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????????%20?????????%20?????????%20Integrated%20Digital%20Organization

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Title: ????????%20?????????%20?????????%20Integrated%20Digital%20Organization


1
???????? ????????? ?????????Integrated Digital
Organization
  • Dr. Mahmoud ElDessouky
  • Automation Consultants, President

2
Index
  • 1. ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
  • 2. ????? ??????? ???????
  • (2.1) IT Infrastructure
  • (2.1.1) Business Process Management (BPM)
  • (2.1.2) Total Business Integration TBI
  • (2.1.3) EDI Electronic Data Interchange
  • (2.1.4) Workflow Support
  • (2.1.5) Security
  • (2.2) Reengineering- ????? ????? ???????
  • (2.3) Achieving IS Strategic Planning
  • (2.3.1) Top 20 Strategic IS Issues
  • (2.3.2) Achieving IS Strategic Planning
  • (2.3.3) Contents of an IS Strategic Plan
  • (2.3.4) Strategy via the Value Chain
  • (2.3.5) Strategy via Strategic Thrusts
  • (2.3.6) Typical IS Budget
  • (2.3.7) Steps in the IS Strategic Planning
    Process
  • (2.4) e-Business
  • (2.4.1) Common misunderstanding and mistakes
  • (2.4.2) The Customer is Central
  • (2.4.3) Electronifying Business Processes
  • )2.5) HR Development
  • )2.5.1) The Classification of TD Objective
  • (2.5.2) The TD Model Application
  • (2.5.3) e-Learning
  • (2.5.4) e-Learning Application Infrastructure

3
1- ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
4
1- ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
(MIT Research Report)
  • ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ??????
    ???????? ??????? ??? ??? 1995 ?? ???? ???? ????
    ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????????
    ????????? ??????????.
  • ?? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????
    ?????????.

5
1- ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
  • ???? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????????
    ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????? ???? ????
    ??????? ???????
  • (1-1) ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????
    ?????????.
  • (1-2) ???? ????? ?????? ??????.
  • (1-3) ????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????
    ???????.
  • (1-4) ????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ??????.
  • (1-5) ????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???????.
  • (1-6) ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ??
    ????????.
  • (1-7) ????????? ?????? ?? ???????.

6
1- ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
  • (1.1) A policy of free information access and
    communication
  • Encourage open information access to internet and
    external documents throughout the organization.
  • Use technology to foster vertical communication
    between employees and their managers.
  • Do not put restrictions on Internet access for
    employees.

7
1- ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
  • (1.2) Distributed decision rights and empowerment
    of line workers
  • More decentralization and delegation when it
    comes to choosing which tasks to do, the methods
    to do them, the pace of work and the allocation
    of tasks.
  • More standard procedures embedded in technology
    allowing employees to work with less direct
    supervision.
  • Technology adopters tend to use more
    self-managing teams.

8
1- ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
  • (1.3) Strong performance-linked incentives
  • More incentive pay, linked to individual
    performance.
  • Somewhat more likely to use stock options for a
    broader set of employees.
  • (1.4) Active investment in corporate culture
  • Take corporate culture seriously and actively
    invest in promoting culture.

9
1- ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
  • (1.5) Communication of strategic goals and
    corporate focus
  • Communicate strategic and financial goals
    throughout organization regularly.
  • More likely to weed out marginal or non-core
    products and services, maintaining their
    corporate focus.

10
1- ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
  • (1.6) An emphasis on recruiting and hiring
    top-quality employees and willingness to commit
    resources to the process
  • Executives more involved in recruiting.
  • More likely to new employees on a variety of
    criteria including education, analytical skills,
    computer skills.
  • Somewhat more likely to screen for interpersonal
    skills and for fit with the corporate culture.

11
1- ????? ??????? ??????? ???????
  • (1.7) Heavy upfront and continuing investment in
    "human capital," including training, once
    employees are hired
  • Hire highly educated employees.
  • Provide training for a larger percentage of
    employees once they are hired.
  • Do more online training e-training.

12
2- ????? ??????? ??????? Integrated Digital
Organization
13
2- ????? ??????? ???????
14
2- ????? ??????? ???????
(2.1) IT Infrastructure
  • Infrastructure is the great invisible enabler.
    Servers, software, middleware, routers, storage,
    .
  • It is .. end-to-end
  • .. Top-to-bottom
  • Today it reaches from cell phones to mainframes,
    from smart cards to databases, ..

15
2- ????? ??????? ???????
Infrastructure Definition as recently updated
16
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Infrastructure is a technology issue, but it is
    also a strategic issue, a customer-service issue,
    a sales issue, a supply chain issue, .
  • The Computer ? The Infrastructure
  • Plan, design, back-up, manage, .

17
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Openness
  • Every step of Infrastructure development includes
    a choice going with a proprietary solution or a
    solution built on open industry standards.
  • Open standards give the flexibility to change
    technology as business changes. To integrate
    internally and with other partners.
  • Open industry standards
  • TCP/IP
  • XML

18
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Linux (Linus Torvalds, University of Helsinki,
    Finland).
  • Linux is a disruptive technology.
  • Linux has clearly moved beyond the days of
    experimentation.
  • Linux is the future of e-business.
  • Linux may be used for a variety of purposes
    networking, software development, and an end-user
    platform.
  • Linux has a lot to offer
  • Support for multiple platforms.
  • Access to source code
  • According to IDC, Linux is the worlds
    fastest-growing server operating system and is
    projected to have 38 of the server OS by 2004.

