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TRM 431 International Organisations Fall 20092010

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Meeting Times: Tuesdays 4th hour and Thursdays 5th and 6th hours ... Will UN continue to have a role in diplomacy? Challenges: Resource difficulties: US-UN tensions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TRM 431 International Organisations Fall 20092010


1
TRM 431 International Organisations Fall
2009-2010
  • Lecturer Burçin Hatipoglu
  • Meeting Times Tuesdays 4th hour and Thursdays
    5th and 6th hours

These slides are prepared by the lecturer using
the below sources Pease(2008), International
Organizations 3rd Ed. United Nations official
website European Union officail website
2
Chapter 1 and 2
  • International Organizations
  • Traditionally considered as formal organizations
    whose members are states.
  • The new definition includes the study of
  • Intergovernmental Organizations
  • Nongovernmental Organizations
  • Multinational Organizations
  • Institutions, Laws and Regimes

3
Role of International Organizations
  • Nation-States retain their position as the
    primary political unit of international
    relations.
  • International Organizations perform some very
    useful functions
  • Provide the means of cooperation among states
  • This cooperation provides advantages for a large
    number of states
  • Over 20,000 IGOs and 100,000 NGOs

4
International Organizations
  • Intergovernmental Organizations (IGO)
  • Formal organizations whose members are states
    UN, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO),
    EU.
  • Nongovernmental Organizations (NGO)
  • Nonprofit private organizations that engage in a
    variety of international activities Greenpeace,
    Red Cross
  • Multinational Organizations (MNC)
  • For-profit firms that have subsidiaries in two or
    more countries and engage in transnational
    production activities GM, IBM, Coca Cola

5
Intergovernmental Organizations
  • Ancient Greece
  • Congress Of Vienna (1815-1822)
  • Established to sustain order and stability after
    the Napoleonic Wars.
  • A forum for collaboration on European security
    and commerce

6
Intergovernmental Organizations
  • League of Nations (1919-1939)
  • Established after World War I
  • First 20th century multipurpose IGO, Universal
    membership
  • Organized around The Council, Assembly and
    Secretariat
  • International Labor Organization (ILO) human
    conditions of labor, international labor
    standards
  • Importance idea of collective security, peaceful
    settlement of disputes, foster international
    cooperation in economy and social issues.

7
United Nations
  • Established after WW II
  • Follows the principles of League of Nations
  • Purpose
  • Maintain international peace and security
  • Develop friendly relations among nations
  • To address economic, social, cultural and
    humanitarian problems
  • To promote respect for universal human rights

8
United Nations
  • Who can join?
  • Any state can belong
  • There are 192 Member states as of 2008.
  • Complementary Principles
  • Equality of all members
  • Obligation to settle disputes peacefully
  • No to threaten in international relations
  • Nonintervention in the domestic jurisdiction of
    states

9
(No Transcript)
10
United Nations
  • Structured around six principal organs
  • General Assembly
  • Security Council
  • International Court of Justice
  • Economic and Social Council
  • Secretariat
  • Trusteeship Council

11
UN-General Assembly
12
UN
  • General Assembly
  • Address issues related to security
  • Initiating studies for political cooperation and
    development of international law.
  • Promote international cooperation in the
    economic, social, cultural, educational and
    health fields
  • Draft and approve UN budget
  • Oversees UN bureaucracy

13
UN
  • Security Council
  • Maintain international peace and security.
  • Decisions are binding on member states.
  • Limited Membership
  • Permanent France, the Republic of China, the
    Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United
    States
  • Elected Ten Members

14
UN The Economic and Social Council
  • Economic Development
  • Human Rights
  • Social Welfare
  • Initiates reports, make recommendations for
    protecting human rights, prepare draft
    conventions relating to economic and social
    issues, call international conferences.

15
UN
  • Will UN continue to have a role in diplomacy?
    Challenges
  • Resource difficulties US-UN tensions
  • Difficulties in protecting personnel
  • Lack of a state leadership

16
UN
  • UN Reform- Sep 2005 World Summit
  • Tension between US and other powerful members
  • Conflict between industrialized and developing
    countries
  • Disagreement on the future direction of the UN
  • Not much agreed upon
  • Creation of Peace building Commission and Human
    Rights Council

17
European Union
  • After World War II
  • Original Goal Economic and Political Integration
    of fifteen European states
  • Ten new states joined in 2004, two states joined
    in 2007.
  • Represents highest degree of economic, political
    and social integration in the modern world.
  • Represents 500 million citizens

18
The European Union 493 million people 27
countries
Member states of the European Union
Candidate countries
19
The area of the EU compared to the rest of the
world
16 889
9327
9159
4234
365
Japan
EU
China
Russia
United States
Surface area, 1 000 km²
20
European Union History
  • Paris Treaty (1951) France and Germany merge
    steel and coal industries.
  • European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) formed
    (1952) Italy and Benelux countries joined the
    Paris Treaty.
  • Treaty of Rome (1957) creation of European
    Atomic Energy Cooperation (EURATOM) and European
    Economic Community (EEC).
  • 1967 ECSC, EURATOM and EEC shared five
    institutions.
  • 1979 European Community
  • 1992 European Union (EU)

21
Eight enlargements
1952
1973
1986
1981
1990
1995
2004
2007
22
EU Institutions
  • The EU operates through a hybrid system of
    intergovernmentalism and supranationalism. In
    certain areas it depends upon agreement between
    the member states. However, it also has
    supranational bodies, able to make decisions
    without the agreement of all national
    governments.
  • The European Council
  • The Council of Ministers
  • The European Commission
  • The European Parliament
  • The European Court of Justice

23
Three key players
The European Parliament - voice of the
people Jerzy Buzek, President of the European
Parliament The council of Ministers - voice of
the Member States Javier Solana,
Secretary-General of the Council of the European
Union and High Representative for Common Foreign
and Security Policy The European Commission -
promoting the common interest José Manuel
Barroso, President of the European Commission
24
EU Challenges
  • Current EU Goals
  • Single European Act called for elimination of
    all internal barriers to trade in goods and
    services by 1992.
  • Maastricht Treaty the implementation of the
    common currency, Euro. Military and political
    integration.

