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Australian Studies

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Title: Australian Studies


1
Australian Studies
  • Politics, States Territories, Foreign
    Relations, Military

2
Review
3
Australian Coat of Arms
  • The Coat of Arms of Australia (formally known as
    Commonwealth Coat of Arms) is the official symbol
    of Australia.

4
Australian Flag
  • The flag is a defaced Blue Ensign a blue field
    with the Union Flag in the canton (upper hoist
    quarter), and a large white seven-pointed star
    known as the Commonwealth Star in the lower hoist
    quarter.
  • The fly contains a representation of the Southern
    Cross constellation, made up of five white stars
    one small five-pointed star and four, larger,
    seven-pointed stars.

5
Southern cross
  • Southern Cross, is the smallest of the 88 modern
    constellations, but nevertheless one of the most
    distinctive.

6
Politics
  • The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional
    democracy based on a federal division of powers.
  • The form of government used in Australia is a
    constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary
    system of government.
  • Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of Australia, a
    role that is distinct from her position as
    monarch of the other Commonwealth realms.

7
Politics
  • The Queen is represented by the Governor-General
    at federal level and by the Governors at state
    level.
  • Although the Constitution gives extensive
    executive powers to the Governor-General, these
    are normally exercised only on the advice of the
    Prime Minister.
  • The most notable exercise of the
    Governor-General's reserve powers outside the
    Prime Minister's direction was the dismissal of
    the Whitlam Government in the constitutional
    crisis of 1975.

8
Politics
  • There are three branches of government

9
Politics
  • The legislature the Commonwealth Parliament,
    comprising the Queen, the Senate, and the House
    of Representatives the Queen is represented by
    the Governor-General, who by convention acts on
    the advice of his or her Ministers.

10
Politics
  • The executive the Federal Executive Council (the
    Governor-General as advised by the Executive
    Councillors) in practice, the councillors are
    the Prime Minister and Ministers of State

11
Politics
  • The judiciary the High Court of Australia and
    other federal courts. Appeals from Australian
    courts to the Judicial Committee of the Privy
    Council in the United Kingdom ceased when the
    Australia Act was passed in 1986.

12
Politics
  • The bicameral Commonwealth Parliament consists of
    the Queen, the Senate (the upper house) of 76
    senators, and a House of Representatives (the
    lower house) of 150 members.
  • Members of the lower house are elected from
    single-member constituencies, commonly known as
    "electorates" or "seats".
  • Seats in the House of Representatives are
    allocated to states on the basis of population,
    with each original state guaranteed a minimum of
    five seats.

13
Politics
  • In the Senate, each state is represented by 12
    senators, and each of the territories (the
    Australian Capital Territory and the Northern
    Territory) by two.
  • Elections for both chambers are held every three
    years senators have overlapping six-year terms,
    and only half of the seats are put to each
    election unless the cycle is interrupted by a
    double dissolution.
  • The party with majority support in the House of
    Representatives forms government and its leader
    becomes Prime Minister.

14
Politics
  • There are two major political groups that form
    government the Australian Labour Party, and the
    Coalition which is a grouping of two parties the
    Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National
    Party.
  • Independent members and several minor
    partiesincluding the Greens and the Australian
    Democratshave achieved representation in
    Australian parliaments, mostly in upper houses.

15
Politics
  • Since 3 December 2007, shortly after the 2007
    election, the Labour Party led by the Prime
    Minister Kevin Rudd has been in power in
    Canberra, and the party was in power in every
    State and Territory Parliament until the Liberal
    Party formed a minority Government with the
    National Party in Western Australia in September
    2008.

16
Politics
  • In the 2004 election, the previous governing
    Coalition led by John Howard won control of the
    Senatethe first time in more than 20 years that
    a party (or a coalition) has done so while in
    government.
  • Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18
    years and over, in each state and territory and
    at the federal level. Enrolment to vote is
    compulsory in all jurisdictions except South
    Australia.

17
Government
18
Gough Whitlam
  • The Australian constitutional crisis of 1975,
    commonly called The Dismissal, refers to the
    events that culminated with the removal of
    Australia's then Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam by
    Governor-General Sir John Kerr and appointing the
    Leader of the Opposition Malcolm Fraser as
    caretaker Prime Minister.
  • It has been described as the greatest political
    and constitutional crisis in Australia's history.

19
White Australia Policy
  • The White Australia policy is a term used to
    describe a collection of historical legislation
    and policies that intentionally restricted
    non-white immigration to Australia from 1901 to
    1973.

20
White Australia Policy
  • The inauguration of White Australia as government
    policy is generally taken to be the passage of
    the Immigration Restriction Act in 1901, one of
    the first Acts of the new national parliament
    upon federation, with virtually no parliamentary
    opposition.
  • The policy was dismantled in stages by successive
    governments after the conclusion of World War II,
    with the encouragement of first non-British and
    later non-white immigration.
  • From 1973 on, the White Australia policy was for
    all practical purposes defunct, and in 1975 the
    Australian government passed the Racial
    Discrimination Act, which made racially-based
    selection criteria illegal.

21
White Australia Policy
  • Restrictions on immigration had preceded
    federation, which began with anti-Chinese
    legislation enacted by individual Australian
    colonies during the Australian gold rushes of the
    1850s.

