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Digital Integrated Circuits A Design Perspective

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DYNAMIC (DRAM) Data stored as long as supply is applied. Large (6 transistors/cell) ... 3-Transistor DRAM Cell. No constraints on device ratios. Reads are non ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Digital Integrated Circuits A Design Perspective


1
Digital Integrated Circuits A Design Perspective
Designing Sequential Logic Circuits
2
Naming Conventions
  • In our text
  • a latch is level sensitive
  • a register is edge-triggered
  • There are many different naming conventions
  • For instance, many books call edge-triggered
    elements flip-flops
  • This leads to confusion however

3
Latch versus Register
  • Latch
  • stores data when clock is low
  • Register
  • stores data when clock rises

D
Q
D
Q
Clk
Clk
Clk
Clk
D
D
Q
Q
4
Latch-Based Design
  • N latch is transparent when f 0
  • P latch is transparent when f 1

f
N
P
Logic
Latch
Latch
Logic
5
Timing Definitions
CLK
Register
t
D
Q
t
t
hold
su
D
DATA
CLK
STABLE
t
t
c
q
2
Q
DATA
STABLE
t
6
Writing into a Static Latch
Use the clock as a decoupling signal, that
distinguishes between the transparent and opaque
states
Forcing the state (can implement as NMOS-only)
Converting into a MUX
7
Mux-Based Latches
Negative latch (transparent when CLK 0)
Positive latch (transparent when CLK 1)
CLK
8
Edge-Triggered Flip-flop
9
Static SR Flip-Flop
Clock version?
Writing data by pure force No clock needed
(Asynchronous)
10
Registers for Pipelining
11
Registers for Pipelining
?
Pipelined
12
Semiconductor Memories
13
Memory
  • Memory Classification
  • Memory Architectures
  • The Memory Core
  • Periphery

14
Semiconductor Memory Classification
Non-Volatile Read-Write Memory
Read-Write Memory
Read-Only Memory
Random
Non-Random
EPROM
Mask-Programmed
Access
Access
2
E
PROM
Programmable (PROM)
FLASH
FIFO
SRAM
LIFO
DRAM
Shift Register
CAM
15
Memory Timing Definitions
16
Memory Architecture Decoders
M
bits
M
bits
S
S
0
0
Word 0
Word 0
S
1
Word 1
Word 1
A
0
S
Storage
Storage
2
Word 2
Word 2
A
cell
cell
1
words
A
N
K
1
Decoder
2
S
N
2
2
Word
N
2
Word
N
2
2
2
S
N
1
2
Word
N
1
Word
N
1
2
2
K
log
N
5
2
Input-Output
Input-Output
(
M
bits)
(
M
bits)
Intuitive architecture for N x M memory Too many
select signals N words N select signals
17
Array-Structured Memory Architecture
18
Hierarchical Memory Architecture
19
Read-Only Memory Cells (ROM)
BL
BL
BL
VDD
WL
WL
WL
1
BL
BL
BL
WL
WL
WL
0
GND
Diode ROM
MOS ROM 1
MOS ROM 2
20
MOS OR ROM
BL
0
BL
1
BL
2
BL
3
WL
0
V
DD
WL
1
WL
2
V
DD
WL
3
V
bias
Pull-down loads
21
MOS NOR ROM
V
DD
Pull-up devices
WL
0
GND
WL
1
WL
2
GND
WL
3
BL
0
BL
1
BL
2
BL
3
22
MOS NOR ROM Layout
Cell (9.5l x 7l)
Programmming using the Active Layer Only
Polysilicon
Metal1
Diffusion
Metal1 on Diffusion
23
MOS NAND ROM
V
DD
Pull-up devices
BL
3
BL
2
BL
1
BL
0
WL
0
WL
1
WL
2
WL
3
All word lines high by default with exception of
selected row
24
MOS NAND ROM Layout
Cell (8l x 7l)
Programmming using the Metal-1 Layer Only
Polysilicon
Diffusion
Metal1 on Diffusion
25
Precharged MOS NOR ROM
V
f
DD
pre
Precharge devices
WL
0
GND
WL
1
WL
2
GND
WL
3
BL
0
BL
1
BL
2
BL
3
PMOS precharge device can be made as large as
necessary,
but clock driver becomes harder to design.
26
Non-Volatile Memories The Floating-gate
transistor (FAMOS)
Floating gate
Gate
Source
Drain
t
ox
t
ox
n

n
_
p
Substrate
Schematic symbol
Device cross-section
27
Floating-Gate Transistor Programming
28
FLOTOX EEPROM
Gate
Floating gate
I
Drain
Source
V
20

