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Action on Climate Change in South Africa: Challenges And Opportunities

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IMC- DEAT, DST, DME, DFA, DoA, DWAF, DoT, DPE. IDC (GCCC)- same as above ... National Authority in the Dept of Minerals & Energy (http://www.dme.gov.za) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Action on Climate Change in South Africa: Challenges And Opportunities


1
Action on Climate Change in South Africa
Challenges And Opportunities Shirley Moroka 9
August 2006, São Paolo, Brazil
2
This Presentation
  • Institutional arrangements
  • Energy mix and emissions
  • Vulnerability and adaptation
  • What has been done?
  • Current activities
  • The need for a plan of action

3
Institutional arrangements
  • DEAT focal point- coordination role
  • IMC- DEAT, DST, DME, DFA, DoA, DWAF, DoT, DPE
  • IDC (GCCC)- same as above
  • NCCC- National departments, Provinces,
    Municipalities, academia, industry, NGOs,

4
Energy Overview Supply 2004
5
Where do SAs emissions come from?
  • Key sources of emissions
  • Energy sector 80 of GHG emissions
  • Supply on its own 45 (Eskom and Sasol) …
  • … but also users industry, transport, others
  • The challenge of mitigation in SA is an energy
    question
  • No question that the fuel mix will have to change
  • if SA is to take some responsibility for
    mitigation
  • SAs emissions are increasing …
  • … and high in international comparison

6
Major sources of emissions are energy supply and
use
Waste
4
Agriculture
9
Industry
8
Energy industries
Fugitive emissions
45
2
Other energy
7
Transport
11
Industrial energy
14
Share of national GHG emissions, 1994
7
Emissions from electricity projected to increase
over time
300
250
Projected CO2 emissions from electricity supply,
NIRP reference case
200
Mt CO2
150
100
50
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
Based on data for the NERs 2003/4 National
Integrated Resource Plan
8
SAs share of emissions, GDP and population
1.23
0.92
0.73
GDP
Emissions
Population
SA's share of global total
  • Data source Climate Analysis Indicator Tool, WRI

9
SA emissions in international comparison
  • SA contributes 1-1.5 of global emissions
  • Share differs, depending on gases, sources and
    time-frame considered
  • SAs share of annual energy CO2 emissions is
    more than 50 higher than for historical
    cumulative CO2 emissions with LULUCF
  • Challenge for SA
  • Emissions per GDP and per capita high

10
POINTS OF VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE DUE TO
DIRECT IMPACTS
  • DIRECT IMPACTS
  • Water Resources
  • Agriculture
  • Forestry
  • Human Health
  • Biodiversity
  • ECONOMIC
  • Fossil fuel based economy
  • Coal exporter
  • Developing economy
  • Financial constraints
  • Insufficient appropriate technology

11
Some programmes that have been implemented in SA
to adapt?
  • Sectoral programmes focused on poverty
  • Landcare transforms unsustainable agricultural
    practice
  • Working for Water alien plant removal to
    restore water
  • Working for Wetlands restoration of water
    sources
  • Working on Fire Fire control
  • Potential for the use of LULUCF sink strategies
    for mitigation are limited
  • Little forest cover
  • For SA, LULUCF is a vulnerability adaptation
    issue

12
What has SA done in response to climate change?
  • National climate change response strategy
  • Outreach,
  • National climate change conference
  • Ministerial Indaba
  • CDM DNA established
  • Renewable energy target
  • 10 000 GWh by 2013
  • Energy efficiency strategy
  • 12 less final energy demand than BAU in 2014
  • NEM-Air Quality Act provisions
  • Controlled emitters
  • Controlled fuels
  • Reporting
  • Air quality management plans
  • Priority pollutants??
  • Etc.

13
CDM in South Africa
  • Small but growing
  • Established Designated National Authority in the
    Dept of Minerals Energy (http//www.dme.gov.za)
  • 29 CDM projects submitted to the DNA (11 PDDs, 18
    PINs)
  • 44 MtCO2 over the period 2005 to 2012 possibly
    942 Mt in PINs
  • Actively engaging in carbon markets
  • Emissions derivative trading on JHB Stock
    Exchange
  • Markets need certainty to secure carbon as a long
    term tradable commodity i.e. second commitment
    period for Kyoto (article 3.9)
  • Uneven geographical distribution issue for Africa

14
Current Activities
  • Air Quality Act implementation
  • GHG inventory systems
  • Vehicles emissions strategy
  • Climate change RD strategy
  • Technology needs assessment
  • Sector implementation plans of the national
    climate change response strategy
  • Bio-fuels task-force (food security water
    scarcity)

15
South Africa understands urgency of action
  • One of our most urgent challenges as the global
    community is to convince all nations to join and
    support the international effort to reduce the
    emissions of greenhouse gases. I have no doubt
    that the next few years will be crucial to move
    us out of an approach of stalling, of avoidance,
    and of excuses to one where we all accept our
    responsibility to deal with climate change within
    an inclusive multilateral international
    framework. Climate change is a global scourge and
    requires a unified global partnership for
    action.

Minister van Schalkwyk, April 2005 at Champion
of the Earth award
16
Need for a Plan of Action
  • All nations accept responsibility to deal with
    climate change within an inclusive multilateral
    regime that balances adaptation mitigation
  • Consolidate fragmented decisions into a coherent
    programme of work.
  • Coordinate different strands of work
  • Supported by financing and improved investment
    environment from both public and private sources
  • Engage political level private sector, finance
    ministers, public …

17
  • Thank You
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