22
States Territories
23
States Territories
  • Apple Isle a) WA
  • Capital Territory b) NT
  • Festival State c) SA
  • Garden State d) Tas
  • NT Outback Australia e) Qld
  • Premier State f) NSW
  • State of Excitement g) Vic
  • Sunshine State h) ACT

24
States Territories
  • Australia has six states, two major mainland
    territories, and other minor territories. The
    states are New South Wales, Queensland, South
    Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western
    Australia.
  • The two major mainland territories are the
    Northern Territory and the Australian Capital
    Territory (ACT).

25
Australian States
26
States Territories
  • In most respects, the territories function like
    the states, but the Commonwealth Parliament can
    override any legislation of their parliaments.
  • By contrast, federal legislation only overrides
    state legislation in certain areas that are set
    out in Section 51 of the Australian Constitution
    state parliaments retain all residual legislative
    powers, including powers over hospitals,
    education, police, the judiciary, roads, public
    transport, and local government.

27
State Populations
28
States Territories
  • Australia also has several minor territories the
    federal government administers a separate area
    within New South Wales, the Jervis Bay Territory,
    as a naval base and sea port for the national
    capital.
  • In addition Australia has the following inhabited
    external territories Norfolk Island, Christmas
    Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and several
    largely uninhabited external territories Ashmore
    and Cartier Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard
    Island and McDonald Islands, and the Australian
    Antarctic Territory.

29
States Territories
  • From 1926 to 1931, Central Australia existed as a
    separate territory between the 20th and 26th
    parallels of latitude, before being
    reincorporated into the Northern Territory.
  • From 1949 to 1972, the Territory of Papua and New
    Guinea was part of Australia, remaining so until
    the independence of the country of Papua New
    Guinea.

30
Foreign Relations
  • Over recent decades, Australia's foreign
    relations have been driven by a close association
    with the United States through the ANZUS pact,
    and by a desire to develop relationships with
    Asia and the Pacific, particularly through ASEAN
    and the Pacific Islands Forum.
  • In 2005 Australia secured an inaugural seat at
    the East Asia Summit following its accession to
    the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation.
  • Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of
    Nations, in which the Commonwealth Heads of
    Government meetings provide the main forum for
    cooperation.

31
New Australian Flag?
32
Foreign Relations
  • Australia has energetically pursued the cause of
    international trade liberalisation.
  • Australia led the formation of the Cairns Group
    and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
  • It is a member of the Organisation for Economic
    Co-operation and Development and the World Trade
    Organization.

33
Foreign Relations
  • There are several major bilateral free trade
    agreements Australia has pursued, most recently
    the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement
    and Closer Economic Relations with New Zealand.
  • A founding member country of the United Nations,
    Australia also maintains an international aid
    program under which some 60 countries receive
    assistance.
  • The 200506 budget provides A2.5 billion for
    development assistance as a percentage of GDP,
    this contribution is less than that of the UN
    Millennium Development Goals.

34
Military
  • Australia's armed forcesthe Australian Defence
    Force (ADF)comprise the Royal Australian Navy
    (RAN), the Australian Army, and the Royal
    Australian Air Force (RAAF), numbering about
    51,000.
  • All branches of the ADF have been involved in UN
    and regional peacekeeping (most recently in East
    Timor, the Solomon Islands and Sudan), disaster
    relief, and armed conflict, including the 2003
    invasion of Iraq.

35
Military
  • The government appoints the Chief of the Defence
    Force from one of the armed services the current
    Chief of the Defence Force is Air Chief Marshal
    Angus Houston.
  • In the 200607 budget, defence spending is
    A22 billion.
  • While the Governor-General is the
    Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Defence
    Force, he or she does not play an active part in
    the ADF's command structure the elected
    Australian Government controls the ADF.

36
Military
  • ADF deployments as at June 2007. Deployments of
    over 1000 personnel are coloured red, deployments
    of between 999 and 101 personnel are coloured
    orange and deployments of 100 or fewer personnel
    are coloured blue.

37
ANZAC
  • ANZAC army formations and units include both
    Australian and New Zealand troops.
  • The term ANZAC originated as an acronym for the
    Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, an army
    corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who
    fought against the Turks in 1915 at the Battle of
    Gallipoli during World War I.
  • The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was
    disbanded in 1916 and other ANZAC formations were
    then formed and fought during that war in the
    Middle East and on the Western Front.

38
ANZAC
  • The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was the
    original ANZAC formation.
  • It served at Gallipoli under the command of
    General William Birdwood and comprised the
    Australian 1st Division and the New Zealand and
    Australian Division.
  • The three Australian and one New Zealand mounted
    brigades were employed as infantry with ANZAC
    during the Gallipoli campaign.
  • The Australian 2nd Division began to arrive from
    Australia in August 1915 and some battalions saw
    action on Gallipoli in the final months of the
    campaign.

39
Simpson and his Donkey
  • John (Jack) Simpson Kirkpatrick (July 6, 1892May
    19, 1915) was a stretcher bearer with the
    Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during the
    Gallipoli Campaign, in World War I.
  • After landing at Anzac Cove on April 25, 1915, he
    obtained a donkey and began carrying wounded
    British Empire soldiers from the frontline to the
    beach, for evacuation.
  • He continued this work for three and a half
    weeks, often under fire, until he was killed.
  • Simpson and his Donkey are a key part of the
    "Anzac legend.

40
The End
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