30 nm
-10 V
GD
10 V
n
1
n
1
Substrate
p
10 nm
Fowler-Nordheim I-V characteristic
FLOTOX transistor
29
EEPROM Cell
BL
WL
Absolute threshold control is hard Unprogrammed
transistor might be depletion ? 2 transistor cell
30
Flash EEPROM
Control gate
Floating gate
erasure
Thin tunneling oxide
1
n
source
n
1
drain
programming
p-
substrate
Many other options …
31
Cross-sections of NVM cells
EPROM
Flash
Courtesy Intel
32
Characteristics of State-of-the-art NVM
33
Read-Write Memories (RAM)
  • STATIC (SRAM)

Data stored as long as supply is applied
Large (6 transistors/cell)
Fast
Differential
  • DYNAMIC (DRAM)

Periodic refresh required
Small (1-3 transistors/cell)
Slower
Single Ended
34
6-transistor CMOS SRAM Cell
WL
V
DD
M
M
4
2
Q
M
M
6
5
M
M
1
3
BL
BL
35
CMOS SRAM Analysis (Read)
WL
V
DD
M
BL
BL
4
Q
0

M
Q
1

6
M
5
V
M
V
V
DD
DD
DD
1
C
C
bit
bit
36
CMOS SRAM Analysis (Write)
37
6T-SRAM Layout
38
Resistance-load SRAM Cell
WL
V
DD
R
R
L
L
Q
Q
M
M
3
4
BL
BL
M
M
1
2
39
SRAM Characteristics
40
3-Transistor DRAM Cell
41
3T-DRAM Layout
42
1-Transistor DRAM Cell
43
DRAM Cell Observations
  • 1T DRAM requires a sense amplifier for each bit
    line, due to charge redistribution read-out.
  • DRAM memory cells are single ended in contrast
    to SRAM cells.
  • The read-out of the 1T DRAM cell is destructive
    read and refresh operations are necessary for
    correct operation.
  • Unlike 3T cell, 1T cell requires presence of an
    extra capacitance that must be explicitly
    included in the design.
  • When writing a 1 into a DRAM cell, a threshold
    voltage is lost. This charge loss can be
    circumvented by bootstrapping the word lines to a
    higher value than VDD

44
Sense Amp Operation
45
1-T DRAM Cell
Capacitor
M
word
1
line
Cross-section
Layout
46
Periphery
  • Decoders
  • Sense Amplifiers

47
Row Decoders
Collection of 2M complex logic gates Organized in
regular and dense fashion
(N)AND Decoder
NOR Decoder
48
Hierarchical Decoders
Multi-stage implementation improves performance



WL
1
WL
0
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1



NAND decoder using 2-input pre-decoders
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
2
2
3
3
0
0
1
1
49
Dynamic Decoders
Precharge devices
GND
GND
WL
3
WL
3
WL
2
WL
2
WL
1
WL
1
WL
0
WL
0
V
A
A
A
A
f
DD
0
0
1
1
A
A
A
A
f
0
0
1
1
2-input NAND decoder
2-input NOR decoder
50
4-input pass-transistor based column decoder
2-input NOR decoder
Advantages speed (tpd does not add to overall
memory access time) Only one extra
transistor in signal path Disadvantage Large
transistor count

51
4-to-1 tree based column decoder
BL
BL
BL
BL
0
1
2
3
A
0
A
0
A
1
A
1
D
Number of devices drastically reduced
Delay increases quadratically with of sections
prohibitive for large decoders
buffers
Solutions
progressive sizing
combination of tree and pass transistor approaches
52
Sense Amplifiers
Idea Use Sense Amplifer
small
s.a.
transition
input
output
53
Differential Sense Amplifier
V
DD
M
M
4
3
y
Out
M
M
bit
bit
1
2
M
SE
5
Directly applicable to SRAMs
54
DRAM Timing
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