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Title: This document is contained within the Fire Management Toolbox on Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL:

  • This document is contained within the Fire
    Management Toolbox on Since other
    related resources found in this toolbox may be of
    interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting
    the following URL http//
    .cfm?fusetoolboxessecfire. All toolboxes are
    products of the Arthur Carhart National
    Wilderness Training Center.

Safety For the Resource Advisor
Qualifications for Resource Advisor
Red Card S-130 Firefighter Training S-190 Intro
to Wildland Fire Behavior I-200 Basic ICS Annual
Wildland Fire Refresher
Suggested Courses
I-300 Incident Command System Course S-215 Fire
Operations in the Urban Interface S-290
Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior S-260 Fire
Business management RX-310 Intro to Fire Effects
Physical Fitness Level
Light is the minimum standard Local unit may
raise the standard to moderate or high depending
on the situation.
Personal Protective Equipment
All personnel assigned on wildfires and
prescribed fires are required to use PPE and be
trained to use safety equipment effectively.
Required PPE
8-inch high, lace type leather boot with
non-slip, melt resistant soles. Fire
Shelter Hard Hat with chin strap Goggles/safety
glasses Ear Plugs/hearing protection Yellow
Nomex Shirt (aramid) Nomex Trousers (aramid)
Required PPE Continued
Leather Gloves Reminder- permanent-press
materials should not be worn, as they melt and
stick to the skin when exposed to flame or
heat. Use cotton or wool
Personal Welfare and Safety
Know and respect your limitations and those
working with you. Manage time effectively and
get regularly scheduled rest. Follow Work/Rest
Guidelines Safety concerns shall be a priority
Understand and respect the command and control
structure of the fire organization while clearly
communicating the Agency Administrators concerns
and direction. You may need to be a little
assertive in order to appropriately represent the
Agency Administrators concerns.
Work with the incident commander (IC) or incident
management team (IMT) to accomplish your duties.
Depending on the nature of the incident, your
fire experience, and the team, you may be working
with someone or alone. If you are not
comfortable with the surroundings work with
someone else who may have more fire experience.
Situational Awareness
Stop and think about the situation and assess the
safety risks. Ask yourself if it is imperative
to collect data now or can it wait. Consult with
the management team as to the need and value of
resource information you are providing.
Obtain an Incident Action Plan (IAP) with fire
map, communications plan, and medical plan and be
familiar with its content. Resource Advisor
should be listed in IAP Make sure your radio is
programmed to the frequencies being used on the
fire. Monitor the radio communications on the
fire and never turn off your radio.
  • Jungle Safety Message for 9/10/06
  • Fire Order 3 Base all actions based on current
    and expected fire behavior
  • Listen to the forecast _at_ at the morning briefing.
    If it is different then in your IAP, make pencil
  • Look _at_ the clouds, be aware changes.
  • Take weather as needed on site double check
    this with predicted forecast.
  • Observe the fire activity see if it matches the
  • Feel the needles, leaves, blow down fuels, grass
    live fuels for moisture content.
  • Keep an eye on the wind speed direction, look
    for patterns in the weather.
  • The lookout located in section 35 reports on
    site observations ever hour to ICP. Listen to
    see if that matches your observations. Are your
    numbers close to theirs? Higher? Lower? Are the
    winds different _at_ your area?
  • Pump use water handling Correct mixture, wear
    hearing protection, make sure spill containment
    barriers are being used all required PPE used
    at all times. Keep track of all equipment on your
    Division, by structure fire number. Cross train
    personnel as time allows.
  • Other safety concerns
  • Bears, Bees, Aviation use, Engine use, Chainsaw
  • Special note Resource Advisors will be working
    within the fire perimeter again today. See your
    IAP for names location of personnel. Meet with
    them face-to-face prior to entering your Division
    help out as needed. Make sure they check in
    with DIVS check out with DIVS daily. Double
    check communication links with them daily.
  • Safety Officer Kurt Schierenbeck

Work with the management team on how you and your
assistants will be deployed in the field. When
on the fireline, contact the division supervisor
prior to entering the area. Maintain
communications while in the area and inform
Division Supervisor as you leave the area. When
crossing into another division, repeat these
communication procedures.
Assure resource specialists under your
supervision follow the guidelines. If the person
filling the position is not experienced in fire,
brief them well and assign someone to accompany
them. Choosing a resource specialist who is
familiar with suppression and fire effects will
not only increase the safety of the individual
but the quality of their input.
Common Denominators of Fire Behavior on Tragedy
  • Most incidents happen on isolated portions of
    large fires.
  • 2.Fires respond quickly to shifts in wind
    direction or wind speed.
  • 3.Flare-ups generally occur in deceptively light
  • 4.Fires run uphill surprisingly fast in chimneys,
    gullies, and on steep slopes.

