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Filmmaking and NonLinear Video Editing with Final CutPro and Express

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Title: Filmmaking and NonLinear Video Editing with Final CutPro and Express


1
Filmmaking andNon-Linear Video
EditingwithFinal CutPro and Express
2
Filmmaking Phases
  • Pre-production-planning
  • Production-shooting
  • Post-production-editing

3
Pre-Production
  • Develop story idea
  • Identify and fulfill budget
  • Visualize your film
  • Write script
  • Identify actors and crew
  • Scout locations, photo or film
  • Make storyboard
  • Assemble equipment

4
Production
  • Develop shooting schedule, shoot outside early
  • Assess location availability
  • Acquire props
  • Plan each shot using storyboard
  • Set up lighting
  • Shoot
  • Continuity
  • View and evaluate dailies
  • Re-shoot, oops

5
Shooting to Edit
  • Coverage
  • Coverage
  • Coverage
  • Coverage
  • Coverage
  • Coverage
  • Coverage
  • Coverage

6
And
  • Roll camera early and cut late
  • Clean entrances and exits
  • OTS, R-OTS, close ups
  • Don't cross the line
  • Framing
  • Shoot ambient sound to connect audio, room tone
  • Look at the frame, what is in the background
  • Log footage
  • Think continuity
  • And don't forget coverage

7
Post-Production
  • Know your footage, tape log and chip
  • Acquire music
  • Reflect on story structure
  • Edit footage, review
  • Include music
  • Develop titles and credits
  • Review project editing, pace, timing
  • Look for bad trans, inappropriate black

8
EditingSee the Story Not the Delivery
  • Transparency
  • Transitions connect two clips
  • Gentle transitions, not noticed
  • Overlap audio and video transitions
  • Cut transitions within a scene
  • Use reaction shots, choose appropriate audio
    tracks
  • Other transitions-fade, dissolves, wipes-to
    indicate new scene, location, passage of time
  • Jump cuts-be very careful

9
Video Editing
  • Create a project
  • Capture and import media content
  • Trim clips
  • Assemble clips
  • Apply special effects filters
  • Insert transitions between clips
  • Audio mix and control
  • Output to web, tape, DVD, files

10
Now forFinal CutFinally
11
What is Final Cut?
  • Non-linear, non-destructive video editor
  • Non-linearrandom access computers as opposed to
    linear tape
  • Non-destructiveraw media unmodified
  • Shared use, shared media, multiple projects
  • Apple product, only for MacOS
  • Newer productolder avid, premiere, media100

12
Apple MacOS
  • The original (almost) GUI
  • Well designed, consistent user interface
  • Based on the most mature OS, Unix
  • Well integrated interface across apps
  • Window components, one tool bar, dock, desktop
  • Tool bar changes for active window
  • Extra pull down menu on left of tool bar
  • Unfortunateone tool bar, one app, and greater
    distance
  • OS stuff menu, apple top left pull down menu

13
MacOS
Menu Bar, only one, changes for active window
Finder
Dock
14
Starting FinalCut
  • From Application folder via Finder
  • From Dock
  • From project (fcp) file

15
FC Interfaces
Capture Directory Set in Set-Up
Project File, .fcp
on Desktop, Documents, etc.
Captured Files
Save
Final Cut
Open
Capture
Exported Media Files, .mov .avi. etc.
Capture
Export
Firewire, Plug-in
Print to Video
Render Timeline Transitions, etc.
Bars, Titles
Media Device
Import
Other Media Files, Imported
Generated Files
Render Files
16
Final Cut
Browser
Viewer-Preview
Canvas-Program
Tool Palette
Timeline
Playhead
17
Final Cut Interface Windows
  • Browser-project components
  • View-view raw media, make clips
  • Timeline-assemble, trim, adjust, transition
  • Canvas-displays project from timeline
  • Tool Palette-choose timeline editing tools
  • Audio Meter-display audio levels

18
Let's Look AtThe Structure and FunctionOf Each
Of These Windows
19
Browser Window
Project components
  • Contains project media components
  • Includes sequences, clips, filters, transitions
  • Select components and drag to Timeline
  • Tabs for project(s) and effects
  • Display as list or icons
  • Storyboarddisplay as icons

Effects
20
Viewer and Canvas
  • Video monitors
  • Trim clips
  • Set marks, in/out points
  • Adjust transitions
  • Jog wheel
  • Shuttle tab

Viewer
Canvas
Controls
21
Viewer Monitor
  • Viewer is the studio preview monitor
  • View clips from the Browser
  • Edit clips with in and out point marks
  • Double click on clip in browser to view
  • Drag from Viewer into Timeline
  • Controls-play, shuttle, jog, mark points
  • Time clip length, timecode
  • Input duration in duration field
  • Control filters
  • Generators-slug, text, etc.

