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Working Together to Improve Student Achievement and Close Gaps----

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Title: Working Together to Improve Student Achievement and Close Gaps----


1
  • Working Together to Improve Student Achievement
    and Close Gaps----
  • Oregons Superintendents Summer Institute


2
  • 2006 Superintendents Summer Institute
  • Strategies for Student Success

State Department of Education Portland, Oregon
August 7, 2006

3
First, some good news.
  • After more than a decade of fairly flat
    achievement and stagnant or growing gaps, we
    appear to be turning the corner.

4
NAEP Reading, 9 Year-OldsRecord Performance for
All Groups
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source National Center for Education Statistics,
NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress
5
African American-White Gap Narrows to Smallest
Size in HistoryNAEP Reading, 9 Year-Olds
26
35
29
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source National Center for Education Statistics,
NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress
6
Latino-White Gap Narrows to Smallest Size in
HistoryNAEP Reading, 9 Year-Olds
21
28
24
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source National Center for Education Statistics,
NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress
7
NAEP Reading, 13 Year-Olds
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source National Center for Education Statistics,
NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress
8
NAEP Math, 13 Year-OldsIncreases and Record
Performance for All Groups
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source National Center for Education Statistics,
NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress
9
Bottom LineWhen We Really Focus on Something,
We Make Progress
10
Clearly, much more remains to be done in
elementary and middle school
  • Too many youngsters still enter high school way
    behind.

11
2005 NAEP Grade 8 MathAll Students, Nation
Source National Center for Education
Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer,
http//nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
12
2005 NAEP Grade 8 Mathby Race/Ethnicity, Nation
Source National Center for Education
Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer,
http//nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
13
2005 NAEP Grade 8 Mathby Family Income, Nation
Source National Center for Education
Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer,
http//nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
14
But at least we have some traction on these
problems.
15
The Same is NOTTrue of High School
16
High School
17
Age 17 Math and Science NAEP Long-Term Trends
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress and
NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress.
18
Age 17 Reading and Writing NAEP Long-Term Trends
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress.
19
Gaps between groups wider today than in 1990
20
NAEP Reading, 17 Year-Olds
21
29
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source National Center for Education Statistics,
NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress
21
NAEP Math, 17 Year-Olds
28
20
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source National Center for Education Statistics,
NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress
22
Students Make More Growth Grade 5 to 8 than
Grade 9 to 12
23
Value Added in High School Declined During the
Nineties
24
Not just a pattern on NAEP.State assessments
show similar trends.
25
Hormones?
26
Students in Other Countries Gain far More in
Secondary School
  • TIMSS

27
2003 U.S. Ranked 24th out of 29 OECD Countries
in Mathematics
Source Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data
available at http//www.oecd.org/
28
Problems are not limited to our high-poverty and
high-minority schools . . .
29
U.S. Ranks Low in the Percent of Students in the
Highest Achievement Level (Level 6) in Math
Source Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data
available at http//www.oecd.org/
30
U.S. Ranks 23rd out of 29OECD Countries in the
Math Achievement of High-SES Students
Source Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data
available at http//www.oecd.org/
31
Problems not limited to math, either.
32
Lets Take A Quick Look At Achievement in Oregon
33
NAEP 4th Grade Reading All
34
White 4th graders NAEP Reading
35
Low-Income 4th Graders NAEP READING
36
NAEP 8th Grade Math All
37
Low Income 8th Graders? NAEP MATH
38
White 8th Graders NAEP Math
39
According to the National Assessment of Education
Progress (NAEP), only 31 of Oregons 4th graders
read at the proficient level.
40
Though state test scores suggest much higher
levels of proficiency, they also show large gaps.
2003 Oregon Statewide Assessment (OSA), Grade 5
Reading Literature
Source The Education Trust Edwatch Online 2004
State Summary Report
41
Similarly, according to NAEP, only 32 of
Oregons 8th grade students possess proficient
level math skills.
42
Here again, state assessment data show higher
scores but large gaps.
2003 Oregon Statewide Assessment (OSA), Grade 8
Math
Source The Education Trust Edwatch Online 2004
State Summary Report
43
Latino students in Oregon score significantly
lower than Latino students from other states.
44
Latino students, in contrast to their White
peers, are underrepresented in Advanced Placement
courses.
45
Latino students go to college at rates much lower
than their White counterparts.
46
Statewide, Oregon lags a little behind top states
in its college participation rates.
47
Oregon ranks 12th in the nation for its education
funding effort in relation to its per capita
income.
Source Kevin Carey, State Poverty-Based
Education Funding A Survey of Current Programs
and Options for Improvement, Center on Budget
and Policy Priorities, November 2002
48
Oregon spends an above average percent of its per
capita income on education funding, ranking 12th
in the nation for its effort.
Source Kevin Carey, State Poverty-Based
Education Funding A Survey of Current Programs
and Options for Improvement, Center on Budget
and Policy Priorities, November 2002
49
Oregon funds its high-poverty districts with more
per-student than its low-poverty districts,
though not as generously as states like Minnesota
and New Jersey.
Source Education Trust calculations based on
U.S. Department of Education, school district
revenue data for the 2000-2001 school year.
50
Oregons high-minority districts receive 353
more per student than its low-minority districts.
  • That translates into
  • 8,825 more for a classroom of 25 each year
  • 141,200 more for a school of 400 each year