25
Euro
  • The Euro has been the European currency for
    international transaction since 1999, replaced
    domestic currencies since 2001.
  • UK is not using Euro. 12 of the original fifteen
    states are using the Euro. In total fifteen
    states use Euro.
  • There are concerns about Euros value against the
    US dollar, counterfeiting and the loss of
    millions of dollars worth of undeclared income
    from Europes underground economy.

26
The euro a single currency for Europeans
Can be used everywhere in the euro area 4Coins
one side with national symbols, one side
common 4Notes no national side
EU countries using the euro EU countries not
using the euro
27
EU Common Foreign Policy
  • Maastricht Treaty has been slow in achieving its
    mission.
  • Denmark and UK do not agree with the monetary and
    the political union.
  • The integration of the twelve new members is a
    challenge for EU.
  • In 2005, France and Netherlands opposed the
    proposed EU constitution.
  • The possible membership of Turkey is a challenge
    for EU.
  • U.S war in Iraq and War on terrorism divides the
    EU.

28
Membership of Turkey
  • Geographically considered not in Europe
  • Greece, Austria strongly oppose the inclusion of
    Turkey
  • Muslim population
  • Original EU constitution referred Christianity as
    a core value
  • Secular, democratic government
  • Crossroads between Europe and Asia
  • Economically very strong
  • Strong trade partnership with Europe.

29
The Organization of Islamic Conference
  • OIC created in 1969 by 24 Islamic States
  • Unified Muslim response to the Israeli policies
    after the Arab-Israeli War, occupation of
    Jerusalem.
  • Members are very diverse, governs 1 billion
    Muslims.

30
OIC
31
The Organization of Islamic Conference
  • Goal To safeguard their people and Muslims.
  • Strengthen Islamic solidarity
  • Consolidate Cooperation among members states in
    social, cultural and scientific fields
  • Safeguard the Holy places
  • Support the struggle of the Palestinian people
  • Eliminate racial discrimination and all forms of
    colonialism

32
OIC Challenges
  • Difficulties in coordination
  • Geographically dispersed (Africa, Asia, Middle
    East, Southeast Asia)
  • Politically diverse. (Islamic Republics,
    Monarchies, Democracy, Military Dictatorships)
  • National Income differences (Richest like Saudi
    Arabia and poorest Afghanistan)

33
OIC Challenges
  • The unifying force is Islam. Aims to protect the
    Islam from Western materialism.
  • Palestinian-Israeli crisis, Arab-Israeli crisis,
    the Bosnian Crisis, Kashmir, Iraq and Afghanistan
    crisis.
  • 2006, Danish newspaper published offensive
    cartoons of Prophet Mohammed. OIC took a unified
    stand on the issue.
  • Greatest challenge is the Sep 11 attacks since
    2001.OIC condemned the attacks on US but Iran,
    Iraq and Syria have also condemned the US.

34
Nongovernmental Organizations
  • NGOs have multiple origins, purposes and
    resources
  • Can serve specific purposes Int. Olympic
    Committee
  • Can be Multipurpose Organizations Catholic
    Church
  • Can be Social Welfare Organizations Doctors
    without Borders
  • Professional Organizations International Chamber
    of commerce

35
NGOs
  • Financing from
  • Private sources such as membership fees,
    investment earnings, charitable contributions
    from individuals and businesses.
  • Public Sources such as governments and IGOs.
  • Some NGOs are very powerful because of their huge
    budgets like some of the religious organizations
    in the US or Doctors Without Borders.

36
NGOs Three Different Roles in World Politics
  • Information Related Activities
  • Gather Information
  • Share Information with states, IGOs, MNCs
  • Provide expert Analysis, publish reports,
    establish standards, guidelines and regulations

37
NGOs Three Different Roles in World Politics
  • Carry out policies of States and IGOs
  • Bring immediate humanitarians assistance to
    persons displaced by natural disaster, civil
    disorder, violent conflict or war.
  • Work on continuous basis with people in poverty,
    disease and starvation.
  • NGOs face difficulties in delivering this
    functions such as opposition from religious
    groups, ethnic groups and wars.

38
NGOs Three Different Roles in World Politics
  • Private Interactions
  • Bring together groups and individuals
  • Host conferences for exchange of information
  • Awards grants for research

39
Power of NGOs in World Politics
  • NGOs are seen as the conscience of the world
    influencing the moral development of states, IGOs
    and civil society.
  • NGOs provide vehicles for individuals to
    participate in world politics outside of their
    individual nation-states.
  • Enables a broader range of participation.

40
Multinational Corporations
  • Private, profit organizations that have
    operations in more than one country.
  • Their existence is very controversial.
  • Their history goes back to East India Company
    (Late 17th Century). Headquartered in London with
    offices in Netherlands, The Americas, China,
    southeast Asia and India.

41
MNC
  • Agriculture and Extractive Industries Dole (US),
    Ulker (Turkey)
  • Financial Services HSBC (HongKong), Fiba Holding
    (Turkey)
  • Industrial Corporations Sony(Japan), IBM (US),
    Mercedes (before German, now US), Arcelik
    (Turkey)
  • General Service Companies McDonalds, ATT (US).
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