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Sustainable clean coal power generation within a European context The view in 2006


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Title: Sustainable clean coal power generation within a European context The view in 2006

Sustainable clean coal power generation within a
European context The view in 2006
  • Fuel 86 2124 - 2133. 2007

A.J. Minchener J.T. McMullan
Darin Bagshaw ENVI 5048 October 3rd, 2007
Key Questions
  • Why is clean coal power generation needed?
  • What are the processes involved in clean coal
    power generation?
  • Is it economically viable and sustainable?

Worldwide Energy Demand Projections to 2030
(Business as Usual)
Fig. 1. World primary energy demand .1
Under this scenario, global GHG emissions would
rise by 60!
Future Scenario for Coal
  • Global coal use projected to double by 2030 (4.5
    trillion tonnes oil equivalent)
  • OECD countries see coal as key component of their
    energy mix - recognize need for reducing its
    environmental impact
  • Environmental standards will tighten for lower
    emission levels of SO2, NOx and micro-pollutants
    (such as mercury)
  • Predominant need to reduce CO2 emissions to
    assist Europes climate change commitments

EU Scenario
  • Challenges
  • Security of energy supply
  • Implementing technologies that greatly reduce GHG
  • Maintaining competitiveness when introducing CCS
  • Pressing requirement to meet Kyoto and post-Kyoto
  • Future business-as-usual energy projections
    create further complications

EU Energy Sector Emissions options
  • Reducing energy consumption
  • Cost-effective solutions now available
  • Enhancing carbon sinks (eg. Forests)
  • Capacity is limited
  • Not necessarily secure for holding carbon
  • Alternative fuels
  • Viable, but cant meet all CO2 reductions
  • OR

CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) Opportunities
  • Electricity generation from fossil fuels
    largest industrial CO2 emitter in Europe
  • Urgent need to build and retrofit power stations
    in the next 25 years - power generation companies
    can work cooperatively to incorporate CCS
  • Buys time until alternative energies can develop
    and become predominant
  • European Union CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme
  • Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) for projects in
    developing countries
  • Market and regulatory standards requiring clean

Capturing CO2
  • Why capture only CO2?
  • Impractical to transport and store entire gas
    stream due to energy costs and other associated
  • 3 main approaches
  • Post-combustion capture
  • Pre-combustion decarbonisation
  • Oxy-fuel combustion

Capturing CO2
Fig. 4. CO2 capture options.
Post-Combustion Capture
  • Flue gas is compressed and sent through absorbent
  • CO2 separated from other flue gases
  • Remaining flue gases discharged to the atmosphere
  • Already done in small scale scenarios
  • Requirement for higher efficiency scrubbing and
    SO2/NOX removal processes in large scale scenarios

Pre-combustion Decarbonisation
  • Processes fuel with steam and air or O2
    produces mixture of CO and H2
  • Additional H2 and CO2 produced by reacting the CO
    with steam in 2nd (shift) reactor
  • CO2 gas stream and H2 separated
  • CO2 separated from fuel gas, H2 used as clean
    energy source for many applications
  • Higher pressure process - more favourable for CO2
    separation than post-combustion
  • Technology already in use (ie. ammonia/fertilizer
    production), but not for power plants

Oxy-fuel combustion
  • Still at testing phase
  • Goal of process to establish more concentrated
    stream of CO2
  • Uses O2 for combustion to produce water vapour
    and CO2 (in higher concentrations)
  • Water vapour removed by cooling compression
  • May require further processes to remove all
    pollutants and gases from CO2 before it goes to

CCS Transportation Storage
Fig. 2. Three main steps for CCS to avoid CO2
release to the atmosphere 10.
CO2 Storage
  • Need locations with sufficient capacity
  • 3 possible locations
  • Gas or oil fields (operational or depleted)
  • Deep saline aquifers (porous rock formations such
    as sandstone or limestone)
  • Unmineable coal beds (least researched option)

Storage Potential
  • Gas/oil fields
  • European capacities (14.5 billion tonnes
    offshore, 13.1 billion tonnes onshore)
  • North Sea 25-year estimates (200 million to 1.8
    billion tonnes)
  • Aquifers
  • Capacity in 8 EU countries (80 to 100 billion
  • Unmineable coal beds
  • To be determined (still in development)

Other Potential Benefits
  • Gas/oil fields
  • Improve recovery of oil and gas by 4 to 20
  • Unmineable coal seams
  • Enhanced Coal Bed Methane projects can displace
    N2 and CH4 enhances coal production

CCS Long-Term
  • With growing consumption in China and India, coal
    will account for 22 of world energy mix in 2030
    (IEA World Energy Outlook 2004)
  • Although much uncertainty and debate, scenarios
    predict 2,000,000 Mt CO2 reduction during the
    century (sufficient storage capacity available)
  • Additional electricity costs (0.01-0.05 per kWh)
    and carbon mitigation costs (25-30/t CO2)
  • Higher than cost of energy efficiency and non-CO2
    GHG reductions, but significantly lower than most
    renewable options

CCS The impact
  • Assumes a package of many GHG emission reduction
  • Also assumes that technology can be made
    available in a timely manner and costs can be
    reduced to attract investment
  • To 2100
  • 15 to 55 of total emission reductions
  • Reduce overall mitigation costs by 30 vs.
    non-CCS portfolio of options

CCS One Part of Larger Process For
Zero-Emissions Power Plant
  • Co-utilisation with biomass and wastes
  • Process efficiency improvements
  • Development of new technologies (eg. gas and
    steam turbines)
  • Hydrogen toward a more diverse transport fuel
    system and power production system

Issues for R,D D
  • CO2 capture
  • Cost of CCS process
  • Increasing scale of installations for
    demonstration and commercial use
  • Operational reliability and commercial viability
  • CO2 transport and infrastructure
  • Development of transport options for range of
  • Impact of new infrastructure on the environment
  • CO2 storage
  • Identify criteria for selection of suitable
    storage sites, proper operating conditions and
    methods of injection site closure

Moving Forward
  • European Commission
  • Technology Platform for Zero Emissions Fossil
    Fuel Power Plants integrated strategy for
    zero-emission plants by 2020
  • Strategic Deployment Document roadmap with
    interim targets for market place deployment
  • EU industry
  • Large scale demonstration for CO2 scrubbing
    technology (Post-combustion capture)
  • Pilot plant for CO2 brown coal power station
    using oxy-fuel combustion process
  • Target of 2015 or 2020 for use of these power

BOOK REVIEW - Sustainable Fossil Fuels Mark
Jaccard (SFU)
Sustainable Fossil Fuels Mark Jaccard
  • Jaccard for many years, strong proponent of
    renewable energy, energy conservation and nuclear
  • Upon further review, he questions the premise of
    the demise of the fossil fuel era
  • flaws in arguments, assumptions and facts
  • sufficient fossil fuels for next century and
  • In the short term, renewables, energy
    conservation and nuclear wont have enough impact
    to be the complete solution
  • Balancing the mix with fossil fuels will allow
    for proper development of these other resources
  • may further stress the environment, but not to
    the point of collapse

Questions to Ponder
  • Are clean fossil fuels a credible option?
  • Reliability of CO2 capture, transport storage
  • Timeframes for technology implementation
  • Renewables the ultimate green solution?
  • Land use issues
  • Life-cycle analyses
  • Is there a proper balance between fossil fuels
    and renewables?