Source Education Trust calculations based on
U.S. Department of Education, school district
revenue data for the 2000-2001 school year.
51
Federal funding for K-12 in Oregon has increased
by 42 since 2001.
Source U.S Department of Education, Funds for
State-Allocated Student-Aid programs (estimates
for 2004-2005 school year).
52
Since NCLBs passage, Oregons Grade 5 Reading
Scores have Declined by 3 Points
Oregon Statewide Assessment (OSA)
Source Oregon Department of Education,
http//www.ode.state.or.us/
53
The African American-White 5th grade reading gap
narrowed by 4 Points.
16
20
22
Oregon Statewide Assessment (OSA)
Source Oregon Department of Education,
http//www.ode.state.or.us/
54
The Latino-White 5th grade reading gap narrowed
by 1 point.
27
28
29
Oregon Statewide Assessment (OSA)
Source Oregon Department of Education,
http//www.ode.state.or.us/
55
However, Oregons Grade 5 Math Scores have
Increased by 4 Points since NCLBs passage
Oregon Statewide Assessment (OSA)
Source Oregon Department of Education,
http//www.ode.state.or.us/
56
The African American-White 5th grade math gap
narrowed by 6 points.
16
22
18
Oregon Statewide Assessment (OSA)
Source Oregon Department of Education,
http//www.ode.state.or.us/
57
The Latino-White 5th grade math gap narrowed by 7
Points.
22
29
30
Oregon Statewide Assessment (OSA)
Source Oregon Department of Education,
http//www.ode.state.or.us/
58
One measure on which we rank high?Inequality!
59
These gaps begin before children arrive at the
schoolhouse door.
  • But, rather than organizing our educational
    system to ameliorate this problem, we organize it
    to exacerbate the problem.

