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Theories

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Fundamental Concepts of Growth and Development ... adding, subtracting, mental representation, conservatism. 4. Ages 11 - Formal Stage ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Theories


1
Theories
  • How and why people become as they are
  • 63-171

2
Fundamental Concepts of Growth and Development
  • Growth is the quantitative changes in physical
    size of the body and its parts.
  • Development refers to behavioral changes in
    functional abilities and skills.
  • Maturation is the process of becoming fully grown
    and developed. It involves both the physiological
    and behavioral aspects of an individual.

3
Growth versus Development
  • quantitative changes
  • measured
  • compared to norms
  • ie. Height, weight
  • progressive
  • continuous
  • process of change
  • leads to new functional ability

4
  • Maturation depends on biological growth,
    functional changes, and learning (assimilation of
    information with a resultant change in behavior).
  • The critical period is the time of the most rapid
    growth or development in a particular stage of
    the life cycle.

5
Principles of Growth and Development
  • Development occurs in a cephalocaudal direction
    (head to toe) and proximodistal manner (inner to
    outer).
  • Functions closer to the midline develop before
    distal functions.
  • Development occurs from simple to complex.

6
  • The pattern of growth and development is
    continuous, orderly, and predictable but does not
    proceed at a consistent rate.
  • All individuals go through the same developmental
    processes.
  • Every person proceeds through stages of growth
    and development at an individual rate.

7
  • Every stage of development has specific
    characteristics.
  • Each stage of development has certain tasks to be
    achieved or acquired during that specific time.
  • Some stages of growth and development are more
    critical than others.

8
Factors Influencing Growth and Development
  • Heredity
  • Life experiences
  • Health status
  • Cultural expectations

9
Theoretical Perspectives of Human Development
  • Physiological dimension
  • Physiological growth of an individual is
    influenced primarily by interaction of genetic
    predisposition, the central nervous system, the
    endocrine system, and maturation.

10
Holistic Framework for Nursing
  • Psychosocial dimension
  • Consists of subjective feelings and interpersonal
    relationships
  • Self-concept is a view of ones self, including
    body image, self-esteem, and ideal self
  • Theorists
  • Freud, Erikson, Havighurst

11
Cognitive dimension
  • Characterized by the intellectual process of
    knowing which includes perception, memory, and
    judgment
  • Develops as an individual progresses through the
    life span
  • Theorist Piaget

12
Moral dimension
  • Consists of a persons value system that helps in
    differentiating right and wrong
  • Moral maturity is the ability to independently
    decide for ones self what is right
  • Theorists Kohlberg, Gilligan

13
Spiritual dimension
  • Spirituality refers to relationships with ones
    self, with others and with a higher power or
    divine source
  • Spirituality does not refer to a specific
    religious affiliation
  • Theorist Fowler

14
Holistic Framework for Nursing
  • Nursings holistic perspective recognizes the
    progression of individual development across the
    lifespan.
  • Nursing interventions must be appropriate to each
    clients developmental stage.
  • Growth and development theories are useful to
    nurses as assessment parameters.

15
Adaptation
  • Result of adjustment to the environment
    (prenatal, postnatal, infancy, childhood,
    adulthood)
  • Learning to get needs met

16
Development Types
  • Biophysical
  • Psychosocial
  • Cognitive
  • Moral

17
Developmental Periods
18
Developmental Theorists
  • Erikson
  • Havinghurst
  • Piaget

19
ERIK ERIKSON
20
Eriksons Developmental Theory
  • Erikson believed development was based on
    sequencing biological, psychological and social
    events
  • Erickson viewed IDENTITY as the central life task
    and self definition as a lifelong maturational
    process
  • Development of identity of self through stages
    triggered by lifes forces. Life circumstances,
    culture affect the when, how, intensity of
    process

21
Eriksons Developmental Theory
  • Developmental tasks with opposing tendencies
  • Influenced by internal and external forces
  • Each stage build on successful resolution of the
    previous one
  • A linear process, each stage more complex than
    the previous stage
  • Ideal resolution is the balancing of the positive
    with the negative

22
Eriksons Eight stages of life
  • Infancy Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Toddler Autonomy vs. Doubt
  • Early Childhood Initiative vs. Guilt
  • 6 to 12Competence vs. Inferiority
  • 12 to 18 Identity vs. Role Confusion
  • 19 to 40 Intimacy vs. Isolation
  • 40 to 65 Generativity vs. Stagnation
  • 65 to death Integrity vs. Despair

23
Health Promotion Implications
  • Self-assessment of own development
  • Use Eriksons tasks in assessment of clients
  • In teaching parents about child development
  • Assist clients and health care providers to
    recognize change as a lifelong process
  • Recognize influence of society on health and
    behaviour

24
ROBERT HAVIGHURST
  • Building on Erikson
  • Tasks from internal external pressures
  • Pressures physical maturity, cultural pressures,
    individual goals aspirations
  • Success or failure in one task affect later tasks
  • Havighurst believed that schools must help a
    child attain success, to foster success in adult
    tasks.

25
Cognitive Development
  • Piagets theory
  • Progressive acquisition of increasing levels of
    thinking skills
  • Establish harmony or equilibrium between self and
    environment
  • Biological maturation affects cognitive
    development, but Piaget believed the rate of
    development depended on the intellectual
    stimulation and challenge in the childs
    environment.

26
Piagets Theory
  • Intellectual development takes place in stages/
    people seek equilibrium in their lives. Piaget
    emphasized the cognitive development in children.
    He concluded that intellectual development
    appeared to take place in stages and therefore no
    stage could be eliminated, since each was
    dependent on the preceding.

27
Piagets Stages of Intellectual Development
  • 1. Ages birth-2 yr. Sensorimotor Stage - object
    permanence
  • Learning to deal with the environment.
  • Moving from random acts to thoughtful choices

28
Piagets Stages of Intellectual Development
  • 2. Ages 2 -7yr. Preoperational Stage
  • Learning to think with the use of symbols,
    language.
  • Play is the initial use of symbols.
  • Imitation make believe communicate feelings.
  • Language mirrors the thinking process.
  • Egocentric , only sees own perspective.
  • Parallel play. Learns to handle the responses of
    others to their actions.
  • Able to think systematically concretely (see,
    feel, taste).

29
Piagets Stages of Intellectual Development
  • 3. Ages 7-11 - Concrete Operational
  • Learns to understand two concrete perspectives.
    Starts to cooperate share
  • adding, subtracting, mental representation,
    conservatism
  • 4. Ages 11 - Formal Stage
  • Thinking moves to the abstract and theoretical
    subjects
  • Increased ability to problem solve. Reason with
    respect to possibilities

30
Health Promotion Implications
  • Assess cognitive stage and development of client
    to plan health teaching sessions
  • Use knowledge of cognitive development in play
    therapy
  • Teach parents about the implications of cognitive
    development for education, choice of toys and
    interactions

31
Moral Development
  • Kohlbergs theory
  • Development of ethical values
  • Progression through stages
  • Common changes in school age, adolescence and
    young adulthood
  • Not everyone goes through all stages

32
Health Promotion Implications
  • Assess own level of moral development
  • Assess clients level of moral development
  • Contribute to a clients moral development
    through modeling, clarifying, and validating

33
Toward..
  • Healthy, happy, successful and safe Canadians

McCabe 2004
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