The interplays of gender and cohort with childhood antecedents of adult outcomes. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The interplays of gender and cohort with childhood antecedents of adult outcomes. PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 181ee2-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The interplays of gender and cohort with childhood antecedents of adult outcomes.

Description:

The interplays of gender and cohort with childhood antecedents ... Necessary to reduce clutter (up to 600 dummies!) Measurement and Method. Common antecedents ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:13
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 28
Provided by: Hob77
Learn more at: http://www.genet.ac.uk
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The interplays of gender and cohort with childhood antecedents of adult outcomes.


1
The interplays of gender and cohort with
childhood antecedents of adult outcomes.
  • John Hobcraft

2
Research Questions
  • Are there differences by gender in adult
    outcomes?
  • And by cohort?
  • Are pathways through childhood antecedents
    moderated by gender or cohort?
  • Commonalities or differences in response to
    disadvantage by gender?
  • Continuity or change in response by cohort?
  • Do gender differentials change over time?

3
Data
  • Data Two British Cohort Studies
  • National Child Development Study (NCDS)
  • British Cohort Study (BCS)

Baseline Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 3 Wave 4 Wave 5
NCDS Age 0, 1958 Age 7, 1965 Age 11, 1969 Age 16, 1974 Age 23, 1981 Age 33, 1991
BCS Age 0, 1970 Age 5, 1975 Age 10, 1980 Age 16, 1986 Age 26, 1996 Age 30, 2000
4
Outcomes considered
  • NCDS only 18 outcomes
  • 6 intermediate experiences 16-23
  • 6 each at ages 23 and 33
  • NCDS BCS70
  • 4 socioeconomic status at 33/30
  • 4 health well-being at 33/30
  • Becoming a parent by age 30

5
Childhood antecedents
Educational Test scores
Poverty Restlessness
Soc Class Dad Anxiety
Soc Class Origin Aggression
Housing Tenure Contact with Police
Family structure School absences
Parents ages at CM birth Disabling health condition
Parental interest in education Low birth weight
6
Some examples ()
NCDS Male NCDS Female BCS Male BCS Female
High Malaise 7 12 14 20 Gender Cohort
Social Housing 13 17 12 17 Gender
Life satisfaction 22 22 25 24 Cohort (weak)
Parent by age 23 14 28 10 21 Gender Cohort
7
Measurement and Method
  • Majority of childhood indicators are summarised
    across multiple childhood waves
  • Hierarchical coding of dummies within groups
  • Step-wise Logistic Regression
  • repeat backward and forward fitting
  • strict significance threshold of plt0.001 (or
    0.005)
  • Necessary to reduce clutter (up to 600 dummies!)

8
Measurement and Method
  • Common antecedents
  • Same response
  • but different childhood experiences?
  • Evidence of cohort or gender (or both)
    differentials
  • Black-box main effects of cohort or gender, not
    captured by measured childhood antecedents
  • Differential responses to same antecedent
  • Additional antecedents

9
Results
  • Long reach of childhood
  • Contrast common or stable pathways through child
    antecedents with those showing gender or cohort
    differences
  • Very little detail
  • Mainly summary counts, with a few illustrative
    results

10
Outcomes NCDS only
  • 16-23
  • No qualification, unemployed 12m, NEET 24m,
    early birth, extra-marital birth, left home
    friction
  • 23 and 33
  • Social housing, benefit receipt, low income, low
    social class, high malaise, and cigarette smoking

11
Results Summary NCDS (18)
Child Both Gender Child Both Gender
Tests 17 0 SC Dad 7 1
Poverty 16 (1) Friction Family 7 0
Absence 15 2 Dad Int 6 1
Police 14 0 Anxiety 4 2
Mum Int 8 6 Par SLA 4 0
Tenure 8 5 Restless 3 1
Aggress 5 5 Female -- 2
Total 114 25 1
12
Some details
Left home friction Malaise at 23 NEET EMB Benefits at 23
Tests Tests Tests Tests
Poverty Poverty Poverty Poverty Poverty
Truancy Truancy Truancy Truancy
Police Police Police Police
Mum Int. Mum Int. Mum Int. Mum Int. Mum Int.
Fam Diss Fam Diss Fam Diss
Tenure Tenure
Aggression Aggression Aggression Aggression
Anxiety Anxiety
Soc Cl Dad Soc Cl Dad
Dad Int. Female Par SLA
13
Health Well-being at 30/33
  • Life dissatisfaction (0-10, score lt7)
  • High malaise score (0-24, score gt6)
  • General health fair or poor
  • Long term health condition

