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Language and Culture Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 Sociolinguistics, Language and Culture

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Title: Language and Culture Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 Sociolinguistics, Language and Culture


1
Language and CultureProf. R. Hickey SS 2006
Sociolinguistics, Language and Culture
Nadine Bieniek (Hauptstudium LN)Alina Biesenbaum
(Grundstudium LN)Maike Ebert (Grundstudium
TN)Katharina Kraatz (Grundstudium TN)Lukas Rott
Magdalena Szuber (ECTS Punkte)Anna Zagermann
(Grundstudium TN)Jessica Zeltner (Hauptstudium
LN)
2
Content
  • 1. Standard Languages and Linguistic Engineering
  • 2. Building National Identities
  • 3. Language and Social Position Social
    Inequality
  • 4. Social Deixis
  • 5. Social Markers
  • 6. Non-verbal communication
  • 7. Expressive movements between cultures
  • 8. Human Rituals

3
1. Standard Languages and Linguistic
EngineeringThe Concept of the Nation-State and
the National Language
  • Magdalena Szuber

4
The notion of a nation state
  • A result of economic and political developments
    in the 19th century, particularly the French and
    industrial revolutions, and from these via
    education of elites diffused throughout the
    world.

5
The notion of a nation state
  • Shift of political communities from Gemeinschaft
    community
  • signifying relationships based on likeness,
    shared properties of kinship and descent or
    locality, e.g. home, farm, village
  • to Gesellschaft association
  • people of different backgrounds engaging in
    contracts of association and exchange, e.g.
    larger cities or industrial units as is clearly
    modern nation-state. (Toennis, 1955)
  • In this sense the nation-state is an imagined
    community, basis of which (or a powerful force
    for its forming) is a shared, mostly standard,
    national language.

6
The notion of a nation state
  • Forces producing and molding standard national
    languages are various, but revolve mainly around
    politics and economy.
  • Standard national language is likely to reflect
    the speech of nations elite.

7
The Development of Standard English
8
The Development of Standard English
  • The idea of a standard English emerged in the
    London area, center of trade and commerce, around
    the 14th century English spoken in 4 main
    dialect groupings
  • Northern, above the Humber River
  • Midland, north of the Thames and Avon rivers,
    south of Humber
  • Southern, south of the Avon and Thames rivers,
    west of London
  • Kentish, south of the Thames River, mainly east
    of London

9
The Development of Standard English
  • The Dialect of English spoken in London has
    always been gradually seen as prestigious
    throughout the whole country
  • 14th century - the Southern dialect
  • 15th century - the East Midland dialect (The
    Black Death, William Caxton)
  • 16th century - the Northern dialect (wool trade
    manufacture)
  • 16th/17th century literacy solidifies position of
    the prestigious London dialect,
  • late 18th century - the rise of a nation-state
    ideology mounts full-scale attack on the minority
    languages of the British Isles

10
The Development of Standard English
  • Late 18th century - the rise of a nation-state
    ideology mounts full-scale attack on the minority
    languages of the British Isles
  • Unified British nation and people required
    acceptance of all of a standard British language
  • Spelling standardized, stigmatizing certain
    variant forms (development of prescriptive
    grammars and dictionaries)
  • The end result Standard English we know today

11
Language standardization
  • Countrys economic and political power
    centralized
  • Standard likely to be based on speech of the
    higher social strata, the elite
  • Literate forms and cultural activities

12
Dutch as a Standard Language
  • Two different stories - Belgium and the
    Netherlands

13
Standard Dutch of Belgium and the Netherlands
  • In Belgium Dutch is one of the two official
    languages. Originally modern Belgium and the
    Netherlands spoke regional dialects of Dutch.
  • 17th century revolt against Habsburg rule
    produce a new standard of the independent
    northern provinces (The Netherlands), based on
    the language of Amsterdam. Amsterdam cultural
    and scientific center
  • The developments in Belgium differ.

14
Standard Dutch of Belgium and the Netherlands
  • Habsburg hegemony in Belgium continued until the
    19th century, when the Kingdom of Belgium
    emerged.
  • French was than an prestigious language of courts
    from Paris to Moscow, also bulk of elite in
    Belgium.
  • Farmers and laboring classes continued to speak
    regional Dutch dialects.
  • Dutch received an official status in Belgium only
    in 1938. Belgian Dutch has never been officially
    recognized.
  • Real economic power lies in the hands of French
    speakers (Brussels and the European Union).