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Consult and Carry the 10 Standard Firefighting
Orders and the 18 Watch Out Situations.
Incident Response Pocket Guide (IRPG) good
reference for all fire details.
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10 Standard Fire Orders
  • The original ten Standard Firefighting Orders
    were developed in 1957 by a task force
    commissioned by the USDA-Forest Service Chief
    Richard E. McArdle. The task force reviewed the
    records of 16 tragedy fires that occurred from
    1937 to 1956. The Standard Firefighting Orders
    were based in part on the successful "General
    Orders" used by the United States Armed Forces.

Fire Behavior
  • Keep informed on fire weather conditions and
  • It's important to be informed about three
    weather factors that affect the behavior of fire
    wind, temperature, and relative humidity. You can
    use any number of ways to stay informed about
    these factors, but the chief thing is to remember
    that weather can make a critical difference in
    your fire fighting strategy.

Fire Behavior
  • 2. Know what your fire is doing at all times.
  • Where is the fire perimeter? Where is it moving?
    How fast is it moving? Are there spot fires
    between you and the perimeter? If your own
    observations don't provide the answers, get in
    touch with someone who can tell you.

Fire Behavior
  • Base all actions on current and expected behavior
    of the fire.
  • Elements contributing to fire behavior include
    weather, topography and fuels. Keep your eye on
    the fire and try to anticipate how it might
    change given these three conditions. It could
    mean a lifesaving difference in where you decide
    to build the fire line and position anchor
    points, escape routes and safety zones.

Fireline Safety
  • Identify escape routes and make them known.
  • A safety zone is any area that is unlikely to
    burn - including ground already burned over, a
    wetland or lake, even a rock slide. The ways you
    get to it are your escape routes. They should be
    the fastest and easiest routes, cleared in

Fireline Safety
  • Post lookouts when there is possible danger.
  • Naturally your lookouts should be experienced,
    alert and reliable, able to recognize changes in
    the weather and dangerous fire conditions such as
    spotting. The purpose of the lookout is to keep
    you in touch with the fire when you're
    preoccupied with tasks that keep you from seeing
    and hearing it yourself.

Fireline Safety
  • Be alert. Keep calm. Think clearly. Act
  • In short, think before you make a move, no
    matter how tired you feel- or how much adrenaline
    is pumping. Heat exhaustion, fatigue, or panic
    may strike when you least expect it, even for a
    few critical moments. These things have happened
    to the best and most experienced of firefighters
    and cost many of them their lives.

Organizational Control
  • Maintain prompt communications with your forces,
    your supervisor, and adjoining forces.
  • They can provide critical information which
    could save your life.

Organizational Control
  • Give clear instructions and ensure they are
  • If your supervisor is not clear and precise,
    demand and receive specific direction. Your life
    may depend on it.

Organizational Control
  • Maintain control of your forces at all times.
  • That means assuring that instructions and
    assignments are understood... establishing and
    maintaining a communication link... and knowing
    the locations of all crew members at all times.

If 1-9 are considered, then
  • Fight fire aggressively, having provided for
    safety first.
  • This overall rule recognizes that fire fighting
    is an exceptionally hazardous occupation, and
    cautions us to remember that no resource or
    property is as valuable as a human life.

18 Watchout Situations
1. Fire not scouted and sized up.
2. In country not seen in daylight.
3. Safety zones and escape routes not identified.
4. Unfamiliar with weather and local factors
influencing fire behavior.
5. Uninformed on strategy, tactics, and hazards.
6. Instructions and assignments not clear.
7. No communication link between crewmembers
8. Constructing line without safe anchor point.
9. Building line downhill with fire below.
10. Attempting frontal assault on fire.
11. Unburned fuel between you and the fire.
12. Cannot see main fire, not in contact with
anyone who can.
13. On a hillside where rolling material can
ignite fuel below.
14. Weather gets hotter and drier.
15. Wind increases and/or changes direction.
16. Getting frequent spot fires across line.
17. Terrain or fuels make escape to safety zones
18. Feel like taking a nap near fireline.
Is this flight necessary? Who is in charge? Are
all hazards identified and have you made them
Should you stop the operation or flight due to
change in conditions? Communications Confusion Co
nflicting Priorities Weather Turbulence Personnel
Is there a better way to do it? Are you driven
by an overwhelming sense of urgency? Can you
justify your actions? Are there other aircraft
in the area?
Do you have an escape route? Are there any rules
being broken? Are communications getting
tense? Are you deviating from the assigned
operation or flight?
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What If?
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Ensure firefighter safety is not compromised to
meet Minimum Impact Management Techniques
(MIMT) Communicate the message that MIMT can be
accomplished without compromising safety.
Ten years from now, which will be most
noticeable.. The affects of the fire
or The effects of the