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which who

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11 September 2001 was the day when/that people's attitude towards terrorism changed. ... No one knows who Guy Fawkes revealed the plot to. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: which who


1
Relative Clauses
  • which? who?

2
Which is better?
  • Which sentence is true?
  • Pubs in the UK, which banned smoking, are now
    very popular.
  • 2. Pubs in the UK which banned smoking are now
    very popular.

3
Which is true?
  • 1. Milk, which contains chemicals, is dangerous.
  • 2. Milk which contains chemicals is dangerous.

4
Who on earth is William Shakespeare?
  • 1. William Shakespeare, who is one of the most
    famous British writers, died on his birthday.
  • 2. William Shakespeare who is one of the most
    famous British writers died on his birthday.

5
Who is the Queen?
  • Is the information in the middle of the sentence
    necessary? Which sentence is correct?
  • 1. Queen Elizabeth ll, who lives at Buckingham
    Palace, is expected to live to a very old age,
    like her mother.
  • 2. Queen Elizabeth ll who lives at Buckingham
    Palace is
  • expected to live to a very old age, like her
    mother.

6
Exercises
  • Which of these sentences is correct?
  • 1 a) Everest which is the highest mountain in
    the world was not climbed until 1953.
  • b) Everest, which is the highest mountain in
    the world, was not climbed until 1953.
  • 2 a) We need someone who can read Chinese.
  • b) We need someone, who can read Chinese.

7
Exercises, continued
  • 3 a) Could you let us know the dates, which
    would suit you best?
  • b) Could you let us know the dates which
    would suit you best?
  • 4 a) The girls who worked hard were given a
    bonus.
  • b) The girls, who worked hard, were given a
    bonus.
  • 5 a) We got in through the window, which
    somebody had left open.
  • b) We got in through the window which
    somebody had left open.
  • (Adapted from Coe,1983)

8
Defining relative clauses No commas
  • A defining relative clause identifies which
    person or thing we mean exactly.
  • You cannot leave information in defining relative
    clauses out of a sentence
  • Its the book that I read yesterday.
  • Its the book. (this sentence is incomplete)
  • You can omit the pronoun in these clauses if it
    is the OBJECT
  • Its the book I read yesterday.

9
Non-defining relative clauses with commas
  • This kind of clause gives additional information
    about a person or thing.
  • The sentence still makes sense without the
    non-defining relative clause
  • The lectures, which I dont enjoy, last for an
    hour.
  • The lectures last for an hour.
  • (Adapted from Prodromou,1999)

10
Summary
Non-Defining Extra information The new Woody
Allen film, which I saw last week, is very good.
Defining Essential information Youre the man
(that) I saw last week.
  • Use commas
  • Always use relative pronouns,
  • e.g. who/whom (people) which (things)
  • No commas
  • Can omit pronoun if it is the OBJECT of the verb
    in the relative clause
  • That can replace which/who (infml)

11
Relative AdverbsTime
  • Time
  • That was the year when/that I got my MA. (The
    year in which...)
  • 11 September 2001 was the day when/that peoples
    attitude towards terrorism changed. (The day on
    which...)
  • The adverb (when) can be omitted.
  • (adapted from Foley Hall20030

12
Relative Adverbs Place
  • Place in/on/at which or in/on/that that
  • Thats the factory where they make chemicals.
    (The factory in which...)
  • Thats the spot where the battle took place. (The
    spot on which...)
  • The adverb (where) cannot generally be omitted.

13
Relative Adverbs Reason
  • Reason
  • I will explain the reasons why the outbreak
    occurred. (I will explain the reason for
    which...)
  • The adverb (why) can be omitted.
  • (Adapted from Prodromou,1999)

14
Formal/Informal
  • Non-Defining relative clauses (i.e. with commas)
    are more common in written English because they
    are quite heavy and formal.
  • In spoken English we would probably use two
    sentences.
  • Compare
  • Kjellens article, which was published in 2004,
    sheds some light on the matter of participatory
    observation. written
  • with
  • Kjellens article is good. It came out in 2004.
    spoken

15
Formal/Informal - prepositions and relative
clauses
  • Which is more formal of these sentences?
  • 1. The people to whom the questionnaire was given
    were randomly selected.
  • or
  • 2. The people the questionnaire was given to were
    randomly selected.
  • Preposition before rel. pronoun more formal
  • Preposition at end of clause less formal

16
Exercise
  • Make these sentences more formal
  • The house Shakespeare lived in is in Stratford
    upon Avon.
  • No one knows who Guy Fawkes revealed the plot to.
  • The village we went to to do our research was
    without water or electricity.
  • The people we worked with were cooperative and
    informative.

17
Exercise
  • Students enter Masters Programmes may face a
    number of problems.
  • May was angry that she had been given a book to
    read it was out of print.
  • A fellow student saw this felt sorry for May and
    offered her his own book.
  • The tutor gave the student a book, the book was
    written 20 years ago.
  • Experts all agree that dreams cause great anxiety
    and stress are called nightmares.
  • There are other authorities who consider any
    dream is sad and upsetting to be a nightmare.
  • Adapted from elc.polyu.edu.hk/cill/eap/relativecl
    auses.htm

18
References
  • CILL available from http//elc.polyu.edu.hk/cill
    /eap/relativeclauses.htm (accessed 20/01/2007)
  • Coe, N et al (1983) Writing Skills. Cambridge,
    CUP
  • Foley,M D.Hall (2003) Advanced Learners
    Grammar. Harlow, Longman
  • MET 1995 Vol 4 No 4
  • Prodromou, L (1999) Grammar and Vocabulary for
    First Certificate. Harlow, Longman
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