19
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • IBM considered Linux as a pillar of e-Business.
  • IBM is investing 1 billion in Linux and has
    dedicated 1500 programmers to enable every IBM
    H/W and S/W product for Linux.

20
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • End-To-End capabilities
  • in two years!
  • More people own mobile phones than own PCs.
  • 25 of the workforce will be mobile.
  • The primary source of contact with the Internet
    will be a mobile device.

21
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • An explosion
  • 10 times as many connected people.
  • 100 times more network speed.
  • 1000 times as many devices.
  • 1000000 times as much data.
  • The infrastructure is going to have to get a lot
    more automatic, more self-managing ? it have to
    be end-to-end.
  • The workload is going to be done by data
    transactions and Web Servers, by middleware, by
    storage devices.
  • More and more, some of the work is going to be
    managed in the network itself.

22
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Servers are the heart.
  • Software is the infrastructure
  • Middleware S/W.
  • Data management S/W.
  • Enterprise S/W.
  • Collaboration S/W.
  • Storage
  • Kilo, Mega, Gega, Tera, .. .. Exabyte
  • 103 106 109 1012 . .. 1018
  • Network Attached Storage (NAS).
  • Storage Area Networks (SAN).

23
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Outsourcing
  • Soon, the time and resources we focus on building
    and managing the IT and applications will be
    redirected toward advancing it.
  • Get the IT you need on a pay-per usage basis.
    e-Sourcing.

24
2- ????? ??????? ???????
Infrastructure Evolution
Stage 3 Dynamic e-Business Stage 2 Integrated e-Business Stage 1 e-Business Stage of Evolution
Virtual corporation Advanced e-Business e-Business The Business Model
Self-healing infrastructure e-Business infrastructure Web infrastructure The technology Model you build
Business process outsourcing e-Sourcing Web hosting The technology model you buy
25
2- ????? ??????? ???????
26
2- ????? ??????? ???????
(2.1.1) Business Process Management (BPM)
BPMI.org
  • Mission
  • Empowers companies of all sizes, across all
    industries, to develop and operate business
    processes that span multiple applications and
    business partners, behind the firewall and over
    the internet.
  • Promote and develop the use of BPM through the
    establishment of standards for process design,
    deployment, execution, maintenance, and
    optimization.
  • BPMI.org develops open specs, assists IT vendors
    for marketing their implementations, and supports
    businesses for using BPM technologies.

27
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Context
  • On the back-end
  • Technology Integration standards such as XML
    schema, SOAP, and J2EE enable the convergence of
    legacy infrastructures toward process-oriented
    enterprise computing.
  • On the front-end
  • Emerging protocols such as ebXML, RosettaNet, and
    BizTalk support the process-level collaboration
    among business partners.

28
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • BMPI.org defines open specs such as
  • The Business Process Modeling Language (BPML).
  • The Business Process Query Language (BPQL).
  • Scope
  • BPMI.org considers an e-Business process
    conducted among two business partners as made of
    3 parts
  • A public Interface and two private
    Implementations (one for each partner).
  • The public Interface is common to the partners
    and is supported by protocols such as ebXML,
    RosettaNet, and BizTalk.

29
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • The private implementations are specific to every
    partner and are described in any executable
    language. BPML is one of such languages.
  • BPMI.org defines
  • BPQL a standard management interface for the
    deployment and execution of processes. BPQL
    relies on UDDI in order to provide a standard way
    to register, advertise,

30
2- ????? ??????? ???????
31
2- ????? ??????? ???????
32
2- ????? ??????? ???????
33
2- ????? ??????? ???????
(2.1.2) Total Business Integration TBI
  • Software integration has become a critical
    strategic component of business success.
  • S/W integration
  • within the walls of the company
  • extending outside to customers partners.
  • Define Business Processes that drive interactions
    between systems.
  • Utilizing Business Process Management BPM
    concepts for S/W Integration.

34
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • BPM separates business flow control from the
    business logic that implements a specific
    functions.
  • The flow is externalized and centrally defined.
  • The convergence of BPM and Integration Technology
    is called TBI.

35
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • TBI is the integration of applications and
    processes among organizations, regardless of
    their IT infrastructure.
  • TBI is the solution companies need to solve
    problems like exchanging electronic documents
    with business partners or enabling legacy systems
    to interface with new web applications.
  • TBI provides comprehensive application access
    and connectively of businesses to other
    businesses.

36
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • The technology for TBI
  • Integration Software Middleware.
  • TBI S/W must include synchronous and asynchronous
    platform-to-platform and application-to-applicatio
    n integration capabilities such as the following
  • Communication via Remote Procedure Call (RPC),
    messaging, request/reply, ..
  • Application converters and adaptors.
  • Data translation and transformation, as well as
    intelligent routing.
  • Graphical user tools for developing solutions.
  • BPM support.
  • Administration tools.
  • Security.