14
Results Summary - HWB
Life Dissat Malaise Gen Health Long term All
Pervasive health (4) 2 3 4 4 13
Pervasive Other (9) 8 7 8 0 23
Other All (28) 1 2 SES 0 0 3
All common (41) 11 12 12 4 39
Forced GC (3) 3 3 3 3 12
Gender (41) 0 0 1 SES 0 1
Cohort (41) 1 SES 0 0 0 1
15
HWB factlets
  • Pervasive common child health terms
  • School absence due to ill health (2 levels)
  • Disabling health condition (2 levels)
  • Pervasive common other terms
  • Housing tenure (2 levels)
  • Family disruption
  • Parental interest in schooling
  • Behaviour scores (2 levels)
  • Educational test scores (3 levels)

16
Differential socioeconomic influences
High Malaise Fair/poor health Long-term condition Dissat. with life
No/ slight deprivation Some deprivation Strong deprivation Some/strong - Male Some/strong - Female Some/strong - NCDS Some/strong - BCS 60 34 6 1.21 1.61 1.00 1.31 1.01 1.21
of combined cohort populations Odds ratios
adjusted for gender, cohort and all other
significant childhood antecedents
17
SES at age 30 or 33
  • Lives in Social Housing
  • Receives non-universal benefits
  • Low household income (low quartile)
  • Semi- or unskilled occupation (SC IV or V)

18
Results Summary - SES
Social Housing Benefits Low HH Income Low Soc Class All
Pervasive common (9) 9 9 9 9 36
Other common (35) 10 5 1 5 21
All common (44) 19 14 10 14 57
Gender (441) 1 11 1 1 5
Cohort (441) 1 2 3 11 8
Gender by cohort (45) 0 0 0 2 2
19
SES factlets
  • Pervasive common terms
  • Any child poverty
  • Any local authority housing
  • Either parent little or no interest
  • Any indication of aggression
  • Any high restlessness score
  • All 4 dummies on test scores

20
Cohort Interactions
  • Any LA housing (1.34) with Social Housing
  • greater selectivity for BCS70 residualisation
  • lt2 Owner-occupier (1.42) and Parents not both
    very interested (1.31) for Benefits
  • Cohort effects for benefits thus mediated through
    childhood antecedents
  • ? Greater impact/ responsiveness or perhaps
    pulling out advantaged group?

21
Gender interactions
  • SC Origin lt2 NM (1.51) to social housing
  • Being female (1.75) and Family disruption (1.31)
    to Benefits
  • ( Partnership breakdown /lone mother route?)
  • SC origin lt2 NM (1.81) , plus cohort-gender
    (0.53) to low social class (class begets class)

22
Becoming a Parent
Timing and Contexts
  • Age-Groups
  • 16-19
  • 20-22
  • 23-24
  • 25-29
  • Partnership Contexts
  • Never partnered
  • Out of partnership
  • Cohabiting
  • Married ex-cohabiting
  • Direct marriage

23
Cohort changes in exposure and birth context
Exposure to risk Exposure to risk First births First births
Context 1958 1970 1958 1970
Never Partnered 69 69 7 17
Out of Partnership 3 5 1 3
Cohabiting 7 16 7 30
Married ex-cohab 5 6 21 33
Married directly 16 4 64 18
24
Parenthood
Timing only Timing Context
Structural 8 12
Common child 5 7
Age child 12 3
Contextchild ---- 8
Total non-structural common 17 18
Gender 4 5
Cohort 2 1
25
Gender Cohort terms
  • GENDER Excess female risks
  • 16-24 any ASB (1.13),
  • lt2 High quartile tests (1.33)
  • 16-22 Parents ages missing (1.40)
  • 16-19 Very ASB (2.47)
  • Not in partnership
  • Strong SES deprivation (1.43)
  • COHORT excess 1970 cohort risks
  • Never partnered
  • Social housing (1.81)

26
Conclusions -1
  • Many childhood antecedents matter for adult
    outcomes
  • Strong gender and cohort differences for most
    adult outcomes
  • Few examples of gender or cohort differences in
    strength of association with childhood
    antecedents
  • Or of specific childhood pathways only operating
    for one gender or one cohort

27
Conclusions - 2
  • Powerful commonalities by gender and continuities
    over time in the legacies of childhood
    disadvantage
  • Some, but few, indications of gender differences
    and of change in response to child disadvantage
  • Unmeasured sources of difference and change?
  • Genes
  • other child experiences
  • Post-child experiences
  • contexts and structures (e.g. gender structures
    or partnership contexts)
About PowerShow.com