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Business, NGOs and Non-State Actors

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Expanding Role of Non-State Actors. Types of non-state actors. Importance for human rights ... Depiction of NGOs. Challenges to HR NGOs. Bias? ( see Ron etal) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Business, NGOs and Non-State Actors


1
Business, NGOs and Non-State Actors
  • PI4553

2
Outline
  • Non-state Actors
  • Expanding Role
  • Business Actors
  • NGOs and Theories of Influence
  • Spiral Theory
  • Market Theory

3
Expanding Role of Non-State Actors
  • Types of non-state actors
  • Importance for human rights
  • Increase in non-state actors
  • Implications for traditional IR theory?

4
Private Security Firms
  • PSFs expanding role
  • 20,000 private contractors in Iraq
  • Human Rights violations and accountability

5
Business and Human Rights
  • Corporations Power and Responsibility
  • Human rights standards
  • OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises
  • UN Global Compact
  • 10 principles
  • Voluntary CEO letter/reporting
  • What sorts of firms?
  • Symbolic Politics?
  • http//www.abdn.ac.uk/pol209/globalcompact_web.pd
    f
  • UN Special Representative on Business and Human
    Rights appointed by Sec Gen (John Ruggie)

6
Corporate Accountability
  • Compensation by corporations for past abuses
  • Forced labour/Nazi Regime claims against Swiss
    Banks and German Industries in US courts
  • US Alien Tort Claims Act (1789)
  • any civil action by an alien for a tort only,
    committed in violation of the law of nations
  • Claims against oil companies, claims against
    private contractors responsible for Abu Ghraib
  • Most claims where corporation aided and abetted
    a state in governmental violations Clapham p. 254

7
NGOs
  • Influence of NGOs and the Paradox of Empty
    Promises
  • Spiral Theory, Risse, Ropp and Sikkink
  • Stages and mechanisms
  • Boomerang pattern

8
How NGOs work
  • Market for transnational support
  • Too much suffering, too little compassion
  • Selection NGOs looking for high value causes
  • Theoretical argument
  • And IR and Spiral theory?
  • Depiction of NGOs

9
Challenges to HR NGOs
  • Bias? (see Ron etal)
  • Special focus on powerful and high visibility
    countries (US abuses) in addition to general
    suffering.
  • Mission blurring? Shift away from prisoners of
    conscience
  • Membership challenges
  • Logic of collective action

10
Revision
  • Do non-state actors influence human rights?
  • In which of Steven Lukes lands would one be most
    likely to encounter an argument for the
    government employing a torturer to advance the
    communitys interest? Could it be a democracy?
  • What are the principal shortcomings of Truth
    Commissions?
  • How might you argue that the agent makes an
    important contribution to the level of human
    rights violations?

11
A rough guide to concepts and topics
  • 20th Century Genocides and Response
  • Banality of Evil
  • United States exceptionalism and human rights
  • 1st generation rights
  • International Criminal Court
  • Shortcomings of Truth Commissions
  • Principals and agents
  • Machiavelli and the Inquisitor -- Leaders
    motivations for violations
  • Agents motivations for violations.
  • Spiral Theory/NGOs

12
continued
  • Toleration
  • Consociationalism
  • Policies /regimes implied by toleration
  • Limits of toleration
  • Human rights/animal rights
  • United Nations institutions and human rights
  • International Bill of Human Rights
  • Reservation
  • Social contract theorists
  • Utilitarianism
  • State of Nature
  • Revisionism
  • Nanking and incentives to violate
  • Command responsibility
  • Positive and Negative rights
  • Standard model
  • Goldhagen argument
  • Psychological approaches
  • Non-state actors
  • Global Compact
  • Challenges to human rights sovereignty,
    culture,
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