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Short Term Store contd

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Baddeley & Hitch (1974) ... Phonological loop: speech-based rehearsal system used to store ... Central executive: controls the flow of information among the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Short Term Store contd


1
Short Term Store (contd)
  • Thursday, 3/23/06

2
Working Memory
  • Baddeley Hitch (1974), Baddeley (2001)
  • Proposed as an alternative to the concept of STM
    to account for
  • Multiple types of STM
  • Problem solving

3
  • Phonological loop speech-based rehearsal system
    used to store up to two seconds of information.
  • Visuo-spatial sketch pad rehearsal system used
    to store visual information.
  • Central executive controls the flow of
    information among the two slave systems.

4
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5
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6
  • Episodic buffer (new addition to working
    memory) connects working memory to LTM.

7
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8
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9
What is the purpose ofSTM (Working Memory)?
  • Problem solving
  • Language comprehension
  • Written
  • Spoken
  • Transfer of information to LTM

10
Long Term Store Encoding
11
  • Encoding attending to, interpreting, and adding
    meaning to incoming information.
  • Elaborative rehearsal actively comprehending
    and adding meaning to information.

12
  • Elaborative processing may facilitate encoding
    by
  • Increasing associations to other memories.

13
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14
  • Elaborative processing may facilitate encoding
    by
  • Increasing associations to other memories.
  • Making the memory more distinct, or unique.
  • Increasing cognitive effort during encoding,
    which increases retention.

15
Imagery and Encoding
  • Recall is often facilitated when imagery is used
    during encoding.
  • Elaborative processing increases the
    effectiveness of imagery.

16
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17
Factors That Affect Encoding
  • Cognitive Strategies
  • Elaborative rehearsal

18
  • Characteristics of the material
  • Meaningfulness material with which we are more
    familiar is more meaningful, and is generally
    more easily encoded.

19
  • Presentation factors
  • Serial position
  • Spacing of repetitions in general, spaced
    practice leads to better retention than massed
    practice.
  • Isolation effect items that are distinct or out
    of context, tend to be better remembered.
  • Generation effect generating information
    facilitates encoding and enhances future recall.

20
  • Learner factors
  • Incentive incentives can influence learning
    strategies, but have little effect on general
    memory.
  • Interest personally interesting material is
    often better encoded and stored.
  • Arousal an optimal level of physiological
    arousal can facilitate encoding.
  • Emotions emotional arousal can facilitate
    encoding, but too much or to little arousal can
    lead inhibit encoding.

21
Have a good weekend!
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