60
How?
  • By giving students who arrive with less, less in
    school, too.

61
Some of these lesses are a result of choices
that policymakers make.
62
NationInequities in State and Local Revenue Per
Student
Gap
High Poverty vs. Low Poverty Districts -907 per student
High Minority vs. Low Minority Districts -614 per student
Source The Education Trust, The Funding Gap
2005. Data are for 2003
63
Not Just K-12 In higher education, we spend
less per student in the institutions where most
low-income students start.
Expenditures per student
2 Year Colleges 9,183
4 Year Colleges 27,973
Source NCES Digest of Education Statistics, 2003
64
But some of the lessesindeed, perhaps the
most devastating onesare a function of choices
that educators make.
65
Choices we make about what to expect of whom
66
Choices we make about what to teach whom
67
Fewer Latino students are enrolledin Algebra 1
in Grade 8
Source CCSSO, State Indicators of Science and
Mathematics Education, 2005
68
Fewer Latino students are enrolledin Algebra 2
Source CCSSO, State Indicators of Science and
Mathematics Education, 2001
69
And choices we make about Whoteaches whom
70
More Classes in High-Poverty, High-Minority
Schools Taught By Out-of-Field Teachers
High poverty Low poverty
High minority Low minority
Note High Poverty school-50 or more of the
students are eligible for free/reduced price
lunch. Low-poverty school -15 or fewer of the
students are eligible for free/reduced price
lunch. High-minority school - 50 or more of
the students are nonwhite. Low-minority school-
15 or fewer of the students are nonwhite.
Teachers lacking a college major or minor in the
field. Data for secondary-level core academic
classes. Source Richard M. Ingersoll, University
of Pennsylvania. Original analysis for the Ed
Trust of 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey.
71
Poor and Minority Students Get More
Inexperienced Teachers
High poverty Low poverty
High minority Low minority
Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience.
Note High poverty refers to the top quartile of
schools with students eligible for free/reduced
price lunch. Low poverty-bottom quartile of
schools with students eligible for free/reduced
price lunch. High minority-top quartile those
schools with the highest concentrations of
minority students. Low minority-bottom quartile
of schools with the lowest concentrations of
minority students
Source National Center for Education Statistics,
Monitoring Quality An Indicators Report,
December 2000.
72
Results are devastating.
  • Kids who come in a little behind, leave a lot
    behind.

73
By the end of high school?
74
African American and Latino 17 Year-Olds Do Math
at Same Levels As White 13 Year-Olds
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source National Center for Education
Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress
75
African American and Latino 17 Year-Olds Read at
Same Levels As White 13 Year-Olds
Note Long-Term Trends NAEP
Source National Center for Education
Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress
76
Students Graduate From High School At Different
Rates 4-Year Graduation Rates
Data is for the class of 2003.
Source Jay P. Greene and Marcus A. Winters, The
Manhattan Institute, 2006. Leaving Boys Behind
Public High School Graduation Rates.
77
ADD IT ALL UP...
78
Of Every 100 White Kindergartners
(25-to 29-Year-Olds)
Source US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
Census. March Current Population Surveys,
1971-2003, in The Condition of Education 2005.
http//nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2005/section3/indi
cator23.aspinfo
79
Of Every 100 African American Kindergartners
(25-to 29-Year-Olds)
Source US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
Census. March Current Population Surveys,
1971-2003, in The Condition of Education 2005.
http//nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2005/section3/indi
cator23.aspinfo
80
Of Every 100 Latino Kindergartners
(25-to 29-Year-Olds)
Source US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the
Census. March Current Population Surveys,
1971-2003, in The Condition of Education 2005.
http//nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2005/section3/indi
cator23.aspinfo
81
Of Every 100 American Indian/Alaskan Native
Kindergartners
(25 Years Old and Older)
Source U.S. Census Bureau, We the People
American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United
States. Data source Census 2000,
www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/race/censr-2
8.pdf
82
College Graduates by Age 26
SES is a weighted variable developed by NCES,
which includes parental education levels and
occupations and family income. High and low
refer to the highest and lowest quartiles of SES.
Source National Center for Education Statistics,
Coming of Age in the 1990s The Eighth Grade
Class of 1988 12 Years Later, March, 2002.
http//nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid20
02321
83
Why do these gaps in achievement exist?
84
What We Hear Many Educators Say
  • Theyre poor
  • Their parents dont care
  • They come to schools without breakfast
  • Not enough books
  • Not enough parents . . .