15
Standard Languages in Norway
16
Standard Languages in Norway
  • Story reflects the Romantic idea that nations
    unique identity and distinctive national language
    are closely intertwined.
  • From 15th century until 1814, Norway was ruled by
    Denmark
  • official language Danish. When Norway regained
    its independence in 1814, there was no Standard
    Norwegian.
  • Two Standard languages emerge.

17
Standard Languages in Norway
  • Bokmal, the book language,
  • developed on the basis of speech of the urban
    elite, but influenced by the language of the
    enemy Danish.
  • Nynorsk, the new Norwegian
  • A school teacher Ivar Aasen introduces new
    standard, based on the rural western Norwegian
    dialects, which have had least Danish influence.

18
Conclusion
  • Language Standardization is primarily a
    political and economic process
  • Significant role of ideologies of statehood and
    nationalism

19
2. Building National Identities
  • Alina Biesenbaum

20
Building National Identities
  • The concepts of nation and state
  • State any region governed under a central
    administration with its own legal and political
    institutions, and seperated by the administration
    from surrounding regions.
  • Nation community of people who see themselves as
    an ethnic and cultural unit, and contrast with
    other communities of people surrounding them.

21
Asia and Africa
  • are multiethnic and multilingual
  • problems of developing a standart language
  • constructing a standart language is seen as an
    intrinsic part of building a modern nation-state
  • one nation, one people, one language

22
Asia and Africa
  • citizens are often divided by tribe, race,
    region, custom, religion and language
  • therefore struggles may arise ( conflict between
    Bantu and Nilotic tribes in 1970s and 1980s)
  • conflicts can lead to a collapse of the
    nation-state

23
Asia and Africa
  • according to Geertz conflicts are a result of
    integrative failure
  • important to bind people together into a state
  • centralization of a national media, national
    school curricula, national governmental
    bureaucracy

24
Asia and Africa
  • one of the major conflicts today is the struggle
    of communities (nations) to become states (Kurds)
  • ex colonies they are states struggling to be
    nations

25
Standard language and Elite Hegemony
  • common identity of citizens same national
    language
  • official languages are necessary for the
    functioning of the state and its central
    institutions
  • many ex-colonies have chosen English or French to
    be their national language

26
2 main reasons for this situation
  • 1. countries are highly multilingual
  • 2. prior to independence, the political and
    economic elite were educated in the colonial
    languages
  • good and active control of these languages is
    essential to gaining access to power and prestige

27
Forging a Standard language- the case of
Indonesian
  • not all ex-colonies have adopted French or
    English
  • Indonesia and Tanzania have raised regional
    languages to the status of official national
    languages
  • Indonesia multiethnic, multilingual (over 300
    languages)

28
The Malay language
  • Malay language of trade, also used by the Dutch
  • in 1928 Malay was claimed as official national
    language

29
The Malay language
  • colloquial
  • aku tanam sayur di kabun
  • I plant vegetables in garden
  • standart
  • saya men-(t) anam-i kebun dengun
  • I plant garden with
  • sayur
  • vegetables
  • prefix men- indicates active voice
  • suffix i indicates that direct object is a
    location

30
The Malay language
  • the colloquial varities employ word order to
    signal grammatical functions and are
    morphologically unelaborated
  • Standart Indonesian makes use of derivational
    morphology

31
Modernization in Language Standardization
  • standard Indonesian is under pressure to
    modernize
  • lack of words for concepts and practices
    connected with the modern world of technology,
    bureaucracy, economy

32
Modernization in Language Standardization
  • In coining new words for modern concepts,
    language planners look
  • 1.for sources in Indonesian languages,
  • 2. Sanskrit,
  • 3. Indic languages,
  • 4. European languages (English)

33
Modernization in Language Standardization
  • antropologi anthropology
  • kwalitet - quality
  • rasionalisasi rationalization
  • politik - politics
  • demokrasi - democracy
  • In the field of politics, economies, technology
    the words are borrowed from the English language

34
Conclusion
35
3. Language and Social Position Social Inequality
  • Jessica Zeltner

36
Contents Language and Social Position
  • Social Inequality Class, Power, and Prestige
  • Social Roles
  • Other Types of Social Structure
  • Conclusion
  • References

37
Social Inequality Class, Power, and Prestige
Sociolinguistics deals with the
inter-relationships between language and society.
It has strong connections to sociology,
through the crucial role that language plays in
the organization of social groups and
institutions. (Yule 1996 239)

38
Social Inequality Class, Power, and Prestige
  • Social Stratification
  • the arrangement of any social group or society
    into a hierarchy of positions that are unequal
    with regard to power, property, social evaluation
    (Tumin 1967 12)
  • Power
  • The ability to realize ones wants and interests
    even against resistance (according to Max Weber
    1972)

