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European Union and European Media Landscapes

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26.3 Mari K. Niemi: EU-criticism and European Union in the Media ... generally have retained a decidedly partisan with politicized orientation or highly commercial ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: European Union and European Media Landscapes


1
European Union and European Media Landscapes
  • Introduction
  • 19.3.2009 Ville Pitkänen

2
Syllabus
  • 19.3 Ville Pitkänen Introduction European
    Media Landscapes
  • 26.3 Mari K. Niemi EU-criticism and European
    Union in the Media
  • 2.4 Erkka Railo EU Commissioners in the Finnish
    media
  • 3.4 15.4 media survey essay
  • 16.4 Workshop 1
  • 23.4 Workshop 2
  • 30.4 Workshop 3

3
ESSAY WORKSHOP
  • Essay (4 - 6 pages) Content analysis of one
    European newspaper from the following themes
  • 1. European news and news values in different
    countries
  • 2. News values and the tone of reporting (EU, EU
    politics and European Parliament)
  • 3. Portrayal of MEPs, commissioners and EU
    personnel in the media
  • LibraryPressDisplay website

4
Workshops
  • 16.4 Workshop 1 (deadline of the essay 14.4)
  • 23.4 Workshop 2 (21.4)
  • 30.4 Workshop 3 (28.4)
  • Each student will give brief introduction based
    on their essays. After the introductions,
    comparisons and discussions on the reporting of
    different news media.

5
The European Media landscapes
  • Ville Pitkänen 19.3.2009

6
Why does the media matter in terms of European
Union?
  • The most important link between citizens and
    politics is the media. By bringing information to
    audiences, the media play an important role in
    the discursive construction of Europe
  • Concerns behind the functioning of European
    public sphere
  • The Growing disparity between the EU
    organizations and citizens of the Union
  • Lost of interest in EUs political process
  • Distrust in politicians and their institutions
  • How do the media operate on European level? What
    kind of similarities and differences are there
    between European countries?

7
Similar European Trends
  • Deregulation of broadcasting ? Most West European
    countries introduced commercial broadcasting in
    1980s.
  • The triumph of commerce and decline of public
    service ethos
  • Concentration of private media markets
  • News Corp., Bertelsmann AG

8
  • Fragmentation of audiences
  • ? From mass audiences to specialized groups
  • Infotainment tendency to favour entertainment
    over information ? the decline of news and public
    affairs contents. Less political news, more
    personal political stories, less international
    news, more human interest stories, less
    investigative journalism, more service
    journalism.

9
COMPARING MEDIA SYSTEMS
  • (1) Newspaper industry
  • (2) Political parallelism
  • (3) Professionalization of Journalism
  • (4) Role of the state in media system
  •  
  •  

10
NEWSPAPER INDUSTRY
  • One of the most obvious differences among media
    systems has to do with the development of the
    mass circulation press the presence or absence
    of a mass circulation press
  • The nature of the newspaper, its relation to its
    audience and its role in the wider process of
    social and political communication
  • Target Audiences
  • Sensationalist mass press and quality papers
    addressed to an elite readership (UK is the
    strongest example)
  • Newspapers that serve mainly the elite (Italy)
  • Newspapers that serve elite and mass readerships
    simultaneously (Especially Nordic countries)
  • The balance of local and national newspapers
  • Dominated by a national press (UK, Austria,
    Italy, Spain)
  • Dominated by local papers (Switzerland)
  • Combination of both (Germany, France,
    Scandinavia)

11
POLITICAL PARALLELISM
  • Political parallelism refers to media content and
    the extent to which the different media reflect
    distinct political orientations in their news and
    current affairs reporting, and sometimes also
    their entertainment content.
  • The degree and nature of the links between the
    media and political parties or, more broadly, the
    extent to which the media system reflects the
    major political divisions in society
  • Important differences have persisted among media
    systems in the strength of connections between
    the media and political actors and in the balance
    between the advocacy and neutral/ informational
    traditions of political journalism.
  • Media in some countries have distinct political
    orientations while media in other countries do
    not.

12
PROFESSIONALIZATION
  • Does not mean formal training
  • DIMENSIONS OF PROFESSIONALIZATION.
  • Autonomy.
  • Autonomy from outside pressures (political,
    economical)
  • Distinct professional norms
  • Ethical principles such as the obligation to
    protect confidential sources or to maintain a
    separation between advertising and editorial
    content, as well as practical routines, common
    standards of newsworthiness
  • Public service orientation
  • Journalisms orientation towards public service
    ethics

13
ROLE OF THE STATE IN MEDIA SYSTEMS
  • The degree and nature of state intervention in
    the media system
  • Differences in the extent of state intervention
    as well as in the forms it takes.
  • The most important form of state intervention is
    public service broadcasting, which has been
    present in every country in Western Europe
  • In many countries the state has also owned news
    agencies, newspapers, or other media-related
    enterprises

14
FORMS OF STATE INTERVENTION
  • Press subsidies
  • Libel, defamation, privacy, and right-of-reply
    laws
  • Hate speech laws
  • Professional secrecy laws for journalists
    (protecting the confidentiality of sources)
  • Laws regulating access to government information
  • Laws regulating media concentration, ownership,
    and competition
  • Laws regulating political communication,
    particularly during election campaigns
  • Broadcast licensing laws and laws regulating
    broadcasting content including those dealing with
    political pluralism, language, and domestic
    content.

