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... is one set of coordinate axes (1, 2, 3) along which the shear stresses vanish. The normal stresses, 1, 2, and 3 along these axes are principal stresses. 3 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principal%20stresses/Invariants

Principal stresses/Invariants
  • In many real situations, some of the components
    of the stress tensor (Eqn. 4-1) are zero.
  • E.g., Tensile test
  • For most stress states there is one set of
    coordinate axes (1, 2, 3) along which the shear
    stresses vanish. The normal stresses, ?1, ?2,
    and ?3 along these axes are principal stresses.

Stress Acting in a General Direction
Figure 4.3 Force p ds acting on surface element
  • p ds force acting on a surface element ds
  • Area ds is defined by the unit vector (normal to
    it) ? that passes through R
  • In order to know how p ds changes with the
    orientation of the area, we have to consider a
    system of orthogonal axes and the summation of

Figure 4.4 Same situation as Fig. 4-3 referred to
a system of orthogonal axes.
  • The summation of the forces along the axes are

  • Where lm1, lm 2, and lm3 are the direction
    cosines between the normal to the oblique plane
    and the x1, x2, x3 axes.
  • In indicial notation, Eqn. 4-17 can be written
  • This equation defines ?ij as a tensor, because it
    relates to vectors p and ? according to the
    relationship for tensor

Determination of Principal Stresses
  • The shear stresses acting on the faces of a cube
    referred to its principal axes are zero.
  • This means that the total stress is equal to the
    normal stress.
  • The total stress is
  • The normal stress is
  • If pi and ?N coincide then

  • Applying equations 4-18 and 4-20 to p1, we have
  • OR
  • Similarly, for p2 and p3,

  • The solution of the system of Eqs. 4-22, 4-23 and
    4-24 is given by the following determinant
  • Solution of the determinant results in a cubic
    equation in ?,

  • The three roots of Eq. 4-26 are the principal
    stresses ?1, ?2 and ?3, of which ?1gt ?2 gt ?3
  • To determine the direction of the principal
    stresses with respect to the original x1, x2 and
    x3 axes,
  • we substitute ?1, ?2 and ?3 successively back
    into Eqs. (4-22), (4-23) and (4-24).
  • solve the resulting equations simultaneously for
    the direction cosines
  • and use

  • Notes
  • The convention (notation) in your text book is
    different. It uses

  • respectively
  • There are three combinations of stress components
    in Eq. 4-26 that make up the coefficient of the
    cubic equation, and these are

  • Notes (cont)
  • The coefficients I1, I2 and I3 are independent of
    the coordinate system, and are therefore called
  • This means that the principal stresses for a
    given stress state are unique.
  • Example
  • The first invariant I1 states that the sum of
    the normal stresses for any orientation in the
    coordinate system is equal to the sum of the
    normal stresses for any other orientation.

  • Notes (cont)
  • For any stress state that includes all shear
    components as in Eq. 4-1, a determination of the
    three principal stresses can be made only by
    finding the three roots.
  • The invariants is important in the development of
    the criteria that predict the onset of yielding.

  • The invariants of the stress tensor may be
    determined readily from the matrix of its
    components. Since s12s21, etc., the stress
    tensor is a symmetric tensor.
  • The first invariant is the trace of the matrix,
    i.e. , the sum of the main diagonal terms.
  • I1 s11 s22 s33

  • The second invariant is the sum of the principal
  • Thus taking each of the principal (main diagonal)
    terms in order and suppressing that row and
    column we have

  • Finally, the third invariant is the
    determinant of the entire
  • matrix of the components of the stress
  • The cubic equation can be expressed in terms of
    the stress
  • invariants.

  • Since the principal normal stresses are roots of
    an equation involving the stress invariants as
    coefficients, their values are also invariant,
    that is, not dependent on the choice of the
    original coordinate system.
  • It is common practice to assign the subscripts
    1, 2, and 3 in order to the maximum,
    intermediate, and minimum values.

  • (1) Consider a stress state where
  • ?11 10, ?22 5, ?12 3 (all in ksi)
  • and
  • ?33 ?31 ?32 0
  • Find the principal stresses.

  • Using Eqs. 4-27 to 4-29, we obtain I1 15, I2
    41 and I3 0
  • Substitute values into Eq. 4-30, and we have
  • The roots of this quadratic give the two
    principal stresses in the x-y plane. They are

  • (2) Repeat example 1, where all the stresses are
    the same except that ?33 8 instead of zero.

  • Using Eqs. 4-27 to 4-29, we obtain I1 23,
  • I2 161 and I3 328
  • Substitute values into Eq. 4-30, and we have
  • The three roots are

Principal Shear Stresses
  • Principal shear stresses, ?1, ?2 and ?3 are
    define in analogy with the principal stresses.
  • In order to understand how to derive the values,
    students are advised to see pages 29 and 30 of
    the text.
  • The principal shear stresses occur along the
    direction that bisect any two of the three
    principal axes

Principal Shear Stresses (cont.)
  • The numeric values of the Principal shear
    stresses are
  • Since ?1 gt ?2 gt ?3, ?2 is the maximum shear
  • i.e.
  • In materials that fail by shear (as most metals
    do) the orientation of the maximum shear is very