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Environmental Impact Assessment

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Title: Environmental Impact Assessment


1
Environmental Impact Assessment
  • ENVRE 115
  • Oct. 24, 2007

2
Announcements
  • Assignment 3 due
  • Schedule midterm review
  • Can people make Thurs, Nov 1?
  • Graduate Student Projects
  • Require topic approval by Tues., Oct. 30th
  • Make appointment to meet with Molly or Kazi

3
Agenda
  • Connections between infrastructure environemtn
  • Regulatory Framework
  • Conducting an EIA
  • Case Study Natural gas pipeline, PRC

4
  • To say that infrastructure development has
    impact is to state the obvious. No industrial
    country has advanced to such status without
    developing solid infrastructure facilities. And
    no low-income country has managed to escape
    poverty in the absence of infrastructure.
  • In addition to economic growth, infrastructure
    development has a very tangible impact on
    people's daily lives, and especially on the lives
    of poor people
  • - Liqun Jin Vice President, ADB

5
What do we mean by development and what makes it
sustainable?
6
Infrastructure Development
  • the stock of facilities, services and
    equipment that are needed for the economy and
    society to function properly

7
Infrastructure Linked to Economics
  • Poverty reduction and economic development depend
    on sustained growth
  • Growth depends on productive activities supported
    by roads, railways, seaports and airports, power
    generation and transmission and other
    infrastructure services
  • For example-
  • Reliable transport networks allow access to
    markets, schools and hospitals.
  • Electricity minimizes the need for bio-fuels

8
Challenges for infrastructure
  • Per capita GDP in developing Asia as a whole grew
    on average by 6 a year from 1999-2004 (and only
    3.1/annum for the poorest countries)
  • Realities in developing Asia
  • 36 of households have no access to electricity
  • 31 of the rural population has no access to
    all-season roads (23 in all Asia)
  • 90 have no telephone connections (73 in all
    Asia)
  • 20 have no access to safe drinking water
  • 67 have no access to sanitation

9
Improve Infrastructure ? Decrease Poverty
  • Predicated on two assumptions
  • Infrastructure development is managed well and in
    a cost-effective manner
  • Reduces constraints to economic activities by
    lowering costs of doing business and creating job
    opportunities
  • Appropriate social, environmental and governance
    policies are in place to ensure tangible benefits
    to people, especially poor people
  • Direct revenue generation from infrastructure
    projects and from the improved competitiveness of
    the economy are allocated to improving human
    capital (education, health, and other vital
    social services)

10
Improve Infrastructure ? Build Capacity
  • Infrastructure development can also bring about
    capacity building in other related, and critical,
    areas
  • Mobilization of resources stimulates
  • financial sector development
  • institutional capacity building
  • human resources development
  • legal and regulatory buildup
  • Well-designed and well-managed infrastructure
    investment allows a government to move to higher
    levels of sophistication
  • Broadens the horizons and raising the
    intellectual capital of the society as a whole

11
Consider Environment
  • provide the basic life support services and
    facilities which underpin human production and
    consumption
  • inseparable from other parts of development
    infrastructure
  • maintenance and upkeep requires an equal or
    even greater investment priority

12
Costs of environmental degradation
  • ecosystem degradation leads to real losses and
    costs
  • has tangible impacts on economic functioning and
    social and wellbeing
  • undermines profits and growth at all levels and
    for all sectors
  • disproportionate impacts on poorer and more
    vulnerable groups

13
ecosystems and well-being
Source Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005
14
Lessons Learned?
15
Air Pollution
Air pollution in Harlesden London-Winter 1952.
By Dr. Keith Ball
Environ Health Perspect. 2001 109(S3)389394
16
Over 3 billion people cook using wood, dung, crop
waste, coal and charcoal. The World Health
Organization estimates that 1.5 million people
die each year from smoke in their homes.
Ezzati and Kammen (2002) The Health Impacts of
Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution from Solid Fuels
in Developing Countries Knowledge, Gaps, and
Data Needs. Env. Health Perspect. 110(11)
17
Water Pollution
From 1936 through 1960s, the Cuyahoga River
would catch fire because of oil and debris in the
river.
http//web.ulib.csuohio.edu/SpecColl/croe/accfire.
html
18
(No Transcript)
19
Hazardous Chemicals
Trees and gardens were turning black and
dyingEverywhere the air had a faint, choking
smell. Children returned from play with burns on
their hands and faces. And then there were the
birth defects EPA Journal (1978)
20
NY Times, Feb. 15, 2007
e-Waste in Africa, Env. Health Perspect. 2006
114(4)
21
Regulatory Framework for EIAs
22
US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
  • Requires federal agencies to consider
    environmental impacts of their proposed actions
    and reasonable alternatives to those actions
  • Declaration of National Environmental Policy
    (Title I) requires the federal government to use
    all practicable means to create and maintain
    conditions under which man and nature can exist
    in productive harmony
  • Use a systematic interdisciplinary approach for
    incorporating environmental considerations in
    their planning and decision-making
  • Support initiatives and programs designed to
    anticipate and prevent a decline in the quality
    of mankinds world environment