37
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • XML A key component of TBI Software
  • XML-based services and tools are the building
    blocks for integrating any organization with any
    other.

38
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • The Services Perspective
  • Gradual Transition of the exiting application
    architecture to a services-oriented architecture.
  • TBI necessitates this architecture shift in order
    to eliminate redundancy, promote reusability,
    reduce complexity, and remove the need for
    customer integration programming.
  • Start by decomposing applications into services
    available on the network.

39
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • An application is broken up into smaller,
    fine-grained services. These services are the
    business functions encapsulated as S/W.
  • TBI S/W suite provides the tools that enable
    applications to request services and for the
    services to communicate.
  • Make the services available as a web service.

40
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Based on XML, the emerging Web services standards
    include
  • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), an
    XML-based Envelope format for messages.
  • UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and
    Integration), a common way of accessing
    directories of web service providers in a common
    format.
  • WSDL (Web Services Description Language)
    describes the capabilities offered by Web
    services and can be part of the information
    stored in a UDDI repository.

41
2- ????? ??????? ???????
A Web Services Example
Logistics Company
Bank
Web Service Shipping Order
CORBA
COM
Web Service Credit Card Check
SOAP
SOAP
Internet
SOAP
Shop Application
RPC
Web Service Order Fulfillment
e-Trader
Supplier
42
2- ????? ??????? ???????
S/W Components
Enterprise Systems ERP CRM Mainframe Applicati
ons Other Applications Databases
Files Other Technologies
B2B Channels
Process Engines
Orchestrator
XML Mediator
Web/App Server
Adapters for Enterprise Systems
App Server Adapters
Communicator
Platforms OS/390, VSE, BS2000, OS/400, OpenVMS,
Unix, Windows
43
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Communicator
  • Communication broker supporting simultaneous
    request and reply messages.
  • Managing interactions for tightly coupled
    XML-enabled and non-XML-enabled systems.
  • Orchestrator
  • Integration broker that enables to connect
    multiple disparate backend applications and data
    sources.
  • Automate information flows performing real time
    data transformation and routing based on their
    unique business rules.

44
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Adapters
  • Intelligent pre-built adapters that enable
    software integration with standard applications
    such as Siebel, SAP, Vantine.
  • Databases such as Oracle, DB2, Adabas, Tamino
    XML.
  • CICS, Websphere MQ.
  • XML Mediator
  • Manage interactions with internal and external
    partners.
  • Tools
  • Definition and maintenance of integration
    solution security and administration.

45
2- ????? ??????? ???????
46
2- ????? ??????? ???????
(2.1.3) EDI Electronic Data Interchange
(Integration between organizations)
  • EDI is the inter-organizational,
    Computer-to-computer exchange of business
    documentation in a standard, machine-processable
    format.
  • Used firstly in the Transportation Industry (late
    60s).
  • Standards ANSI ASC X12 ? X12
  • UN/EDIFACT

47
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Software
  • Reformat data from company specific arrangement
    to the standard arrangement.
  • Value Added Network.

48
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Why EDI?
  • Business Survival.
  • Cost Efficiencies.
  • Improved Internal Processes.
  • Enhanced Customer Services.
  • Better Supply Chain Management.
  • Improved Ability to Compete.

49
2- ????? ??????? ???????
Savings per Document () Document Organization
1.65 P.O HP
1.30 10.00 P.O Invoice Super Value
12.00 Various AIAG
5.00 P.O Douglas Aircraft
7.50 P.O GE
60 million a year in postage. Checks US Treasury
50
X12 Standard
2- ????? ??????? ???????
Document Standard Transaction
PO X12.1 850
PO Acknowledgement X12.9 855
Invoice X12.2 810
Remittance Advice X12.4 820
PO Change X12.15 860
51
2- ????? ??????? ???????
X12 850 Purchase Order
X12 ST8500001 BEG00NE4001921231 N1BTAl
len Manufacturing N3123 North
Street N4LargetownNY11111 N1VNBaker
Suppliers N3P.O. Box 989 N4SomewhereNY10009
N1STPlant 1 N3456 West Ave N4SmallsvilleNY
10006 PO115CA12.50VPBC436 CTT1
Corresponding Paper Format P.O. Number 4001 P.O.
Date December 31, 1992 Buyer Allen
Manufacturing 123 North Street Largetown, NY
11111 Vendor Baker Suppliers P.O. Box
989 Somewhere NY 10009 Ship to Plant 1 456 West
Ave Smallsville, NY 10006 5 cases part number
BC436 _at_12.50/cs Number of line items
52
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • The EDIFACT Standard
  • UN/EDIFACT
  • UN EDI For Administration, Commerce, and
    Transport.
  • EDI Implementation
  • Standalone.
  • Application Integration.
  • Process Reengineering.

53
2- ????? ??????? ???????
54
2- ????? ??????? ???????
55
2- ????? ??????? ???????
(2.1.4) Workflow Support (Integration within
organizations)
  • Reengineering involves radically changing the
    flow of work in a process.
  • The Workflow refers to the steps through which
    information travels from one task to another.
  • Less time, less queues, better customer service,
    less cost, better resources management, .

