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Computer and Internet Technology Development and its Impact on Other Technologies


Nature of Computer technology and Internet technology has changed a lot in the ... Other technologies necessary to cram more transistors onto silicon to create ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Computer and Internet Technology Development and its Impact on Other Technologies

Computer and Internet Technology Development and
its Impact on Other Technologies
  • Dr. H. E. (Buster) Dunsmore
  • Purdue University
  • Department of Computer Sciences

  • Nature of Computer technology and Internet
    technology has changed a lot in the past 10 years
    and will change a lot in the next 10 years
  • Most of you in 1991 had not even heard of
    Internet, World-Wide Web, Networks, Personal
    Digital Assistant (PDA), Windows NT, Linux
  • These are all now part of Computer Technology and
    Internet technology

  • What will we be talking about in 2011?
  • What new Computer and Internet Technology is
    being developed that will be commonplace in a few
  • Some things seem promising, but may become
    equivalent of Betamax and 8-track tapes
  • Look at some areas of Computer and Internet
    Technology development

Networking Technology
Power-Line Networking
Way to connect computers in home or office using
electrical wiring
Power-Line Networking
  • More convenient than phone lines
  • Connect computer to network through the outlet
    that provides power
  • Data travels through electrical wiring
  • Requires no new wiring and adds no cost to
    electric bill
  • Power-line networking is inexpensive method for
    connecting computers in different places in home
    or office

Wireless Networking
  • Creates network by sending infrared or radio
    signals between computers
  • Better than Power-line networking some computers
    are not plugged in to electrical outlet
  • Laptop with wireless network card is completely
    portable throughout home or office
  • IrDA (Infrared Direct Access) is standard for
    devices to communicate using infrared light

Wireless Networking
  • Infrared devices must be in direct line of sight
    with each other (like TV remote which uses same
    infrared technology)
  • Infrared is almost always one to one technology
  • Radio signals better because no line of sight
    requirement and ability to broadcast to multiple

  • Bluetooth is new standard being developed by a
    group of electronics manufacturers
  • Will allow any sort of electronic equipment to
    communicate with each other
  • Can be used among computers, keyboard, mouse,
    printer, headphone, cell phone
  • Bluetooth-like radio communications should take
    place of wires or infrared signals for connecting

  • Very small radio module to be built into each
  • Wireless No need for cables or cords to any

  • Inexpensive Should add only about 5-10 to price
    of product
  • Simple Devices find one another and strike up
    conversation without any work on your part
  • Why is it called Bluetooth?
  • Harald Bluetooth was king of Denmark around the
    turn of the last millenium
  • He united Denmark and part of Norway into a
    single kingdom

Airborne Internet
  • Satellite Internet access already commonplace
  • Satellites orbit at several hundreds of miles
    above Earth
  • Imagine airplane-like device at approximately
    60,000 feet
  • Aircraft will be undisturbed by inclement weather
    and will be flying well above commercial air

Airborne Internet
Airborne Internet
  • All satellite benefits without some of the
  • Consumers would get connections comparable to
    Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
  • High-speed wireless Internet connection by
    placing aircraft in fixed pattern over city
  • Could be lightweight planes (possibly unmanned)
    or blimps

Airborne Internet
  • Airborne Internet will function much like
    satellite-based Internet access, but without time
  • Cost advantage over satellites aircraft can be
    deployed easily do not have to be launched into
  • Airborne Internet could even complement satellite
    and ground-based networks, not replace them

Impact and Opportunity?
  • Impact Possibility of constant connection to
    network anywhere, any time
  • Benefit Ease of connecting all computers and
    related devices
  • Challenges How to make most efficient use
    of the computing power, software, and tools
    always available
  • How to build the most useful software and

Internet Technology
Application Service Provider (ASP)
  • Access over the Internet to applications and
    services that would otherwise have to be located
    on ones own personal computer
  • Email, text editor, financial modeling
    software, Computer Aided Design (CAD) software,
    simulation software,..

Storage Service Provider (SSP)
  • Centralized data storage, which will increase
    efficiency and ease of access to information, as
    well as synchronization of information among
    users and machines
  • Wherever you are, that is your computer!

