in nine years
    474,934 tons per year
  • Bigger Picture Midwest Generation
  • Six Illinois Coal Plants totaling 7,500 MW
  • 91 of Electricity from Coal in Illinois
  • Fisk currently represents 4 of power capacity

  • Fisk stays the same
  • Fisk burns IL 6 coal
  • Fisk burns PRB coal w/ CCS
  • Fisk builds unit 20, an IGCC unit

  • Fisk Unit 19 uses 7000t Coal/day
  • All material usage is proportional across coal
  • No economies of scale
  • Money gained from SO2 trading is negligible
  • Operation costs are similar

Cost of Fisk 19 using PRB coal Illinois 6 Coal
Cost of IGCC plant over 20 years
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In conclusion
If the Government mandates policies that
efficiently internalize externalities you will
see a rise in not just Chicago, but chances are
the United states as a whole!