Ancient Civilizations of the Americas Lecture 11 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ancient Civilizations of the Americas Lecture 11

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Conical burial mounds are erected. Kaminaljuy . Arenal Phase (300BC-100AD) ... 500 BC (Middle Formative) the first stela are erected before pyramids. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Civilizations of the Americas Lecture 11


1
Ancient Civilizations of the Americas Lecture 11
  • The Emergence of the Complex Mayan Polities of
    the Formative

2
  • Who are the Maya?
  • Speakers of languages
  • of the Mayan family

3
Mayan languages are thought to have
differentiated 2000 years ago. The original
Mayan homeland is thought to have been in the
highlands (land above 1000 m) to the south.
4
Mayan Cosmology
5
  • Mayan Beginnings
  • The Pacific Coast the coastal piedmont zone
  • Southern Mexico through Guatemala
  • Izapa
  • Founded about 1500 BC, lasted until the Spanish
    conquest.
  • Achieved fluorescence during the Late Formative
    and Early Classic period

6
  • Abaj Takalik
  • Occupied from early Formative to Late Classic
    times.
  • Has produced some of the earliest dated monuments
    from the terminal Formative, including some in
    the Mayan style.

7
El Baúl Late Preclassic Stela 1 has produced
a date of AD 36
8
  • The Guatemala Highlands Kaminaljuyú
  • Established 1000 BC in the largest valley in
    Guatemala
  • Platforms built during Las Charcas phase
    (1000-750 BC), attesting to importance in jade
    trade.
  • Population doubles during Majadas and Provedencia
    phases (750-400 BC)
  • Verbena Phase (400-300 BC) Kaminaljuyú exerts
    influence over the coast through control of El
    Chayal obsidian source. Conical burial mounds are
    erected.

9
  • Kaminaljuyú
  • Arenal Phase (300BC-100AD)
  • Site reaches its greatest
  • population density.
  • First true stela appear
  • Irrigation system created

10
Santa Clara Phase (AD 100-200) Decline in
population and partial abandonment. Aurora
Phase (AD 200-400) and Esperanza Phase (AD
400- 550) Teotihuacano incursion
11
The Southern Lowlands
12
Uaxactún Carnegie Institution excavated at
Uaxactún 1926-1937 as part of a program that
included Tikal, Kaminaljuyú, and Mayapán.
Excavators Sylvanus Morley, Edwin Shook, Oliver
and Edith Ricketson The publication of this site
established a chronological scheme that was
extended to all of Mesoamerica. The earlier
ceremonial core dates to the Late Formative. At
Uaxactún a temple complex was discovered that was
designated the E group. The pyramids were
arranged in the East-North-West cardinal
directions.
13
Under one pyramid, E VII a beautifully preserved
pyramid was found, only 8 m tall with 16 stucco
masks. The temple was surmounted by a pole and
thatch structure.
14
E-VII Sub after 70 years of
exposure to rain
15
  • Nakbé
  • Occupation began in the Early Formative (1400 BC)
  • By 800 BC Nakbé covered 50 Hectares (124 acres)
  • Sherd with the earliest known Mayan hieroglyph
    was found here.
  • 500 BC (Middle Formative) the first stela are
    erected before pyramids.
  • Activity ends 300 BC as the site is superceded by
    El Mirador.

16
  • El Mirador
  • Site is one of the last major settlements to be
    investigated due to location. Excavations began
    in 1978 under Ray Matheny and Bruce Dahlin of
    BYU, superceded by Arthur Dermarest and Robert
    Sharer. Site is currently being investigated by
    Richard Hansen.
  • Occupation begins 300 BC
  • It was a fortified center protected by an
    escarpment and a wall.
  • Structures cover 16 sq. km., the core 2 sq. km
  • Pyramid complexes are separated by empty space.
  • Causeways (sacbe) lead from the core.

17
Cerros, Belize Excavated by David
Freidel 1977-82 Late Formative
18
Sacred Precinct Created 50 BC
19
Kaxob, Belize Excavated by Patricia McAnany in
1990-1993
20
Middle Formative to Early Classic
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