23
National Goals of NEPA
  • Fulfill the responsibilities of each generation
    as a trustee of the environment for succeeding
    generations
  • Assure for all Americans safe, healthful,
    productive, and aesthetically and culturally
    pleasing surroundings
  • Attain the widest range of beneficial uses of the
    environment without degradation, risk to health
    or safety, or other undesirable and unintended
    consequences

24
National Goals of NEPA
  • Preserve historical, cultural, and natural
    aspects of our heritage and maintain, where
    possible, an environment that supports diversity
    and a variety of individual choice
  • Achieve a balance between population and resource
    use that permits a high standard of living and a
    wide sharing of lifes amenities
  • Enhance the quality of renewable resources and
    approach the maximum attainable recycling of
    depletable resources

25
NEPA Does Not
  • Decide which alternative to chose
  • Prevent environmental impacts from happening
  • Guarantee decisions you like
  • Prohibit any actions

26
International Banks
  • The World Bank requires environmental assessments
    as part of Operational Directive 4.01 issued in
    1989
  • Apply to any Bank-financed or implemented
    projects
  • Natural environment
  • Human health and safety
  • Social aspects (involuntary resettlement,
    indigenous peoples, and physical cultural
    resources)
  • Transboundary and global environmental aspects
  • Designed to be used as a tool to improve project
    performance and sustainability
  • Asian Development Bank requires environmental
    assessments
  • http//www.adb.org/Projects/reports.asp?keyrepsv
    alERD

27
WB ADB EIA Categories Category A Project
  • Projects with many significant environmental
    impacts requiring mitigation measures
  • In-depth studies needed
  • Examples
  • Forest industries (large scale)
  • Irrigation (large scale with new source of
    development)
  • River Basin Development or Large Water
    Impoundments
  • Medium and Large Scale Thermal or Hydropower
    Power Plant
  • New Railways/Mass Transit/Roads
  • Ports and Harbors
  • Large Municipal Water Supplies

28
WB ADB EIA Categories Category B Project
  • Projects with a few significant environmental
    impacts and for which mitigation measures may be
    readily prescribed
  • Examples
  • Agro-industries (small-scale or no wet
    processing)
  • Renewable Energy or Power Plants (medium scale)
  • Aquaculture and Mariculture
  • Rehabilitation, maintenance and upgrading
    projects
  • Industries (small scale and without toxic/
    harmful pollutants)
  • Watershed projects (management or rehabilitation)
  • Water Supply (without impoundments or new river
    intakes)
  • Tourism Projects

29
WB ADB EIA Categories Category C Project
  • Projects unlikely to have significant adverse
    environmental impacts
  • Examples
  • Forest Research and Extension
  • Primary and Rural Health Surveys
  • Geological or Mineral Surveys
  • Education
  • Family Planning
  • Capital Market Development Study

30
Assessment Process
31
Environmental Impact Assessment
Transparency
Participation
Practicality
EIA a systematic process of identifying
future consequences of a current or proposed
action
Feasibility
Cost-effective
Credibility
Certainty
Accountability
8 Guiding Principles
32
Function of the EIA
  • Considered a management tool for collecting and
    analyzing information on the environmental
    effects of a project
  • identify potential environmental impacts
  • examine the significance of environmental
    implications
  • assess whether impacts can be mitigated
  • recommend preventive and corrective mitigating
    measures
  • inform decision makers and concerned parties
    about the environmental implications
  • advise whether development should go ahead

33
                                               
                                                  
                                                  
                                
34
Project Cycle
Source ADB, 1997
35
1. Project Concept/Identification
  • Initial stage of the project planning
  • Basic nature of the project is known including
    the site(s) where the project is being proposed
    to be implemented
  • Screen project to determine if project requires
    a full EIA

