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What was the Marshall Plan also known as Marshall Aid

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Assessment of Europe's economic needs. Europe owed US, $11.5 billion. Shortages of goods & fuel ... Marshall's assessment of Europe's needs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What was the Marshall Plan also known as Marshall Aid


1
What was the Marshall Plan? (also known as
Marshall Aid)
2
? Your task
  • Read your textbooks (p.48-9) and try to answer
    these questions
  • Why did the US see the need for Marshall Aid?
  • What were its main aims?
  • How successful was Marshall Aid?

3
Origins of Marshall Plan
  • General George Marshall, American Secretary of
    State
  • Assessment of Europes economic needs
  • Europe owed US, 11.5 billion
  • Shortages of goods fuel
  • Rationing, e.g. Britain, 1947 power cuts
  • Churchill, a rubble heap, a breeding ground of
    hate

General George Marshall, uncompromising US Sec.
of State
4
Aims of the Marshall Plan
  • Stop spread of Communism
  • Help economies of Europe recover
  • Provide a market for American goods
  • 17 billion rebuild European prosperity

Illustration for a booklet by Jo Spier
(1900-1978), a Dutch, Jewish artist and writer
who had been imprisoned in a German concentration
camp during World War II and who emigrated to the
U.S. in 1951.
5
How successful was the Plan?
  • 12-13 billion dollars poured into Europe
  • 16 European states accepted aid (all
    non-Communist)
  • Stalin banned Marshall Aid for USSR and banned
    satellite states from accepting it

Why would Stalin want to ban Marshall Aid?
6
How successful was the Marshall Plan?
  • Rejected by Stalin as dollar imperialisation
  • Unacceptable to Soviet pride
  • Czechoslovakia considered plan, but elections
    fixed foreign minister killed
  • Yugoslavia 1948, Tito expelled
  • Warsaw 1947, Communist Information Bureau
    (Cominform) created to protect communist states
    from US aggression

President Tito of Yugoslavia a loose canon
7
? Your task
  • How far do you feel each side was to blame for
    the increasing tension in the Cold War
    immediately after WWII? Decide where you would
    put the USA USSR on the scale below. State your
    reasons why.

Not to blame
Mostly to blame
8
?
  • You are going to hold a debate over the issue
    who was to blame for increasing tensions during
    the early stages of the Cold War? One side will
    argue the case that it was the USSR the other
    that it was the Americans?

9
US blame
  • Support for anti-Communists during Civil War
  • Anti-Communist stance of Truman
  • Development of atomic bomb
  • Iron curtain speech
  • Truman Doctrine Marshall Aid
  • Ideological differences (US capitalist democracy)

10
USSR blame
  • Historic tensions, e.g. Hitler Stalin pact, 1939
  • Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe setting up
    of Communist governments
  • Rejection of Marshall Aid
  • Formation of Cominform
  • Red army, development of own nuclear weapons

11
? Your task
  • Work in pairs. Prepare two statements. One which
    Truman could give to Congress explaining why he
    is supporting the Marshall Plan and one from
    Stalin to the Politburo condemning the Plan and
    outlining his response to it.
  • Compare the differences in interpretation in your
    two speeches

12
? Extra help
  • You might want to consider the following points
  • The background to the Marshall Plan (Greece
    fear of Communist take-over)
  • Marshalls assessment of Europes needs
  • The public hidden agenda (economic political
    support)
  • The growing tensions during the Cold War (spread
    of Communism, arms race, Iron Curtain speech)
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