39
Social Inequality Class, Power, and Prestige
  • Class
  • defined by occupation and educational level
  • people behave in ways appropriate to their class
    position
  • Class System
  • positions people so that access to scarce
    goods is either given or denied

40
Social Inequality Class, Power, and Prestige
  • Conflicts of interests higher vs. lower class
  • Social Classes aggregates of people who have
    similar overall positions in the economic system
    (Foley 1997 308)
  • indicators occupation, educational level

41
Social Inequality Class, Power, and Prestige
  • Status
  • the hierarchical ranking of individuals along a
    dimension of social prestige, which leads to
    differentials in power and access to scarce
    goods (according to Weber)

42
Social Inequality Class, Power, and Prestige
  • Criteria of Status
  • inferior / superior
  • Status entitlements are not fixed
  • determined by occupation and educational
    background
  • deference / avoidance
  • hierarchy

43
Social Roles
  • Criteria of Roles
  • particular attitudes and practices
  • Influenced by class position and education
  • different contexts - different behavior

44
Social Roles
  • Criteria of Roles
  • actors take on roles
  • different roles differing status entitlements
  • asymmetrical power

45
Social Roles
  • Criteria of Roles
  • expectations
  • asymmetry of power - strictness of roles
  • specific code of behavior styles of language
  • highly pervasive roles

46
Social Roles
  • Society
  • network of fields of conventionalized
    interactive relationships of differential power,
    reward, and prestige (Foley 1997 311)

47
Other Types of Societies
  • Caste Society
  • indicator birth
  • no alteration
  • multidimensional
  • hierarchical

48
Other Types of Societies
  • Age Set Society
  • biological features
  • hierarchy structured by age age grades
  • political power the eldest
  • younger must defer to older
  • alteration by aging

49
Conclusion
  1. Societies are structured in various ways
  2. Most common way in Western Societies class
    system
  3. Social roles are linked to concept of class and
    status
  4. Languages have various ways to indicate social
    class, status and roles

50
4. Social Deixis
  • Maike Ebert

51
Contents Social Deixis
  • T/V Phenomenon
  • Example Japanese
  • Example Javanese
  • Conclusion
  • References

52
T/V Phenomenon
  • described by Brown and Gilman
  • best known type of social deixis
  • refers to the phenomenon that in almost every
    European language but also elsewhere
    second-person singular pronouns are used


53
T/V Phenomenon
  • T from Latin tu, V from Latin vos
  • T form ? informal
  • V form ? formal
  • Two dimensions how to use the forms
  • Power
  • Solidarity

54
T/V Phenomenon
  • Dimension of Power
  • One has power over another to degree to which one
    can control or influence the behaviour of another
  • Asymmetrical
  • V form
  • Inferior uses V form, Superior T form
  • Expl. Teacher Pupil
  • Employer Employee

55
T/V Phenomenon
  • Dimension of Solidarity
  • No asymmetry of power
  • Related to social roles
  • Two types 1. equal and solidary ? T form
  • 2. equal and not solidary
    ? V form

56
Japanese
  • Special class of words or grammatical morphemes,
    whose sole function is to indicate social deixis
    among the interlocutors or the referent of some
    participant in the utterance.
  • These grammatical units are called honorifics

57
Japanese
  • Boku kare ni au yo
  • I he meet
  • DAT
  • Ill meet him
  • T form

58
Japanese
  • Watakushi kare ni aimas u
  • I he meet
  • DAT
  • Ill meet him
  • V form
  • I changes in V form (boku ? watakushi)
  • Mas is added (au ? aimas)

59
Japanese
  • Referent honorifics
  • -Deference is accorded by the speaker to the
    referent of a nominal participant in her
    utterance
  • Neutral, non-deferential form, used to a solidary
    or inferior addressee
  • Sakai drew a map for Suzuki

60
Japanese
  • 2. Both are equal to the speaker
  • Mr Sakai drew a map for Mr Suzuki
  • 3. Speaker is considerably lower in status than
    Sakai, special subject honorific forms must be
    used to indicate the relative high status
    entitlement
  • Mr Sakai came to draw a map for Mr Suzuki
  • 4. Significant status differential between Sakai
    and Suzuki
  • ? Mr Sakai did the drawing of a map for Mr Suzuki

61
Javanese
  • Most complex systems of honorifics, humbling,
    expressions and polite speech form indicating
    deference to the addressee
  • Two speech levels which exemplify lexical items
    for most items of basic vocabulary
  • Ngoko ? T form
  • Krama ? V form

62
Javanese
  • Ngoko apa kowé njupuk sega semono
  • Krama menapa panjenengan mendhet sekul semanten
  • ? Will you take that much rice?

