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Physiological Effects of Freezing and Chilling Stress on Tolerant and Susceptible Plants, in relatio

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Title: Physiological Effects of Freezing and Chilling Stress on Tolerant and Susceptible Plants, in relatio


1
Physiological Effects of Freezing and Chilling
Stress on Tolerant and Susceptible Plants, in
relation to Alberta Agriculture
  • Stefan Meyer
  • Plant Physiology 324
  • Dean Spaner
  • Agriculture Food and Nutritional Science
  • April 2006

2
Foreshadow
  • Stress and its importance for Alberta
  • Lipids
  • Freezing
  • Supercooling
  • Chilling
  • Cold and Effect on Plants
  • Avoidance
  • Tolerance
  • Acclimation
  • Susceptible and tolerant species
  • Management alterations to decrease effects on
    plants
  • Benefits of Cold

3
Agriculture and Agrifood Canada. Plant Hardiness
Zones.
4
Challenges of Stress
  • Mechanical concept
  • Force per unit area
  • Causes strain
  • Biological
  • Limits genetic potential of plant
  • Stressful environments
  • (Lyons et al. 1964)

5
Alberta Frost Free Days
  • (www.canola-council.org/stress_frost.aspx)

6
  • www.wunderground.com

7
Cold Stress
  • Abiotic
  • Sessile
  • Chilling stress-no ice formation
  • Freezing stress- less than 0 ºC
  • Vernalization
  • (Verslues PE. et al. 2006)

8
Lipids
  • Saturated fatty acids
  • Less cold tolerant
  • Butter and oil
  • Unsaturated
  • Double bonds
  • More cold tolerant
  • Transition temperature
  • Water stress
  • (Lyons et al. 1964)

9
Folkert et al., 2001
10
Liquid Phase Gel Phase
McKersie, 1996
11
Freezing 1
  • Ice first forms in xylem
  • Large diameter
  • Dilute sap
  • Leads to a higher freezing point
  • (Verslues PE. et al. 2006)

12
Freezing 2
  • Plasma membrane cant be penetrated by ice
    crystals
  • Ice formation in the extracellular space
    decreases the ?w of the extra cellular space
  • Water moves from area of high to low potential
    (More negative)
  • Dehydration until equilibrium
  • (Verslues PE. et al. 2006)

13
Desiccation
Toxic salts
McKersie, 1996
14
Freezing Damage 3
  • Ice crystals develop
  • Dehydrating and collapsing cells
  • Disrupting tissue structure
  • Damage of cellular membranes
  • Leaking of solutes
  • (Verslues PE. et al. 2006)

15
Freezing Resistance
  • Dehydrated seed
  • Absolute zero
  • Liquid nitrogen(-196 ºC ) (Iba, K. 2002)
  • Resume growth
  • Cryogenic storage
  • Intracellular
  • Extra-cellular
  • Super cooling
  • (Lyons et al. 1964)

16
  • Taiz and Zeiger 2006

17
Super Cooling
  • Pure water, free of a nucleating substance, can
    be super cooled to -38 ºC
  • Nucleating substances are like other ice crystals
  • Ice nucleation temp varies
  • Cuticle
  • (Verslues PE. et al. 2006)

McKersie, 1996
18
McKersie, 1996
19
Chill Sensitive Plants
  • Warmer clime plants TOMATO
  • 0-15 ºC
  • High in saturated fatty acids
  • Ions leak out cell into extra-cellular space
  • Acclimation

20
Chilling
  • Photosynthesis or respiration are reduced
  • Leaf lesions, wilting, necrosis, water soaked
    appearance
  • Drought stress
  • Root rot diseases
  • Herbicide injury
  • Light and heat stress
  • (Dewayne et al., 1994)

21
Chilling Injury- fx photosynthesis
Damian Donald. 2001.
22
What do these three have in common?
  • Drought
  • Salinity
  • Freezing
  • Water uptake potential is reduced
  • (Verslues PE et al. 2006)
  • Anhydrobiosis (life without water) Mechanisms of
    plant desiccation
  • (Folkert et al., 2001)

23
Cellular Biochemistry Effects
  • ? symplastic and apoplastic transport
  • ? respiration
  • ?photosynthesis
  • ?protein synthesis
  • (Lyons et al. 1964)

24
Symptoms of Injured Plants
  • Species
  • Age
  • Duration
  • Seedlings
  • ? leaf size
  • Chlorosis ? necrosis
  • Canola and the meristem
  • Reproductive structures
  • Abortion
  • Seed weight and size
  • (Lyons et al. 1964 www.canola-council.org/
    images/frost_fig16.jpg)

25
Stress Avoidance 1
  • Develop under periods of less stress
  • Ephemeral plants
  • Arctic annuals survive cold winters
  • Stress escapers
  • (Lyons et al. 1964)

26
Avoidance 2
  • Annual plants
  • Seed dispersal
  • Biennials and perennials
  • Dormant or quiescent winter period (Andrews 1996)
  • Canada thistle
  • During winter undergo severe anoxia or hypoxia
    (Andrew 1996)

27
Stress Tolerance
  • Avoidance or Tolerance
  • Adaptation
  • Heritable
  • Acclimation
  • Non-genetic
  • Rye, winter wheat
  • Hardeninghardy
  • Salts, Nitrogen
  • Phosphate, Potassium
  • (www.nysaes.cornell.edu Lyons et al. 1964)

