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Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Myers

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Assessing conclusions. How can Critical Thinking. be applied? What do they mean? ... Applying Critical Thinking. What is the purpose or aim of the information? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Myers


1
Thinking Critically with Psychological
Science Myers
  • Eran Hanke
  • Chapter 1

2
How is Psychology defined?
  • the study of/ the science of behavior and mental
    processes
  • Behavior action we can observe, anything a
    person does
  • Mental processes internal, subjective
    experiences, inferred from behavior
  • Science of particular way of studying behavior
    and mental processes
  • Way of asking and answering questions
  • Observing, evaluating, analyzing ideas
  • Methods for describing and explaining human
    nature by making predictions and testing ideas
    and theories

3
  • How can we best use psychology to understand why
    they think, feel and act as they do?
  • sort uniformed opinions from evaluated conclusions

4
What are some problems with Common Sense?
  • More than common sense and intuition
  • Easy to explain after the fact
  • Harder to predict
  • Learn through observation, experience

5
What are some problems with Common Sense?
  • Hindsight Bias
  • Tendency to believe, after learning the outcome,
    you could have foreseen, predicted it
  • Knew-it-all-along phenomenon
  • Psychology helps predict, know what to expect

6
  • ought --gt tough
  • night --gt thing
  • needs --gt dense
  • rocks -- gt corks

7
  • looped --gt
  • votes --gt
  • layer --gt

8
What are some problems with Common Sense?
  • Overconfidence
  • Tendency to think we know more than we do, we are
    less prone to mistakes
  • Difficult to challenge, to undo

9
How do people using psychology approach study?
  • Scientific Attitude
  • Curious
  • Skeptical
  • Open

10
What is Critical Thinking?
  • Combining curiosity, skepticism
  • Examining assumptions
  • Discerning values
  • Evaluating evidence
  • Assessing conclusions

11
How can Critical Thinking be applied?
  • What do they mean?
  • How do they know that?
  • What is the agenda?
  • Is the conclusion based on anecdote, gut feeling,
    evidence?
  • Does the evidence justify cause-effect
    conclusions?
  • What alternative explanations are possible?
  • http//www.parents.com/articles/age/5811.jsp

12
Applying Critical Thinking
  • What is the purpose or aim of the information?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • What are the assumptions made?
  • Who is the source of the information?
  • How did they get their information?
  • What are their conclusions?
  • What evidence brought them to their conclusions?
  • What else would you like to know?
  • What alternative explanations are possible?

13
What is the Scientific Method?
  • Make observations, gather data
  • Form theories
  • Formulate hypotheses
  • Test through research (gather data)
  • 5. Refine theory

14
Scientific Method
  • Theory explains behavior or mental process
    through a set of principles that organize and
    predict the thoughts, feelings and actions under
    study
  • Organizes/links observed facts
  • Implies hypotheses
  • Able to be tested
  • Hypothesis a testable prediction implied by a
    theory (what you expect to happen)

15
Scientific Method
  • Conceptual Definition/Construct/Research Variable
    main theoretical idea being studied
  • Operational Definition a statement of
    procedures used to define the research variable
  • Replication repeating the essence of a research
    study to see if findings extend beyond original

16
How do folks studying psychology gather data?
Test hypotheses?
  • Psychology attempts to understand thoughts,
    feelings and actions
  • First determine the purpose of the study
  • Describe
  • Determine Relationship
  • Explain

17
How do folks studying psychology gather data?
Test hypotheses?
  • Purpose will help determine method of data
    collection
  • Case Study
  • Survey
  • Naturalistic Observation
  • Experiment
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