85
But if they are right, why are low-income
students and students of color performing so high
in some schools
86
George Mason Elementary, Richmond City Public
Schools
  • 319 Students PK-Grade 5
  • 99.7 African American
  • 75 Low-Income
  • Made AYP in 2005

Source School Matters, www.schoolmatters.com
87
George Mason Gains in Grade 5 Reading
Source School Matters, www.schoolmatters.com
88
George Mason Gains in Grade 5 Math
Source School Matters, www.schoolmatters.com
89
Centennial Place Elementary SchoolAtlanta,
Georgia
  • 528 students in grades K-5
  • 92 African American
  • 62 Low-Income

Source School Information Partnership,
http//www.schoolmatters.com
90
Centennial PlaceHigh Achievement for All
StudentsGrade 5 Math, 2005
Source School Information Partnership,
http//www.schoolmatters.com
91
Centennial PlaceHigh Achievement for All
StudentsGrade 5 Reading, 2005
Source School Information Partnership,
http//www.schoolmatters.com
92
Frankford ElementaryFrankford, Delaware
  • 29 African-American
  • 34 Latino
  • 34 White
  • 76 Low-Income

Source Delaware Department of Education Online
School Profiles, http//issm.doe.state.de.us/prof
iles/EntitySearch.ASPX
93
Frankford ElementaryClosing Gaps, Grade 5 Math
Source Delaware Department of Education, DSTP
Online Reports, http//dstp.doe.k12.de.us/DSTPmar
t/default.asp
94
Elmont Memorial Junior-Senior High Elmont, New
York
  • 75 African American
  • 12 Latino
  • 11 Asian/Pacific Islander/American Ind.
  • 3 White
  • 24 Low-Income

Source http//emsc33.nysed.gov/repcrd2004/cir/280
252070002.pdf
95
Elmont MemorialHigh Achievement in Mathematics
Source http//emsc33.nysed.gov/repcrd2004/overvie
w-analysis/280252070002.pdf
96
Elmont Memorial High Achievement in English
Source http//emsc33.nysed.gov/repcrd2004/overvie
w-analysis/280252070002.pdf
97
Some of Oregons schools have been particularly
successful at helping all students to succeed at
high levels.
98
Kenton Elementary SchoolPortland, Oregon
  • 24 Low-Income
  • 33 African American
  • Made AYP for 2003-04

SOURCE Oregon Department of Education,
http//www.ode.state.or.us
99
Closing the Income Gap at Kenton2003 ELA
Composite and Math Composite
SOURCE Oregon Department of Education,
http//www.ode.state.or.us
100
Ball Elementary SchoolPortland, Oregon
  • 80 Low-Income
  • 33 African American
  • 21 Latino
  • Made AYP for 2003-04

SOURCE Oregon Department of Education,
http//www.ode.state.or.us Dispelling the Myth
Online, http//www.edtrust.org
101
Academic Progress at Ball Elementary Composite
Math scores, 2004
State AYP target (2003) 39 Proficiency
Source Dispelling the Myth Online,
http//www.edtrust.org Oregon Department of
Education, http//www.ode.state.or.us/data/reportc
ard/RCpdfs/04/04-ReportCard-829.pdf
102
Steady Progress at Ball ElementaryReading
Composite, 2004
State AYP target (2003) 40 Proficiency
Source Dispelling the Myth Online,
http//www.edtrust.org Oregon Department of
Education, http//www.ode.state.or.us/data/reportc
ard/RCpdfs/04/04-ReportCard-829.pdf
103
Guess What?Also very big differences in college
resultseven among those who serve same kinds
of students.
104
Higher education institutions graduation rates
105
College Results Online
106
Bottom LineAt Every Level of Education, What We
Do Matters A Lot!
107
MOVING FORWARD
108
So What Can We Do?
109
1. Dont be bashful about pressing for all
students to graduate high school college ready.
  • High impact schools aim high for all students.
    Even when they start with high dropout rates,
    they aim students toward college and careers.

110
Thats Good, Because Education Pays 2000 U.S.
Median Earnings
Source U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Public Use
Microdata Samples (based on the 2000 Decennial
Census)
111
75 OF NEW JOB GROWTH REQUIRES SOME LEVEL OF
POST-SECONDARY TRAINING
112
Growing Need for Higher Levels of Education
Projections of Education Shortages and Surpluses
in 2012
Shortage
Surplus
Bachelors Degree
Associates Degree
Some College
Source Analysis by Anthony Carnevale, 2006 of
Current Population Survey (1992-2004) and Census
Population Projection Estimates
113
NEW STUDY FROM ACTCollege ready, workforce
training readysame thing
114
2. Add your voice to the movement to make the
college prep curriculum the default curriculum
for all students.
115
Single biggest predictor post-high school
success is QUALITY AND INTENSITY OF HIGH SCHOOL
CURRICULUM
  • Source Cliff Adelman, 2006, The Toolbox
    Revisited, U.S. Department of Education.