56
2- ????? ??????? ???????
Steps to Workflow Redesign and Implementation
  • Process Modeling and Clarification
  • Documentation of Existing Process
  • Process Implementation
  • Workflow Design
  • Workflow Implementation
  • Production Deployment
  • Process extension and Improvement

57
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • ????? ??????? (Process Modeling) ??? ???? ?????
    ????? ?????
  • ???? ??? ????? ???????.
  • ???? ??? ????? ????????.
  • ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????
    ????.
  • ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???????.
  • ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????????.
  • ??????? ?????? (Standards) ???????? ????? ??????
    ??????? ?????? ????????.

58
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????
    ??????? ???????
  • ????? ????? ???? ??? ?????.
  • ????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????
    ???????? ???.
  • ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???
    ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?????.
  • ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ???
    ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???????
    ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????
    ?? ?????.
  • ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???.
  • ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????
  • ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ??
    ????????? ???????.
  • ????? ????????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????????.

59
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????
  • ????? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??
    ????? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ????????.
  • ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????
    ????? ???? (??? ????? ???????? - ????? ??????? -
    ??????? ??????? ?? ????????.
  • ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???????.
  • ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????
  • ????? ???????? ?? (?????? ?????? ?????????? -
    ????????? ?? ????? ???????).
  • ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????
    ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????.
  • ????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??? ??????
    ????? ?????? ??????.

60
2- ????? ??????? ???????
??????? - ????? ????? ??? ????????
61
2- ????? ??????? ???????
??????? - ????? ???????
62
2- ????? ??????? ???????
?????? ???????
63
2- ????? ??????? ???????
?????? ???? ???????
64
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Workflow applies many of the same concepts and
    benefits of factory automation and industrial
    engineering to the process of work management in
    an office environment.
  • Workflow is a tool set for the proactive
    analysis, compression, and automation of
    information-based tasks and activities.
  • Workflow is used as Metric for the Re-engineering
    process Bench Marking, Simulation
    MapperExerciser.
  • A full scale re-engineering effort involves
    substantial cultural change.

65
2- ????? ??????? ???????
Workgroup Model Information Centric
66
2- ????? ??????? ???????
Workflow Model Process Centric
67
2- ????? ??????? ???????
Workers
ONE MANY
Tasks
ONE MANY
Groupware
Personal Productivity Software
Integrated Software
Workflow
68
2- ????? ??????? ???????
69
2- ????? ??????? ???????
70
2- ????? ??????? ???????
71
2- ????? ??????? ???????
The Workflow Architecture
Process Model
Case
Case
Case
Case
Folders
Rules Applications
Data
Image
DBMS
Text
72
2- ????? ??????? ???????
73
2- ????? ??????? ???????
74
2- ????? ??????? ???????
75
2- ????? ??????? ???????
(2.1.5) Security
  • A complete security approach includes
  • Authentication
  • Access control
  • Firewalls
  • OS security
  • Antivirus S/W
  • In addition to
  • Security policy
  • Education
  • Enforcement

76
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Basic Security must include Firewalls and more
    advanced tools such as intrusion detection
    systems
  • In addition, certain technologies are suitable
  • Digital certification
  • VPNs
  • Access control
  • SSL

77
2- ????? ??????? ???????
A Simple Encryption Algorithm
Algorithm
Algorithm
Plain Text
Encrypted
Plain
X
X
A
D
C
1011100101
1000101011
Key B
Key B
0011001110
0011001110
X
X
D C B A
1 1 0 1
0 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 0 1
XOR
C B A
0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
78
2- ????? ??????? ???????
Data Encryption Standard
79
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Digital Certificates
  • Are the most effective option for B2B e-commerce
    because they can be issued and administered
    remotely.
  • Certification authority (CA) issues and manages
    digital certificates for its users employees,
    partners, or customers.

80
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Digital certificates
  • Strong authentication.
  • User identity.
  • The use of digital signature which verify the
    sender of a document or a transaction
    non-repudiation.
  • Digital certificates are used to encrypt
    transmissions confidentiality.

81
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Digital signatures are unique to each message,
    document, or transaction, they also insure that
    the content being sent has not been modified in
    transit Integrity.
  • Digital signatures create a secure audit trail.

82
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Digital Certificates
  • Authentication ????????? ???????
  • Non-repudiation ????????/ ??? ???????
  • Confidentiality ????????
  • Integrity ??????? ???????
  • Audit Trail ??????? ?????????

83
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • How Digital Certificates Work
  • Data Encryption Standard (DES).
  • Public key encryption.
  • Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).
  • Each party has two keys
  • Public key.
  • Private key.
  • Public key can be widely published.

84
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Any user who wants to send an encrypted message
    to another user must know the recipients public
    key.
  • Security of private key is paramount.
  • Private keys when stored on computers must be
    heavily protected.
  • Smart cards
  • Security.
  • Portability.