The Next Generation Internet
  • About 120 universities and 25 corporate
    sponsors are working on better Internet
    infrastructure Internet 2

The Next Generation Internet
  • Larger bandwidth
  • Faster speeds
  • Better reliability
  • Better security
  • Better compression techniques (smaller files to
    be transmitted)
  • Caching leaving copies around closer to the
    point of need
  • All developments will eventually become part of
    standard internet

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
  • Todays Internet uses Internet Protocol Version
    4 (IPv4) approximately 20 years old
  • Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) (also called
    IPng) will eventually replace IPv4

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
  • IPv6 fixes a number of problems in IPv4, such as
    limited number of available IPv4 addresses
  • IPv6 goes from 32 to 128 bits per address
  • If whole Earth was a beach, more than enough IP
    addresses for every grain of sand ... hope that
    will be enough
  • IPv6 also routes messages better, auto-configures
    for missing computers, and includes security
    components for encryption and authentication

Decision Support Systems, Expert Systems
If Internet becomes repository of all knowledge,
how best to use it?
Decision Support Systems (DSS) access data,
sophisticated analytical models, user-friendly
Decision Support Systems, Expert Systems
  • Can make repetitive, routine decisions with known
  • Can provide alternatives and possible outcomes
    for more elaborate decisions
  • Expert Systems (ES) capture decision-making rules
    used by experts
  • Interaction with human user and available data
    evolved toward decision
  • Neural networks can imitate DSS and ES and learn
    to make decisions

Impact and Opportunity?
  • Impact Internet will provide fast access to
    enormous amount of information and tools for
    using that information
  • Benefit Immediate access for all kinds of
    information in a variety of formats (text, sound,
    image, video)
  • Ability to make decisions based on all
    available information not just subset
  • Decision tools that represent best wisdom of all
  • Challenge How to sift through enormous quantity
    of information and tools available to decide what
    to use in any given situation

Consumer Computer Technology
Plastic Displays
  • Researchers have recently made breakthroughs in
    developing displays out of polyethylene
    terephthalate (PET)
  • Thin, flexible, rugged plastic that you can bend,
    roll up, fold, or form into practically any shape

Plastic Displays
  • Mass production of plastic displays is
    approximately five years away
  • Applications could include notebook and desktop
    displays, hand-held appliances
  • Also, wearable displays sewn into clothing, and
    paper thin electronic books and newspapers

Electronic Digital Paper
  • Developed at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center
    (PARC), electronic paper is new kind of display
  • Somewhere between paper and conventional computer

Electronic Digital Paper
  • Like paper, it is thin, lightweight, and flexible
  • Like computer display, it is dynamic and
  • Wide range of potential applications, including
  • Electronic paper newspapers offering breaking
    news, incoming sports scores, and up to the
    minute stock quotes, even as paper is being read
  • Electronic paper magazines that continually
    update with breaking information and make use of
    animated images or movie pictures
  • Electronic paper textbooks, which could be
    updated as technology changes

Electronic Digital Paper
  • Electronic paper utilizes new display technology
    called gyricon
  • A gyricon sheet is thin layer of transparent
    plastic in which millions of small beads, like
    toner particles, are randomly dispersed
  • Beads are bichromal, with hemispheres of
    contrasting color
  • Under influence of voltage applied to surface of
    sheet, beads rotate to present one colored side
    or the other to the viewer
  • Image will persist until new voltage patterns are
    applied to create new images

Power Paper
  • Computers and other electronic devices becoming
    thinner and thinner
  • Soon laptop computer could be as thin as a sheet
    of paper
  • Power supplies must slim down as well
  • Power Paper, an Israel-based company, has
    developed paper-thin battery technology

Power Paper
  • Power electronic devices, games, greeting cards,
    smart cards, luggage tags, medical devices
  • Imagine smart tickets to sporting events to avoid
    counterfeiting and give directions to seat
  • Could be very useful in computerized clothing and
    wearable computers
  • Power Paper cell will be one-half millimeter
    thick, and will generate 1.5 volts

Printable Computers
  • Researchers developing ink-based, plastic

Printable Computers
  • Printable computer components not designed to
    replace silicon (about 100 times slower)
  • Plastic offers some benefits over silicon
  • Silicon is rigid, while plastic chips are
  • Will lead to simple computers to give
    intelligence to everyday objects
  • Could be integrated into clothes, food labels,
    simple appliances, toys

Wearable Computers
  • Obvious applications like hearing aids with sound
    enhancement software
  • Glasses with multi-informational display about
    what is being seen, where you are
  • Wrist computers, PDAs, cell phones
  • Next step is computerized clothing
  • Including computers in standard clothing items
    like shoes, pants, shirts, jackets, beltseven

Wearable Computers
  • Uses include.
  • Health related monitor blood pressure, pulse
    rate, blood sugar, useful for life threatening
    conditions that need continual monitoring
  • Navigation directions, maps, airline
    information, restaurant and hotel information
  • Safety and security connections to police,
    fire, medical, auto towing and repair
  • Entertainment music, news, video, sporting

Wearable Computers
  • Some of these devices already making their way
    into consumer market
  • Working to integrate computers and related
    devices directly into clothing, so that they are
    virtually invisible
  • Interaction via sensors, all fabric keypads,
    speakers, voice recognition receivers, thin
    light-emitting diode (LED) monitors, flat screen
    (plastic) displays, holographic projectors
  • Another step in making computers and devices
    portable without having to carry and manipulate
    plethora of gadgets