36
Screening
  • Screening
  • Identify environmental issues of concern
  • Determine whether EIA is needed
  • Establish need for project

Environmental impact
Project
Economic impact
Not require EIA
Require EIA
Impacts unclear
Social impact
Threshold criteria Impact criteria
Size Location Output Cost/Finances Environmental effects etc. Significant but easily identifiable impacts Significant impacts Sensitive area
37
B. Pre-feasibility Stage
Methods for Scoping
Scope the project to identify issues/impacts
for investigation
Making a plan for public involvement
Evaluating the significance of issues
  • Identify alternatives for proposed projects
  • determine the assessment methods to be used
  • identify all affected interests
  • provide an opportunity for public involvement in
    determining the factors to be assessed
  • facilitate early agreement on contentious issues
  • establish terms of reference (TOR) for EIA study

Identifying major issues of public concern
Distribution of information to interested parties
Establishing priorities for environmental
assessment
Developing a strategy for addressing priorities
Assemble relevant existing information
38
  • Baseline data are collected for two main
    purposes
  • to provide a description of the status and trends
    of environmental factors (e.g., air pollutant
    concentrations) against which predicted changes
    can be compared and evaluated in terms of
    importance
  • to provide a means of detecting actual change by
    monitoring once a project has been initiated

39
  • Identify any potential impacts from the project
  • social, economic, environmental, cultural, and
    health
  • Environmental
  • activities which may affect the bio-physical
    component of the surrounding environment should
    be evaluated and measured to avoid adverse
    impacts
  • the composition, structure, and abundances of
    flora and fauna should be recorded and protected
    from any likely damage

40
  • Identify mitigation measures that reduce, avoid
    or offset the potential adverse environmental
    consequences of development activities
  • Preventative measures - reduce potential adverse
    impacts before occurrence
  • Health education
  • Public awareness
  • Compensatory measures - actions that compensate
    for unavoidable adverse impacts
  • restoration of damaged resources
  • creation of similar resources elsewhere
  • compensation to affected persons
  • Corrective measures - reduces the adverse impact
    to an acceptable level
  • Installation of pollution control devices
  • Specialized construction

41
C. Feasibility Stage
  • Conduct the EIA and determine if the project is
    viable
  • Magnitude of impact of each potential impact and
    indicate whether the impact is irreversible or,
    reversible and estimated potential rate of
    recovery
  • Extent of impact (spatial extent) should be
    determined e.g limited to the project area a
    locally occurring impact within the watershed of
    the proposed project a regional impact and a
    national impact
  • Duration of Impact arising at different phases of
    the project cycle and the length of the impact
    e.g. short term (during construction-9 yrs),
    medium term (10-20 yrs), long term (20 yrs)

42
D. Implement Audit the Project
  • The EIA is a "reference" guide during
    implementation
  • Outlines mitigation strategies and monitoring
    schemes
  • Recommendations can form a part of contract
    tender
  • Audit to determine lessons learned
  • After the project is completed determine how
    close the EIA's predictions were to the actual
    impacts of the project
  • This forms a valuable records for others
    conducting EIAs on similar projects in the future.

43
E. Environmental Monitoring
  • Environmental monitoring provides feedback about
    the actual environmental impacts of a project
  • Helps judge the success of mitigation measures in
    protecting the environment
  • Ensure compliance with environmental standards
  • Facilitate any needed project design or
    operational changes

44
Benefits Flaws
Provides systematic methods of impact assessment Time-consuming
Estimates the cost/benefit trade-off of alternative actions Costly
Facilitates the public participation Little public participation in actual implementation
Provides an effective mechanism for coordination environmental integration negotiations feed back Unavailability for reliable data (mostly in developing countries)
Top-level decision making Too focused on scientific analysis (sometimes)
Triggers an institutional building Poor presentation of EIA report (bulky volumes, scientific explanation, difficult to understand)
Achieve a balance between the impact of developmental and environmental concern Compliance monitoring after EIA is seldom carried out
45
Case Study Beijing Environmental Improvement
Project, Peoples Republic of China
  • http//www.adb.org/Documents/PCRs/PRC/pcr-prc-2537
    1.pdf