85
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Digital certificates (ISO, X509) can identify
  • A person
  • An institution
  • A program
  • Or a computer
  • Digital certificates usually consist of
  • Person name
  • His public key
  • The digital signature of the organization that
    issued the certificate

86
2- ????? ??????? ???????
Distributor
Factory
  • Has a digital certificate (name, public key, and
    digital certificate of factory)
  • 1. Distributor Browser first examines Factory
    Digital Signature to verify that it is genuine
  • Issued digital certificates to all of its
    customers acting as a Certification Authority
    (CA).
  • Has a digital certificate (name, public key,
    digital signature of factory CA).
  • 2. Reviews a Certificate Revocation List (CRL).

87
2- ????? ??????? ???????
Distributor
Factory
  1. Distributor will compose the order and encrypt it
    with factory public key.
  2. The Browser creates a hash of the order and
    appends it to the order. The hash is encrypted
    by the distributor private key (Digital
    Signature).

88
2- ????? ??????? ???????
Distributor
Factory
  1. Read the order by factory private key.
  2. Generate a digital finger print (signature).
  3. Use the distributor public key to decrypt the
    digital signature.
  4. Compare the digital signature it generated to the
    one that the distributor supplied.

89
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Distributor
Factory
  • 11. Decrypt the order confirmation.
  • 9. If the two finger prints are identical, then
    Factory can be certain that the order sent by the
    distributor has not been changed in any way.
  • 10. Generate Order confirmation, encrypt by
    distributor public key.

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  • Single key encryption Both sender and recipient
    share the same key. The key must be passed
    securely.
  • The complex process is almost transparent to the
    user.

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  • The importance of directory service
  • Corporate wide meta directory to mange
    certificate requests.
  • Digital certificates are based on the ISOs X
    509v3 standard, which requires the storage of the
    certificates in an X.500 directory.
  • This unified directory becomes the basis for
    public key infrastructure PKI needed to support
    the use of digital certificates.

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  • The directory provided access to public keys and
    checks the CRL.
  • PKI can be created in house.
  • For each user two keys
  • One for digital signature
  • One for encryption

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  • PKI Products
  • Provide digital certificates by vendors.
  • Or, build its own PKI.
  • Manage lost encryption keys.
  • PKIx standards.

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(2-2) ????? ????? ??????? - Reengineering
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The Four Steps to Reengineering
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(2.3) Achieving IS Strategic Planning
(2.3.1) Top 20 Strategic IS Issues
Action Issue
Examine how the business can be changed via IS and help the business be more efficient or effective. 1. Reshape Business Processes
Have senior management incorporate IS into its strategies by making it aware of IS benefits. 2. Educate Senior Management
Work to design new systems to integrate multiple business functions (but with caution). 3. Create Cross-Functional Systems
Get IS onto the Strategic agenda and keep overall strategy and IS strategy in synch over time. 4. Align IS and Corporate Goals
Avoid shelf ware strategic plan, give serious attention to IS planning and keep the plan alive. 5. Do IS Strategic Planning
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Action Issue
Make sure productivity is a concern and can be measured and improved consider CASE and project management. 6. Boost Software productivity
Exploit hidden data, make data available to users and reduce clutter and unnecessary data collection. 7. Utilize Data More Fully
Brainstorm on how IS can be used competitively find both short-term and long-term opportunities. 8. Seek Competitive Breakthroughs
Explore centralized/decentralized/recentralized approaches consider open systems and mixtures of approaches. 9. Develop IS Architecture
Increase productivity, find economies of scale and shift services into end-user control. 10. Cut IS Costs
Do not neglect the IS labor force look at rewards and punishments and do career inspections. 11. Improve IS Human Resources
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Action Issue
Make IS usage a career enhancer and use DSS aim squarely at the middle level. 12. Educate Middle Management
Where sensible, try to revamp older systems you may need to do reverse engineering and reuse them or use Middleware. 13. Update Obsolete Systems
Forge a definition of software quality and make quality assurance part of the team. 14. Improve Software Quality
IS deserves some public relations activity consider a range of media to tout IS successes. 15. Promote the IS Function
As new standards are developed, try to adopt BPM, and TDI-style standards and have common user interface. 16. Integrate Information Systems
Recognize that IS is a change agent make sure IS staff is trained in behavioral matter. 17. Manage Changes Caused by IS
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Action Issue
Provide IS support tailored to executive needs make sure executive systems are secure and available. 18. Institute Executive Support IS
Watch industry trends, use e-Business to connect to customers and be aware of legal issue. 19. Connect to Customer
Try to use off-the-shelf packages when possible select packages based on technical end-use issues. Stress on Integration issues Middleware. 20. Select Packaged Software
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IS Strategic Grid
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(2.3.2) Achieving IS Strategic Planning
Strategic Impact of Emerging Portfolio
Low
High
Low
Strategic Impact of Existing Portfolio
High
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BCG Matrix(Boston Consulting Group)
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Position in the Market
Low
High
High
Market Growth
Low
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(2.3.3) Contents of an IS Strategic Plan
Purpose Key Element
Final wrap-up of the IS strategic plan can be circulated to upper management and sets the tone for users of the completed plan Executive Summary
States the overall purpose of IS and how IS ties into the (larger) mission of the firm as a whole allows for breadth of activates IS Mission Statement
Gives specific objectives and goals that IS hopes to achieve arises out of the mission statement contingent upon the firm as whole IS Objectives and Goals
External activities or agents that can either promote IS (opportunities) of hinder IS (threats) used in defining objectives and goals Opportunities and threats
Internal activities or agents of IS that can either promote IS (strengths) or hinder IS (weaknesses) used for objectives and goals Strengths and Weaknesses
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Purpose Key Element
Depends upon how IS is divided focuses on each area individually and tells where, why, etc. the area is strategically postured IS Strategies for Each Area
Examines the measures by which IS should be evaluated by the firm be cautious with this Measures of IS performance
Describes how the IS strategic plan will be carried out and how the plan will be revisited Implementation Plan
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(2.3.4) Strategy via the Value Chain
(Michael Porter of the Harvard Business School)
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(2.3.5) Strategy via Strategic Thrusts
(Charles Wiseman, GTE)
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Return on Management (R-O-M)
109
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(2.3.6) Typical IS Budget
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(2.3.7) Steps in the IS Strategic Planning Process
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112
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(2.4) e-Business
  • (2.4.1) Common misunderstanding and mistakes
  • Believing that every business belongs on the
    Internet.
  • Believing that having a web site will lead to
    instant sales.
  • Believing that using the Internet is an easy way
    to make ones business and its products known
    worldwide. There are about a third of trillion
    pages visible on the World Wide Web and the
    number is growing very rapidly being present on
    the Web does not necessarily mean being visible

