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17th Century Absolutism in England

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Plan compromised & Guy Fawkes caught. January 1606 conspirators executed. November 5 Guy Fawkes Day. Other Problems. Corruption and scandals ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 17th Century Absolutism in England


1
17th Century Absolutism in England
  • Monarchs vs. Parliament
  • The monarchs believed they should rule with
    little interference from Parliament
  • Parliament felt it should have a voice in
    political matters
  • It will result in a new system of rule in England

2
Structure of Parliament
  • Legislative branch of English Government
  • 2 Houses
  • House of Lords (Upper House)
  • Considered the more prominent of the 2
  • Members came from nobility clergy
  • House of Commons (Lower House)
  • Members represented towns, cities, counties

3
James I
  • 1603-1625
  • Originally from Scotland (James VI)
  • Combined the thrones
  • Followed Elizabeth I
  • House of Stuarts
  • Inherited a large amount of debt and severe
    problems over religion
  • Not familiar with the English system
  • Not considered smart Quote . . .

4
True Law of Free Monarchy
  • James I believed in the divine right of kings
  • Parliament expected James to work closely with
    them to rule England

5
James I Religion
  • Quickly alienates most religious groups
  • First The Puritans
  • Many Puritans (a separate group within the
    Protestants) hoped James would continue to reform
    the Anglican Church. They were wrong No
    Bishops, no King
  • Did not agree with the Puritan view of life
  • 1618-he issued Book of Sport
  • Some religious groups began to leave England
  • Plymouth Colony
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony

6
James I
  • Next Catholics
  • Many Catholics were hoping James would be
    sympathetic to them
  • Made peace with Spain (1604)
  • Relaxed laws against Catholics
  • However, many Catholics felt this wasnt enough
    . . .

7
Gunpowder Plot 1605
  • November
  • Plan by several Catholics to kill James I as he
    entered Parliament
  • 36 barrels of gunpowder under the House of Lords
  • Plan compromised Guy Fawkes caught
  • January 1606 conspirators executed
  • November 5 Guy Fawkes Day

8
Other Problems
  • Corruption and scandals
  • James I raised money by selling positions in the
    government
  • Not uncommon
  • Many positions went to Scottish friends
  • He rarely called on Parliament for money and this
    upset Parliament
  • He died in 1625 and is succeeded by his son
    Charles I

9
Charles I
  • 2nd son of James I
  • Difficult childhood
  • Speech impediment
  • Poor physical health
  • Blamed Parliament for his fathers troubles
  • Expensive taste in the arts
  • Like his dad Believed in the Divine Right of
    Kings

10
Charles I
  • Personality weaknesses
  • Struggled in managing people
  • Wife was French . . .
  • Quick to judge
  • Extremely loyal
  • Held grudges for long periods of time
  • These qualities did not serve him well as a
    modern ruler

11
Rule of Charles I
  • Parliament would not grant him money
  • Raised money illegally taxes
  • He did not call Parliament into session
  • Petition of Right 1628- Parliaments attempt to
    limit his power
  • Expressed the high level of resentment towards
    Charles and the power of the monarchy
  • Charles continued to seek ways to raise money
  • Sold government positions (knights, nobles)
  • Ship Money (1634)
  • Charles is sued by John Hampden but wins
  • Cost the King support

12
The Long Parliament
  • Met in stages between 1640-1660
  • Attempted to Limit the Power of Charles I
  • No taxes without Parliaments approval
  • Charles was expected to give-up the power to
    dissolve Parliament
  • Parliament must meet at least once every 3 years
  • Dissolves the Star Chamber
  • Charles was furious and arrests members of
    Parliament
  • England falls into a civil war

13
English Civil Wars 1642-1648
  • 1st Civil War 1642-1646
  • Result- Charles agree to share power (but doesnt
    follow through with the pledge)
  • 2nd Civil War 1648
  • Charles I (Cavaliers) vs. Parliament
    (Roundheads)
  • Causes of Parliaments victory
  • Scottish support
  • Cromwells work with the military
  • Charles I is no longer in control

14
Roundheads invade the home of a cavalier
15
Map of the English Civil War
  • The Roundheads benefited from controlling London
    and the coastal areas of England
  • The help from Scotland also led to the victory
    from the North

16
What to Do With the King?
  • Some member of Parliament want to negotiate
    further with Charles
  • Other members want him punished
  • Prides Purge 1648

17
Trial of Charles I
  • January 1649 Charles is put on trial
  • Accused of high treason
  • Charles does not enter a plea in the trial
  • January 30, he is executed
  • The monarchy is over
  • Significance and reaction in Europe?

18
Execution of Charles I

19
Oliver Cromwell- The Puritan Revolution
  • Assumes control after the execution of Charles I
  • Initially wanted the son of Charles I to take
    over
  • Successes of foreign policy
  • Rebellions in Scotland Ireland (ruthless)
  • Navigation Acts
  • Attack the strength of the Dutch

20
Cromwell continued
  • Domestic Policies
  • Criticized by various groups
  • Levellers Diggers
  • Appoints himself Lord Protector in 1653
  • Includes England, Wales Scotland
  • Written constitution
  • Protectorate

21
Life Under Cromwell
  • Positive
  • A degree of religious toleration for certain
    Catholics and Jews
  • Negatives
  • Severe limits placed on lifestyle
  • Dealt with opponents harshly

22
Charles II the Restoration of the Monarchy
  • Ruled 1660-1685
  • Had a delicate relationship with Parliament (they
    had killed his father)
  • Parliament did not grant him much tax power
  • Used foreign money
  • Custom taxes

23
London Fire
  • September 1666
  • Started in a bakery
  • 4/5 of the city was destroyed
  • Most buildings were made of wood and had thatched
    roofs
  • No true fire fighting services existed
  • 6 known victims
  • St. Pauls Cathedral

24
London Fire
  • Impact of the Fire
  • Redeveloped the city for the better
  • Displaced thousands of residents
  • Many lost everything and there was no insurance
  • Actually saved lives in the end b/c it killed off
    the rats that carried the plague

25
Royal Society
  • Established in 1660 to encourage scientific
    ventures
  • Past Presidents include
  • Christopher Wren
  • Isaac Newton
  • The Royal Society - the UK's national academy of
    science

26
James II
  • Strong Catholic
  • Is tolerated by Parliament because they want to
    avoid problems
  • The birth of his son changes that
  • 1688 flees to France

27
William Mary
  • The Glorious Revolution (bloodless)
  • Joint monarchs of England
  • William was looking for the upper hand in dealing
    with France
  • 1689 Bill of Rights
  • Act of Settlement 1701
  • Ensures Protestant succession to the throne

28
Battle of Boyne
  • July 11, 1690
  • Williams army (Williamites) vs. James army
    (Jacobites)
  • Williamites win because of the decoy flanking
    movement 1
  • Gave control of Ireland to William
  • July 12th is a major holiday for Protestants in
    Northern Ireland
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