15
THREE MODELS MEDIA SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
(Daniel Hallin 2004)
  • MEDITERRANEAN MODEL
  • NORTHERN EUROPEAN MODEL
  • NORTH ATLANTIC MODEL
  • NEW EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

16
MEDITERRANEAN MODEL
  • ( Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, with some
    exceptions France)
  • Newspaper Industry
  • Low newspaper circulation, elite politically
    orientated press
  • Political parallelism
  • Commentary orientated journalism, parliamentary
    or government model of broadcast governance
    politics over broadcasting systems
  • Professionalization
  • Weaker professionalization
  • Role of the state in media system
  • Strong state intervention

17
NORTHERN EUROPEAN MODEL
  • (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany,
    Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland)
  • Newspaper Industry
  • High newspaper circulation, early development of
    mass circulation press
  • Political parallellism
  • Historically strong party press, shift towards
    neutral commercial press, politics in
    broadcasting with substantial autonomy
  • Professionalization
  • Strong professionalization, institutionalized
    self regulation
  • Role of the state in media system
  • Strong state intervention but with protection for
    press freedom, press subsidies (particularly
    strong in Scandinavia), strong public service
    broadcasting

18
NORTH ATLANTIC MODEL
  • (UK, Ireland, US, Canada)
  • Newspaper Industry
  • Medium (Ireland) or high (UK) newspaper
    circulation, early development of mass
    circulation commercial press
  • Political parallelism
  • Neutral commercial press information orientated
    journalism, professional model of broadcast
    governance formally autonomous system
  • Professionalization
  • Strong professionalization, non-institutionalized
    self regulation
  • Role of the state in media system
  • Market dominated except strong public
    broadcasting in UK and Ireland

19
NEW EU COUNTRIES
  • Similar history that has left similar marks to
    their media systems that make them a bit
    different case compared the countries in Western
    Europe
  • Heterogeneous group with some similarities
    pre-communist and communist eras leaving cultural
    traits that can be harmful to democracy

20
NEW EU-COUNTRIES
  • Newspaper Industry
  • Heterogeneous in terms of circulation Hungary
    high circulation, Czech rep., Slovakia, Poland,
    Baltic countries, average or low circulation
  • Political parallelism
  • Newspapers generally have retained a decidedly
    partisan with politicized orientation or highly
    commercial
  • Public broadcasting continues to be manipulated
    if not controlled by governments The commercial
    broadcast outlets remain entertainment orientated
    and generally politically biased in their
    coverage.

21
NEW EU-COUNTRIES
  • Professionalization
  • There have been some to manipulate elements of
    the national press The persistent domination of
    ideological conviction
  • Role of the State in media systems
  • The political influence on media and regulatory
    bodies is still high
  • ? Political, economic and technological factors
    as well as internationalization and globalization
    affect the transformation

22
(No Transcript)
23
Proportion of Public Watching or reading news
every day (Eurobarometer 2001)
  •  
  • Television Newspaper
  • Greece 65 13
  • Portugal 64 20
  • Spain 72 24
  • Italy 83 30
  • France 62 26
  • Belgium 60 30
  • United Kingdom 71 47
  • Ireland 67 46
  • Denmark 70 51
  • Netherlands 77 60
  • Finland 79 67
  • Germany 68 59
  • Austria 61 55
  • Sweden 69 70

24
Gender differences in the Newspaper Reach (World
press trends 2000)
  •  
  • Men Women
  •  
  • Portugal 58,3 24,1
  • Spain 47 26,2
  • Italy 50,2 29,8
  • Greece 22,5 17,2
  • Belgium 57,9 47,5
  • Netherlands 70,8 60,7
  • Switzerland 59 52
  • Austria 78,4 73,2
  • France 34,3 32
  • United Kingdom 84 79
  • Denmark 76,1 72,1
  • Ireland 59 56
  • Finland 87 84
  • Norway 87 85
  • Sweden 89 88

25
On-line media
26
Conclusions
  • An intertwined history of the nations concerned
    makes a contribution to both similarity and
    difference.
  • The differences stem more from social, cultural
    and geographical factors.
  • National structures and patterns of media use are
    still strong the Public Spheres of EU states
    continue to exhibit a strong national orientation
  • Even the media systems of individual countries
    are not homogeneous.
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