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  • Believing that an Internet site will replace
    other promotional techniques, rather than fit
    into the firms overall promotional strategy.
  • Not spending enough to promote the web site, such
    as
  • Using e-mail messaging.
  • Registering with all major search engines.
  • Direct mailing of notices.
  • Updating business cards and letterheads.
  • Using print, television, and other traditional
    methods to advertise your web site.

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  • Not spending enough time focusing on
  • Web Site navigation.
  • Ease of use and content layout.
  • The fastest way to lose potential customers is
    by making your web site complicated and difficult
    to use.
  • Designing a site that makes it difficult for your
    customers to identify the advantages of your
    product or- if the site is used for online
    transactions- makes it difficult for your
    customers to buy from you.

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  • Not updating the site frequently.
  • Believing that a perfect design for the site
    will automatically lead to sales.
  • Not responding to customer requests for
    information sent via e-mail within three days or
    less.
  • Believing that with the advent of the Internet,
    intermediaries will disappear.

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  • Believing that the Internet will level the
    playing field between small and big businesses.
  • Established brand names and financial resources
    are the primary factors that are linked to
    greater success on the Internet.
  • Believing that using a credit card is risky for
    the buyer. In fact, sellers bear the risk and
    reprisal of fraud.

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(2.4.2) The Customer is Central
  • Adding the Web as a channel is insufficient for
    success.
  • A return to a very old-fashioned value
    personalized contact with customers.
  • The cost structure of supporting customers online
    by e-mail amounts to 1/10 of a phone call.
  • Shifting focus from Products to Customers.

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  • Before
  • Multi separate instances of a given customer
    stored in different departments.
  • Multi call centers for separate products.
  • Now
  • Customer management is a higher priority in IT
  • Reengineering business processes around customers
    is widespread.

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120
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Paradigms for Customer interaction
Technology Customer e-mail Model Improved service quality Customer to business
Technology Newsgroups, chat Model Online customer communities Customer to customer
Technology Group mailing, subscriptions Model Proactive closed loop service Business to customer
Technology Multicompany e-mail routing Model original equipment manufacturer Business to Business
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(2.4.3) Electronifying Business Processes
  • During the first wave of e-commerce, companies
    launched experimental Web Site as a proof of
    concept.
  • Seldom integrated with back office systems.
  • The new wave of e-commerce applications seamless
    integration of Internet and intranet web sites
    with back-office S/W.

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  • Re-keying transactions derived from the Web Site.
    Format carefully and enter directly into
    existing corporate systems.
  • The Integration task is complex.
  • The e-commerce application may need to be
    integrated with up to 20 back-office systems.
  • Integration allows customers to check order
    status, viewing payment information,

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  • Transactions flow logically from the Web Site
    through the organization without requiring
    printing or re-keying.
  • A goal rather than a present reality.
  • For 2003, in USA
  • B2B. 1.3 Trillion.
  • Retail e-commerce .108 Billion.

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  • B2B includes
  • Electronifying the supply chain to work more
    efficiently with business partners.
  • Establishing virtual markets that connect buyers
    and sellers.
  • Implementing B2B auctions.
  • Setting up extranets that open internal business
    processes to select partners.

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  • Electronifying the supply chain.
  • Electronic supply chain can achieve
  • Decrease cycle times.
  • Improve forecasting.
  • Reduce inventory expenses.
  • Virtual supply chains require openness between
    business partners.
  • Web based EDI Interface
  • S/W for virtual supply chain management.

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  • Virtual Markets
  • (connecting buyers with suppliers)
  • Virtual markets function as Intermediaries. They
    provide a forum where buyers can connect with a
    variety of suppliers.
  • Singapore-based Asia Manufacturing Online (AMO),
    allows US companies to reach small suppliers in
    Asia.