63
Javanese
  • Madya
  • Middle language
  • Small vocabulary
  • Disliked by nobility
  • Used by speakers that cant speak krama
  • Krama-speakers mainly use it as an outgroup code

64
Javanese
  • Napa sempéyan mendhet sekul semonten
  • njupuk sega
  • Will you take that much rice?
  • Mixed form of both languages

65
Conclusion
66
5. Social Markers
  • Lukas Rott

67
Contents
  • 1. Sociolinguistic Variables
  • 2. Code Switching
  • 3. Social Markers and Ethnicity

68
Sociolinguistic Variables
  • Definition
  • - indexical linguistic feature present in most,
    if not all, languages

69
Sociolinguistic Variables
  • A linguistic feature that shows statistically
    significant variation along the lines of social
    variables (class, age, sex)
  • - Most commonly involves phonological variation,
    but can involve any linguistic feature.

70
Example
  • Labov investigated differences in the phonetic
    realization of the phoneme /r/ in postvocalic
    position among speakers of New York City English
  • - two different realizations
  • a) retroflection of the vowel /r/ -ed variety
  • b) phoneme r is absent /r/ -less variety
  • After World War II the first realization became
    the standard pronunciation

71
Example
  • Labovs research in three different New York City
    department stores revealed that higher-class
    speakers tend to pronounce the postvocalic /r/
  • lower- and working-class New Yorkers often leave
    out the /r/ in postvocalic position

72
Code Switching
  • Code Switching is the shifting from one language
    or variety of language to another in the course
    of verbal interaction.

73
Example
  • Almost all adults in Yimas village (Papua New
    Guinea) are bilingual.
  • They speak
  • a) Tok Pisin The major lingua franca of Papua
    New Guinea
  • ? is used for political affairs, means
    modernity, lacks intimacy, can show superiority
  • b) Yimas vernacular carries social connotations
    of traditional cultural patterns, intimate
    relations and local conditions
  • ? shows solidarity, belonging

74
Diglossia
  • Diglossia is a language situation in which there
    is, in addition to the primary dialect of the
    language, a very divergent and extremely codified
    variety, which is learned in formal education and
    is only used for written and formal spoken
    purposes. It is basically the result of an early
    codification of a language.

75
Example
  • In Cairo there are two different varieties of the
    Arabic language
  • - Classical Arabic of the Koran ? prestigious
    variety, predominantly a written language
  • - Colloquial Arabic ? predominantly an oral
    language, comprises several mutually
    unintelligible languages

76
Social Markers and Ethnicity
  • There is a strong relation between ethnicity/race
    and language in many societies.
  • Code switching is very popular among the
    different ethnic groups in hybrid countries
  • ? use of a shared local ethnic language is a
    claim to solidarity

77
Example
  • Vernacular Black English is very different from
    Standard American English
  • - pronunciation is different in many cases
    (postvocalic /r/)
  • - grammatical differences ( 3rd pers. sg.
    present)
  • - different speech genres and styles of speaking

78
Conclusion
  • Languages have social markers forms that differ
    according to the social category one belongs to.
  •  
  • Good examples of social markers are
    sociolinguistic variables, which is e.g. the
    difference in pronunciation of postvocalic /r/
    among New Yorkers of different social classes.
  •  
  • Other social markers are code switching and
    diglossia in which languages or varieties of
    languages are shifted to index categories of
    status or solidarity
  •  
  • People of different ethnicities and races tend to
    talk differently because they want to label
    social identity.

79
6. Non-verbal communication
  • Katharina Kraatz

80
Main non-verbal signals
  • Bodily contact
  • like hitting, pushing, stroking
  • involves a variety of areas of the body
  • extend depends on culture
  • Proximity
  • how close people sit or stand
  • reflects relation between people

81
Main non-verbal signals
  • Orientation
  • angle at which people sit or stand to each other
  • varies with the nature of the situation
  • side-by-side position (cooperative
    situations/close friends)
  • head-on position (confronting/bargaining)
  • Appearance
  • 1. clothes, hair, skin ? under voluntary control
  • 2. physique and bodily condition ? only
    partly under control
  • purpose of manipulating appearance is
    self-presentation
  • conveys information about personality and mood

82
Main non-verbal signals
  • Posture
  • way of lying, standing, sitting
  • are culturally defined
  • conventions about posture have to be adopted in
    certain situations (e.g. church)
  • it can be a signal for status (upright posture),
    varies with emotional state (tense- relax)
  • is less well controlled than facial expression