46
Who has the coal?
Source Energy information administration, DOE
47
Coal in the future?
Source Energy information administration, DOE
48
Beijing Environmental Improvement Project
Sub-projects Classification
1. District heating system B
2. Natural gas distribution system B
3. Pollution abatement at drinking water reservoirs B
4. Relocation and renovation of chemical plant A
5. Treatment and disposal of hazardous waste A
6. Institutional Strengthening Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau Beijing Research Institute of Environmental Protection Beijing Environmental Monitoring Center Beijing Technical Training Center for Environmental Protection C
49
Beijing Environmental Improvement Project
http//www.adb.org/Documents/PCRs/PRC/pcr-prc-2537
1.pdf
50
Summary Initial Environmental Examinations (SIEE)
  • Project description
  • Supply co-generated steam and hot water from
    Huaneng Power Station in a closed loop system to
    21 factories
  • Install a natural gas distribution
  • system pipeline to distribute
  • 0.7 billion cubic meters of
  • natural gas/year

51
SIEE
  • Anticipated impacts during construction
  • Effects associated with laying pipes
  • Soil excavation
  • Interfere with pedestrian and road traffic and
    potential injury hazard
  • Increased noise and dust
  • Displace houses, people, trees
  • 365 families (1,456 people) for the district
    heating system
  • 120 families (480 people) for the natural gas
    pipeline

52
SIEE
  • Anticipated impacts after construction
  • Material failure leading to accidental release
  • Steam pipelines- loss of power
  • Natural gas pipelines- fire, explosion
  • Mitigation Measures
  • Impacts during construction are negative but
    reversible or can be minimized
  • Construction during daylight hours in residential
    neighborhoods when noise is less bothersome
  • Construction in commercial areas at night when
    less likely to impact businesses

53
SIEE
  • Mitigation Measures
  • Budget for re-locating families into improved
    housing that includes amenities such as potable
    water supply, sewage collection, drainage, hot
    water, gas, and electricity
  • Include expenses for re-training for
  • Employment near their new residences
  • Small trees can be re-planted and pipeline will
    be sited to avoid larger mature trees when
    possible
  • Fence off construction sites

54
SIEE
  • Monitoring program
  • Organize an environmental management and
    protection section to oversea project and
    coordinate with appropriate agencies
  • Annual report to ADB of projects compliance with
    environmental standards
  • Monitor natural gas equipment with a continuous
    hydrocarbon analyzer, inflammable gas analyzer,
    and noise meter
  • Pipe integrity to be tested continuously using
    impressed electric currents
  • Automatic control values, pressure release
    valves, rupture valves, firefighting equipment
    and other safety devices checked periodically

55
SIEE
  • Economic Benefits
  • Jobs
  • Heating project will employ 1,400 persons
    permanently
  • Natural gas project will employ 1,500 persons
    permanently
  • Temporary employment during construction phase
  • Fuel
  • Cost savings resulting from the substitution of
    coal for natural gas
  • Environmental benefits after construction
  • Heat and steam could reduce coal use by 1.16
    million metric tons which equates to a removal of
  • 19,900 metric tons of sulfur dioxides
  • 10,000 metric tons of total suspended materials
  • Eliminates the need to removal and disposal of
    336,900 metric tons of ash and slag

56
Financial Return
  • Original financial internal rate of return (FIRR)
  • Steam heating project was 7.3
  • Calculated at end of project to be 5.9
  • Natural gas network was 10.0
  • Calculated at end of project to be 11.1

http//www.adb.org/Documents/PCRs/PRC/pcr-prc-2537
1.pdf
57
Environmental Monitoring Data
58
Other Benefits lower air pollution
PHOTOS Bob Zerbonia
59
Other Benefits less acid rain
60
Other Benefits childrens health
Lewis et al. MJA 1998 169 459-463
61
Other Benefits reduced arsenic
Liu et al. EHP(2002) Vol. 110
62
Other Benefits lower CO2
  • Carbon content of natural gas is 60 that of coal
    per unit of energy
  • Can calculate the amount of CO2 per ton of coal
  • Conversion factor 1 metric ton of coal 2,419
    2,419 kg CO2
  • 1,160,000 2419 2,806,040,000 kgs CO2
  • One tree removes about 22 kg of CO2 from the
    atmosphere each year
  • So equivalent to approximately 1,400,000 trees
    that are 40 yrs old
  • CO2 calculator can be found at
  • http//www.nef.org.uk/energyadvice/co2calculator.h
    tm
  • US Emission Factors can be found at
  • http//www.epa.gov/cleanrgy/emissions.htm

63

SOURCE IPCC
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