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  • Suppliers pay a small fixed monthly fee to
    participate.
  • Web based EDI allows small partners with no
    investment in EDI to work with larger companies
    that use EDI on a large scale.
  • The number of AMO suppliers has increased from 9
    to 200 then to 1,500 in 2 years time.
  • Asian Sources Online hosts more than 15,000
    supplier with 70,000 products and receives
    inquiries from 20,000 buyers weekly.

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  • Asian sources provided H/W, S/W and training to
    help many of the manufactures qualify for
    participation.
  • Asian sources added complete financial
    transactions online.
  • Asian sources revenues are based on listing fees
    and advertising.

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  • Other site features include
  • Schedules for upcoming trade shows.
  • Clearance section, where over stocks are
    available at bargain prices.
  • Links to online magazines and provides forums
    from users to discuss topics relevant to Asian
    trade.
  • Alert function allows users to receive e-mail
    automatically when products of interest are added
    to the site.

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  • Chem Connect . A virtual market serving large
    commodity chemicals market 10 billion business
    in 1998.
  • Metal Site .. A virtual market for excess steel.
  • Retail virtual markets.

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  • Business-to-Business Auctions

In billions
Growth in Business-to-Business Auctions, 1997-2002
132
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  • Some famous auctions
  • Price line Travel.
  • eBay
  • Band-X Telecom Bandwidth.
  • On sale Computer equipment.

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134
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Merchandise Purchased at Business-to Business
Auctions
135
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Total market value 8 billion
Total market value 327 billion
Online Transaction Models for B2B E-commerce,
1997-2000
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  • Extranet
  • (opening the Enterprise to Business partners).
  • Web Site
  • Company Intranet
  • Extranet
  • Companies often use a common infrastructure for
    all three.

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  • Extranets are hosted on different servers and
    required increased attention to security.
  • Private data
  • Shared data
  • Data partitioning to ensure that qualified
    business partners can access only their own data.

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  • Extranets versus EDI
  • With EDI, business partners pass transactions in
    a standard coded format.
  • EDI automates repetitive transactions.
  • Extranets may displace EDI.
  • EDI provides cost savings on repetitive
    transactions, but cannot process more flexible
    business interactions.
  • Extranets can Interface with EDI.
  • Extranets can provide access to a wide variety of
    information from order status to guidelines for
    responding to RFPs, .
  • Sections of an extranet can be established for
    joint work on a given project, and they can be
    removed after the project is complete.

139
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  • Designing Extranet Applications
  • Few applications designed for internal use can be
    presented to those outside the enterprise without
    modification.

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141
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)2.5) HR Development
)2.5.1) The Classification of TD Objective
General Objectives
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(2.5.2) The TD Model Application
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144
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(2.5.3) e-Learning
  • e-Learning associated with activities involving
    computers and interactive networks
    simultaneously. The computer does not need to be
    the central element of the activity or provide
    learning content.
  • Web-based learning is associated with learning
    materials delivered in Web browser, including
    when the materials are packaged on CD-ROM or
    other media.

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(2.5.4) e-Learning Application Infrastructure
  • What is e-Learning?
  • e-Learning refers to learning that is delivered
    or enabled via electronic technology. It
    encompasses learning delivered via a range of
    technologies such as the internet, television,
    videotape, intelligent tutoring systems, and
    computer-based training.
  • It can be valuable when used as a part of
    well-planned and properly supported education and
    training environment.
  • Many learning and technology professionals
    believe that e-learning will have arrived when
    we stop referring to it by a separate name and
    begin considering it as an integral part of a
    complete learning environment.

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  • Blended Learning
  • It refers to the use of more than one learning
    medium, usually a combinations of instructor-led
    learning with web-based tools.
  • Books are still viewed by students as far
    preferable to online technology for studying
    large amounts of course material.
  • e-Learning does not eliminate existing
    educational methods and technologies. Rather, it
    complements them when used appropriately.

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  • Online learning is associated with content
    readily accessible on a computer. The content
    may be on the Web or the Internet, or simply
    installed on a CD-ROM or other media.
  • Distance learning involves integration at a
    distance between instructor and learners. Simply
    posting or broadcasting learning materials to
    learners is not distance learning. Instructors
    must be involved in receiving feedback from
    learners.

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  • e-Learning Objects
  • Learning objects are chunks of data that are used
    by e-learning system they are authored, stored,
    cataloged, assembled, delivered, and reported on.
  • Technology Infrastructure
  • The technology infrastructure must have the
    capacity to support the users and network load.

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e-Learning Functional Model
150
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  • Content Repositories and offering catalogs
  • Metadata
  • Searchable index of learning objects and,
    ideally, descriptive information about the
    structure and properties of the objects.
  • Metadata and content storage
  • Metadata is analogous to a card catalog and the
    content is analogous to the books.
  • The content in repositories takes many forms
    including text, graphic, assessment questions,
    photos, animation, simulation, audio, and video.
  • The learning objects may be stored on multi
    servers with different characteristics.

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  • Content and Workflow Management
  • Check-in/Check-out, approvals, import-export, ..
  • Reusable learning objects
  • Mix and match learning objects from different
    sources and deliver them in different systems.
  • Offering catalog
  • An offering catalog is a special kind of
    repository that contains offerings. An offering
    catalog may associate offerings with learning
    paths that lead to degrees, certifications and/or
    skills.