28
McKersie, 1996
29
McKersie, 1996
30
Acclimation
  • Stage 1
  • Cool days
  • Shortening of days
  • Phytochrome
  • ABA
  • Stage 2
  • First frost
  • Organic phosphates
  • Starch to sugars
  • Glycoprotein's
  • Photosynthesis/light
  • Gene expression
  • (Kasuga et al., 1999)
  • www.mcdb.ucla.edu/Research/ Tobin/research.html

31
McKersie, 1996
32
(No Transcript)
33
The
34
Susceptible Plants
  • Hopkins 1999

35
Brrrrrrrr. Cold Tolerant
  • Northern Boreal forests
  • -70 ºC
  • Secale Cereale
  • -4 to -34 ºC (Lyons et al. 1964)
  • Triticum aestivum
  • -23ºC
  • Hordeum vulagre
  • 18ºC (Reynolds et al., 2001)

36
(Reynolds, et al., 2001)
37
Triticosecale wittmak
Avena sativa
Secale cereale
Norstar- Triticum aestivum
Fowler Greer.2003
38
  • Effect of seeding date on winter survival
  • __________________________________________________
    __
  • Subtract
  • 4 weeks early 31
  • 3 weeks early 15
  • 2 weeks early 3
  • 1 week early 0
  • Recommended date 0
  • 1 weeks late 4
  • 2 weeks late 12
  • 3 weeks late 25
  • 4 weeks late 38
  • 5 weeks late 38
  • 6 weeks late 15
  • __________________________________________________
    __
  • Lethbridge, AB September 9 into optimal stubble
    seeding

39
Winter Kill in Winter Cereals
  • Low temperature related
  • Inadequate hardening
  • Very cold temperatures
  • Low sub-zero temperatures
  • Freezing and thawing
  • Ice Sheath
  • Anaerobic conditions
  • Indirect damage
  • Frost heaving
  • Snow mold (Reynolds et al., 2001)

40
Freezing Injury Gradients
(Larsson 1986)
41
(No Transcript)
42
Reynolds et al., 2001
43
Freezing-tolerant species
  • Norstar and Warrior wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Temperature-responsive genes
  • TaIRI-1 and TaIRI-2 (Triticum aestivum ice
    recrystallization inhibition)
  • Promoted during cold acclimation (Tremblay 2005)
  • Secale cereale
  • Antifreeze proteins
  • Cold-responsive genes
  • Gene CHT46 (Yeh 2000)

44
Reduce Stress
  • Sensitive crops
  • Plant on slopes
  • Cold air is dense
  • Plant early
  • Insulate-fog (Dewayne et al., 1994)
  • Snow cover
  • Zero till
  • Mulch (Spaner 2006)
  • nitrogen application
  • Select appropriate cultivars

Google
Fowler Greer.2003
Google
45
Benefits of -40 ºC below
  • Kills most over-wintering organism
  • Vernalization

46
  • Citations
  • Verslues PE, M Agarwal, S Katiyar-Agarwal, JZhu,
    J Zhu. 2006. Methods and concepts in quantifying
    resistance to drought, salt and freezing,
    abiotic stresses that affect plant water
    statusThe Plant Journal 454 523
  • J.M.Lyons et al., Plant Physiology 39262,1964
  • Growing Canola .2006.www.canola-council.org/stress
    _frost.aspx
  • Andrews C.J. 1996. How do plants survive ice.
    Ann. Bot. 78529-536.
  • Tremblay K., Ouellet F., Fournier J., Danyluk J.
    and Sarhan F. 2005. Molecular characterization
    and origin of novel bipartite cold- regulated
    ice recrystallization inhibition proteins from
    cereals. Plant. and Cell. Physiology
    46884- 891.
  • Yeh S., Moffatt B.A., Griffith M., Xiong F., Yang
    D.S.C., Wiseman S.B., Sarhan F., Danyluk J., Xue
    Y.Q. and Hew C.L. 2000. Chitinase genes
    responsive to cold encode antifreeze proteins in
    winter cereals. Plant Physiol. 1241251-1263.
  • Taiz and Zeiger. 2006. Plant Physiology 4th
    edition. Sinaur Associates, Inc
  • Dewayne L. Ingram, Thomas Yeager, Rita L.
    Hummel2. 1994.Cold Protection for Nursery
    Crops1. from www.plantstress.com
  • Folkert A. Hoekstra, Elena A. Golovina and Julia
    Buitink. 2001. Mechanisms of plant desiccation
    tolerance TRENDS in Plant Science Vol.6 No.9
  • Koh IbaACCLIMATIVE RESPONSE TO TEMPERATURE
  • Iba, K. 2002. STRESS IN HIGHER PLANTS Approaches
    ofGene Engineering for Temperature Tolerance.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 2002. 5322545
  • D. B. Fowler1 and K. Greer.2003. A WEB-BASED
    MODEL FOR ESTIMATING WINTER SURVIVAL IN
    CEREALS. U of S
  • Damian J. A. and R. O. Donald. 2001. Impacts of
    chilling temperatures on photosynthesis in
    warm-climate plants. TRENDS in Plant Science
    Vol.6 No.1.www. plantstress.com
  • Reynolds, M.P., J.I. Ortiz-Monasterio, and A.
    McNab (eds.). 2001. Application of Physiology in
    Wheat Breeding. Mexico, D.F. CIMMYT.
  • Larsson, S. 1986. New screening methods for
    drought resistance and cold hardiness in
    cereals. In Svalöf 1886-1986, Research and
    results in plant breeding. G. Olsson (ed.). LTs
    Förlag, Stockholm, Sweden. pp. 241- 251.
  • McKersie, B.D. 1996. FREEZING STRESS.
    www.cropsoil.psu.edu/Courses/AGRO518/FREEZING.ht
    mfrost (March 29 2006)
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