83
Main non-verbal signals
  • Head- nods
  • connection with speech
  • usually a reinforcer (e.g. permission to speak)
  • Facial expression
  • cultural universal and independent of learning
    (e.g. smiling)
  • some aspects are hard to control (e.g. expansion
    of the pupils)
  • used in close combination with speech

84
Main non-verbal signals
  • Gestures
  • movements of the hands
  • more expressive than movements of head or body
  • close connection with speech (e.g. illustrates)
  • can even replace speech gesture languages
  • Looking
  • people look about twice as much while listening
    as while speaking
  • looking sends a signal of interest
  • amount of looking seems to be a signal for
    intimacy
  • used to obtain information feed-back while
    talking, extra information while listening

85
Non- verbal aspects of speech
  • paralinguistic signals emotions expressed by
    tone of voice group membership expressed by
    accent, personality characteristics expressed by
    voice quality, speech errors, etc.
  • not closely linked with language

86
Functions of non-verbal communication
  • to communicate attitudes and emotions, to manage
    the immediate social situation
  • ? cultural variations in the signals used and
    situational rules governing their use
  • to support and complement verbal communication
  • ? coordinated with speech in a complex way
  • developed to replace verbal language

87
Sources of variations in non-verbal communication
  • there are different rules of behaviour in
    different situations
  • leads to different patterns of non-verbal
  • communication
  • different forms of groups
  • family intimacy, dependence, aggressions,
    affections ? more bodily contact less formality
    and politeness
  • work-groups bodily contact ?helping gesture
    language ? where noise or distance prevents
    speech facial expressions? work performance
  • friendship- groups more self-presentation and
    attention to appearance behaviour is more polite

88
Conclusion
89
7. Expressive movements between cultures
  • Nadine Bieniek

90
Similarities
  • Smiling
  • Crying
  • Laughing

91
Similarities
  • Greeting
  • Smiling
  • Nodding
  • Raising eyebrows for 1/6th second (if friendly)
  • Signals readiness for contact

92
Similarities
  • Eyebrowflash
  • ? greeting
  • ? flirting
  • ? approving
  • ? thanking
  • ? emphasizing a statement
  • ? seeking information

93
Similarities
  • Coyness / embarrasment / flirting
  • hiding the face/mouth behind one hand
  • ? especially young children and flirting girls

94
Differences
  • Yes no
  • Central European
  • yes ? nodding the head
  • no ? shaking the head

95
Differences
  • Ceylonese
  • factual question (Do you drink coffee?)
  • yes ? nodding the head
  • agreement to do something (Will you join me for
    a cup of coffee?)
  • yes ? swaying the head in slow sideway
    movements
  • no ? shaking the head

96
Differences
  • Greece
  • yes ? nodding the head
  • no ? jerking the head back, thus lifting the
    face

97
Differences
  • Darwin
  • suggested that shaking the head originated from
    food-refusal
  • when a baby is satiated it refuses the breast by
    turning ist head away
  • even deaf- and blind-born children refuse food
    in the same pattern

98
Conclusion
  • patterns of non-verbal communication similary in
    different cultures
  • non-verbal communication can lead to
    misunderstanding
  • Patterns of non-verbal communication are inborn

99
8. Human Rituals
  • Anna Zagermann

100
Human Rituals
  • Definition
  • situation in which an individual actor puts on a
    performance
  • performance consits of symbolic actions
  • showing mutual statuses in relation to other
    persons/parties

101
Human Rituals
  • cultural traditions
  • characteristics of a certain group
  • take place within a cultural context
  • not an innate process
  • if you want to be part of a society you
  • have to learn the rituals

102
Why Rituals?
  • rituals in humans and animals life
  • strategy to survive
  • individual wants that the society of which
  • it is part continues
  • to define ist own group

103
Examples
Prayer Hinduism
104
Examples
Salutations
105
Problem of Rituals
  • problem of interpretation
  • context of action
  • Private Arena
  • Public Arena
  • each code used in a ritual is unique

106
Conclusion
107
References
  • Foley, William 1997 Anthropological Linguistics.
    An Introduction. OxfordBlackwell
  • Tumin, Melvin M. 1967 Social Stratification. The
    Forms and Functions of Inequality. Englewood
    Cliffs Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • Weber, Max 1972 Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft
    Grundrisse der verstehenden Soziologie Tübingen
  • Yule, George 1996 The Study of Language.
    Cambridge CUP
  • Hinde, R.A. 1972 Non-Verbal Communication.Cambrid
    ge University Press.Cambridge
  • http//www.harekrsna.com/practice/sadhana/morning/
    mangala-arati/mangala-arati.htm
  • http//de.wikipedia.org/wiki/GruC39F
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