Computers in Every Imaginable Item
  • Appliances Home security, heating/air
    conditioning, refrigerator, oven, dishwasher,
    lighting system, entertainment systems, washer,
    dryer, garage door opener, watering systems
  • Vehicles cars, bicycles, lawn mowers, snow
    blowers, chain saws

Voice Recognition
  • Many of above will operate via voice commands
  • Next 3-5 years will bring major advances in
    speech recognition
  • Voice is converted into phonemes (basic elements
    of speech)
  • English language has approximately 50 phonemes

Voice Recognition
  • Phonemes compared to dictionary of words stored
    via phonemes
  • Words then translated into computer commands like
    Display nearest gas station?
  • Limited vocabulary systems and systems trained to
    particular persons speech will be very fast and
  • Voice recognition requires tremendous storage and
    processing power no problem

Impact and Opportunity?
  • Impact Every conceivable device can have
    computer embedded in it
  • Benefit Any mundane activity (like monitoring
    supply of food in refrigerator) or complex
    activity (like amplifying only specific sound
    frequencies in hearing aid) can be done by
  • Challenge How to design most useful cadre of
    consumer computers to aid without overwhelming us

Computer Processors and Storage Technology
Magnetic Ram
  • Magnetic Random Access Memory (MRAM) has
    potential to store more data, access data faster,
    use less power than current memory technologies
  • Could eliminate computer boot up sequence
  • Todays memory Dynamic RAM (DRAM) needs to be
    supplied with constant current to store bits of

Magnetic Ram
  • If current turned off, everything has to be
    stored again
  • In MRAM, small amount of electricity needed only
    to switch polarity (1 or 0) of each memory cell
    on the chipnot to maintain that value

Holographic Storage Technologies
  • CDs, DVDs, and magnetic storage all store bits of
    information on the surface of a recording medium
  • To increase storage capabilities, new optical
    storage method, called holographic memory, will
    go beneath the surface and use volume of
    recording medium for storage
  • Could offer more storage in same space

Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) Chips
  • Current silicon technology used to make
    microprocessors will begin to reach its limit
    around 2005
  • Other technologies necessary to cram more
    transistors onto silicon to create more powerful
  • Extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) way to
    extend life of silicon at least until the end of
    the decade

Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) Chips
  • Using extreme-ultraviolet light to carve
    transistors in silicon wafers will lead to
    microprocessors as much as 100 times faster than
    todays most powerful chips
  • Memory chips with similar increases in storage

DNA Computers
  • Microprocessors made of silicon will eventually
    reach their limits of speed and miniaturization
  • Chip makers need new material to produce faster
    computing speeds
  • Millions of natural supercomputers exist in
    living organisms
  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules have
    potential to perform calculations many times
    faster than the worlds most powerful human-built

DNA Computers
  • DNA might one day be integrated on a computer
    chip to create a so-called biochip that will push
    computers even faster
  • DNA molecules have already been harnessed to
    perform complex mathematical problems
  • Large supply of DNA makes it a cheap resource
  • DNAs key advantage is that it will make
    computers smaller, while holding more data, than
    any computer that has come before

DNA Computers
  • One pound of DNA has the capacity to store more
    information than all electronic computers ever
  • Teardrop-sized DNA computer will be more powerful
    than worlds current most powerful supercomputer
  • Unlike conventional linear computers, DNA
    computers perform calculations in parallel

Impact and Opportunity?
  • Impact Computers will be smaller, faster,
    quicker with enormous amounts of storage capacity
  • Benefit Any imaginable task can be programmed to
    be executed in real time (like monitoring
    aspects of nuclear reactor)
  • Challenge What is the most cost-effective use of
    these technologies?
  • How can we keep the smaller, faster, quicker
    development going?

Some Far Out Potential Future Developments
The Forgotten Senses (Touch, Smell, Taste)
  • Research on computer use for vision-impaired
    leading to touch screens with digitally-controlled
    raised surfaces
  • Digital Scent Synthesizer

The Forgotten Senses(Touch, Smell, Taste)
  • Indexed thousands of smells based on chemical
    structure and place on scent spectrum
  • Each scent is coded and digitized into small file
  • Digital file is embedded in Web content or email
    (much like image file)
  • User may request scent or may be unleashed
  • Create thousands of everyday scents with small
    cartridge containing 128 primary odors
  • Similar research going on in digital taste

  • Because of advances in processors, memory,
    decision support systems, expert systems,
  • Todays crude robots will become thinking
    machines, capable of behavior that mimics reason,
    emotion, common sense, speech, vision, locomotion

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