116
Oregons Diploma Project College prep curriculum
has benefits far beyond college.
117
Students of all sorts will learn more...
118
Low Quartile Students Gain More From College Prep
Courses
Grade 8-grade 12 test score gains based on 8th
grade achievement.
Source USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the
United States Toward the Year 2000, in Issue
Brief Students Who Prepare for College and
Vocation
119
They will also fail less often...
120
Challenging Curriculum Results in Lower Failure
Rates, Even for Lowest Achievers
Ninth-grade English performance, by high/low
level course, and eighth-grade reading
achievement quartiles
Source SREB, Middle Grades to High School
Mending a Weak Link. Unpublished Draft, 2002.
121
And theyll be better prepared for the workplace.
122
Leading districts, states making college prep the
default curriculum.
  • Texas, Indiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kentucky,
    Kansas.

123
3. Getting All Students in Courses With the
Right Labels Isnt Enough.Higher education can
be strong partner in quality assurance
strategies.
124
Historically, most of the really important
decisions about what students should learn and
what kind of work was good enough left to
individual teachers.
125
Result? A System That
  • Doesnt expect very much from MOST students and,
  • Expects much less from some types of students
    than others.

126
Students can do no better than the assignments
they are given...
127
Grade 10 Writing Assignment
A frequent theme in literature is the conflict
between the individual and society. From
literature you have read, select a character who
struggled with society. In a well-developed
essay, identify the character and explain why
this characters conflict with society is
important.
128
Grade 10 Writing Assignment
Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on
Martin Luther Kings most important contribution
to this society. Illustrate your work with a
neat cover page. Neatness counts.
129
4. Good teachers matter big time.
130
Students in Dallas Gain More in Math with
Effective Teachers One Year Growth From 3rd-4th
Grade
Source Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash
Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on
Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.
131
Cumulative Teacher Effects On Students Math
Scores in Dallas (Grades 3-5)
Beginning Grade 3 Percentile Rank 57
Beginning Grade 3 Percentile Rank 55
Source Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash
Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on
Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.
132
Good teachers matter a lot.
  • But some groups of kids dont get their fair
    share of quality teachers.

133
Classes in High Poverty High Schools More Often
Taught by Misassigned Teachers
Teachers who lack a major or minor in the
field Source National Commission on Teaching and
Americas Future, What Matters Most Teaching for
Americas Future (p.16) 1996.
134
Impact?
135
Four Concrete Things That Higher Education Can Do
To Help
  1. Help build the data systems necessary to
    understand teacher effectiveness and how it is
    distributed
  2. Help us understand the practices and
    characteristics of teachers who produce strong
    learning gains for students
  3. Produce more teachers with the commitment and
    skills to teach all students to high levels, and
    dont put your stamp of approval on those without
    the necessary characteristics and,
  4. Join in the effort to make sure that students in
    high poverty and high minority schools get the
    teachers they need to succeed.

136
5. Finally, weve got to get serious about
success in higher education, too.
137
Many institutions putting higher priority on
access than success.
  • High Impact Colleges
  • See AASCU and EdTrust reports

138
Bottom line clear Leadership Matters
  • Student success must become a higher priority for
    all academic units.

139
YOUcan help to make this happen by setting
stretch goals on student success for each of your
institutions, publishing data on results, and
rewarding progress.
140
Surely we can do better.
141
The Education Trust
  • Paul F. Ruiz, PhD Principal Partner
  • The Education Trust
  • pruiz_at_edtrust.org
  • www.edtrust.org
  • Washington, DC 202-293-1217
  • San Antonio, TX 210-979-0575
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