Duration timecode
Current timecode
Editing marking control
Transport control
Generator menu
22
Viewer Motion Effects
  • For all video clips
  • Scale, image size
  • Rotation
  • Centermove image
  • Anchor pointfor rotation
  • Crop image overlay tracks

23
Viewer Filter Controls
  • Audio and Video Filters
  • Adjust filter parameters
  • Identify keyframes
  • Enable/disable filters
  • Clear filters
  • Filters added to clips
  • To adjust, select clip, place playhead

24
Canvas Monitor
  • Canvas is the studio program monitor
  • Displays the video from the timeline
  • Controls-play, shuttle, jog, scrubber bar
  • Time display-length, timecode
  • Motion keyframes

Edit marking controls
Jog control
Transport controls
Shuttle control
25
Timeline
  • Upper video tracks displayed, transparent
  • All audio tracks mixed
  • Disable tracks
  • Zoomtrack granularity
  • Playhead, shows in Canvas
  • Multiple audio and video tracks
  • Assemble clips
  • Drag from Browse or Viewer
  • Add transitions

link snap
Video tracks
Audio tracks
Audio level control
Zoom
26
Timeline Controls
  • Track enable disable
  • Connect source destination
  • Lock tracks
  • Select tracks
  • Mute/Solo
  • Keyframe cont.
  • Adj. zoom
  • Playhead
  • Transition

27
Timeline Tool Palette
  • Select single clip
  • Edit and range selection
  • Track selection
  • Roll and ripple edit tools
  • Slip and slide edit tools
  • Razor tool-cut clips in Timeline
  • Zoom and hand tool
  • Crop, distort tools
  • Pen tool-keyframes for audio fade

28
Selection Tools
  • Select single clip-Select a single clip in the
    Timeline
  • Edit and range selection-selects cuts, multiple
    clips or range of clips
  • Track selection-selects clips on a single track
    or multiple tracks

29
Timeline Edit Tools
  • Ripple edit-Modify duration of a single clip with
    following clips placement adjusted.
  • Roll edit-Moves an edit point between two
    adjacent clips, duration of one clips is
    lengthened and the other shortened.
  • Slip edit-Slips a clip between adjacent fixed
    clips, the duration is not changed, the in and
    out points change.
  • Slide edit-Slides a fixed duration clip between
    two adjacent clips, the adjacent clips change
    duration.

30
Capture Window
  • Two sections-preview and clip logging
  • View image from tape
  • Control DV deck
  • Captured clips go into browser
  • Enable capture bin
  • Capture-mark in and out points or now
  • Input description/name first

Mark in
VTR control
Mark out
Capture control
Preview area
Logging area
31
(No Transcript)
32
Capture Logging
  • Fill in capture information in logging window
  • Select the project's capture bin
  • Create new capture bin
  • Input clip information including clip name, clip
    description, shot/take

33
Capture Options
  • Clip capture-in preview window mark in and out
    points of a shot on tape, click on clip button in
    capture section of logging window
  • Now capture-While tape is playing in preview
    window, click now button
  • Project capture-Recapture original clips from
    tape based on original capture

34
Collecting Raw Media
  • Capture DV with firewire
  • Third party capture cards
  • Clip size
  • Select and capture separate clips
  • Balance file size and number of clips
  • Each captured clips is a master clip
  • Import
  • Various types of media files
  • File and media compatibility
  • Example-MP3 problems-use iTunes

35
Post-Production Phases
  • Create a project
  • Collecting raw media
  • Capture from tape through firewire
  • Import files of various media
  • Edit and assemble
  • Trim clips
  • Apply filters
  • Assemble clips and transitions
  • Output project
  • Tape-automatic, manual
  • Files-DVD, CD, streaming video, etc.