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  • Content authoring tools
  • Allow subject matter experts and instructional
    developers to create and modify learning contents
    objects.
  • Different authoring tools are used to create and
    format different types of content such as text,
    graphics, photos, animation, simulations, audio,
    and video.
  • This requires instructional designers, content
    providers, or course developers to accurately
    provide metadata descriptions of their content.

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  • Content assembly tools
  • Content assembly refers to the linking of content
    objects together into cohesive learning modules.
  • Catalog Manager
  • Catalog management is the process of defining the
    learning that will be offered to different
    audiences, establishing learning plans (degree
    paths certification paths, skill development
    curricula), scheduling the resources needed to
    support learning delivery.
  • Learner profile manager
  • Keep information about the learners that use
    them.

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  • Learning planner
  • Learning can be planned by learners them-selves,
    by teachers, by advisors, by curriculum
    administrators, by Human Resource managers, and
    by line mangers.
  • The common elements of planning are the
    following
  • Determining the learning target. What degree,
    certification, job qualification, or skill set
    does the learner want to achieve?
  • Assessing the existing learning or skill level of
    the learner.
  • Evaluating the existing educational and/or skill
    level of the learner in comparisons to the
    learning target.
  • Establishing a plan for the learner, usually in
    terms of the learning offerings they will use to
    move them from their current level to their
    target.

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  • Learner registrar
  • Provides learners with access to learning
    offerings and administers the business processes
    related to that access.
  • Delivery environment
  • Provides the learner with access to learning
    content and other components of a learning
    environment such as chat, email, quizzes,
    multimedia players, collaboration tools,
    application sharing, shared whiteboards, equation
    editors, etc.

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  • Components of a delivery environment may include
  • Synchronous collaboration environments such as
    chat rooms, whiteboards, screen sharing, and
    audio or video conferencing.
  • Asynchronous collaboration such as email
    discussion forums.
  • Self-paced content (text, video, simulations,
    graphics, etc).
  • Delivery and tracking of pre-and
    post-assessments.
  • Adaptive navigation, depending on the results of
    assessment.

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  • Offline learning, nomadic learning and mobile
    learning
  • The ability to download standalone content and
    run it offline is a feature that allows
    e-learning to occur in a disconnected
    environment. The delivery environment must
    re-synchronize content activity records when the
    learner reconnects.
  • Offline learning, nomadic learning, mobile
    learning refers to using mobile devices (PADs,
    cellular phones, etc.).

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  • Informal learning
  • Informal training, hands on demonstrations, and
    many other formats that can be digitally stored
    and retrieved for later use.
  • Learning portals
  • Learning portals bring together the e-learning
    tools, content and delivery environment and
    organize them into logical groups based on the
    role of the individual accessing the portal.

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  • Collaborative environment
  • e-Learning delivery systems are built almost
    exclusively around synchronous delivery and
    collaboration. They are called virtual
    classrooms because they try to extend the
    physical environment and interactions of a
    classroom to an online setting.
  • The technological approaches for virtual
    classrooms are quite different than those for
    Web-based course delivery environments aimed
    primarily at asynchronous delivery.

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The End
Thank you
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162
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(2-1) ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????
????????? ??????????
163
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???????
????? ??????????
???????? ?????????? ????????
??? ???????
164
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165
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166
2- ????? ??????? ???????
??? ???????
????? ??????
????? ??????
??? ?????
?????
??? ??????
??? ????????
167
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168
2.2.4 The workgroup Concept
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Is a multifunctional team of employees that work
    very closely together in the execution of a
    specific project.
  • Louts notes or Word Perfect office, enable the
    creation of dynamic virtual groups within a
    networked environment.

169
2.2.5 Concurrent Engineering
2- ????? ??????? ???????
  • Members of all functional elements of the product
    life cycle will work together from the very
    beginning of the effort.
  • Is a special kind of workgroups.

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171
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Supporting the Reengineering Process
  • 2.2.1 Information Technology
  • 2.2.2 Database Management
  • 2.2.3 Data Communication

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Sample Effects of New Technologies on Business
Processes
NEW RULE DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY OLD RULE
Information can appear simultaneously in as many places as it is needed Shared databases Information can appear in only one place at a time as in file folders
A generalist can do the work of an expert Expert systems Only experts can perform complex work
Businesses can simultaneously reap the benefits of centralization and decentralization Telecommunications networks Business must choose between centralization and decentralization
Decision making is part of everyones job Decision support tools Managers make all decisions
Field personnel can send and receive information wherever they are Wireless data communication, wide area networks, and portable computers Field personnel need offices where they can receive, store, retrieve, and transmit information
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NEW RULE DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY OLD RULE
The best contact with a potential buyer is effective contact Interactive videodisk, internet, call centers CRM The best contact with a potential buyer is personal contact
Things tell individuals where they are Automatic identification and tracking technology One must find out where things are
Plans get revised instantaneously High-performance desktop computing, computer networks, workgroup software Plans get revised periodically
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