36
Create a Project
  • Sets up FinalCut
  • Initializes a project file (.fcp)?
  • Initializes capture directory
  • Put project file in convenient place, Desktop
  • Project file contains NO media
  • Project file describes the project
  • Like an index

37
Collecting Raw Media
  • Capture DV with firewire
  • Clip size
  • Select and capture separate clips
  • Balance file size and number of clips
  • Each captured clips is a master clip
  • Import
  • Various types of media files
  • File and media compatibility
  • Example-MP3 problems-use iTunes

38
Clip RelationsToo Many
  • Master cliprefers to media file
  • Affiliated cliprefers to a master clip,
    independent in/out points, in a sequence
  • Independent cliponly in timeline, old FC
  • Merged clipcreated by merging separate video and
    audio sources, master clip
  • Subclipcreated from portions of master clip,
    used by media manager
  • Multiclipused for multiple camera shoots, syncs
    clips, then edit sync'ed clips
  • Offline clipsclips not accessible from file
    system, reconnect

39
Subclips
  • Open clips (master or sub) in Viewer
  • Choose in/out points
  • Make a subclip ModifygtMake Subclip
  • Name subclip in Browser
  • Drag into Timeline

40
Separate Individual Shots
  • DV Start/Stop Detect
  • Automatically separates individual shots and
    takes into subclips
  • Capture multiple shots in a clip
  • Open clip in Viewer window
  • Select DV Start/Stop from mark menu

41
Assemble Clips
  • A video project is a sequence of clips
  • Build sequence by assembling clips
  • The container and identifier of a set of
    assembled clips is a sequence
  • Sequences are assembled in the timeline
  • Two ways to assembleinsert and overwrite
  • Many, many short cuts for high speed editing

42
Approaches to Assembling a Sequence
  • In Timelineeasiest, small projects, single
    linear raw video source
  • From Viewer to TimelineComplex projects,
    multiple media sources, allow modifications and
    maintenance later, may identify subclips,
    intuitive
  • From Viewer to CanvasFastest, use various edit
    methods

43
Edit and AssembleIn Timeline
  • Drag master clip from Browser into Timeline
  • Using razor tool from tool palette cut sequence,
    delete unwanted clips
  • Modify sequence with drag and drop, or cut and
    paste
  • Adjust in/out points of clips with edit functions
    from Timeline tool palette
  • Synchronizing multiple camera tracks

44
QnD Edit
  • One camera shoot
  • Capture all on tape to one master clip
  • DV start/stop to separate clips
  • Make subclips
  • Make Storyboard, set browser to large icons,
    arrange icons in order
  • Select multiple icons, move to timeline
  • Adjust, trim, cut in timeline
  • Drag start and end of clips

Quick and Dirty
45
AssembleViewer to Timeline
  • Double click or drag clip from Browser to Viewer
  • View clip with contolsplay, scrub, jog, shuttle
  • Find in and out points, mark with in/out point
    buttons
  • Drag marked clip into timeline
  • Add to timeline as either overwrite or insert

46
Overlay or Insert Edit, Drag into Timeline
  • Overlay replaces timeline footage with new clip
  • Insert creates break in timeline and pushes
    following clips down
  • For Overlay move the clip to timeline, cursor
    changes, when it points down release mouse button
  • For Insert move the clip to timeline, cursor
    changes, when it points to the left release mouse
    button
  • This can be frustrating if you are not aware of
    the pointer

47
Final Cut
Browser
Viewer-Preview
Canvas-Program
Tool Palette
Timeline
Playhead
48
Assemble in Canvas
  • Choose edit point which is the frame displayed in
    Canvas
  • Drag subclips into Canvas from Viewer or Browser
  • Edit Overlay appears in Canvas
  • Deposit clip into appropriate section of Edit
    Overlay
  • Keyboard short cutF9 for insert, F10 for overlay
  • Or deposit on buttons at lower left corner (Pro
    only)?

49
Canvas Edit Modes
  • Insert editViewer in/out marked into timeline
    playhead position, moves following clips
  • Overlay editViewer in/out marked into timeline
    playhead position, overwrites clips
  • Replace editViewer playhead position media moved
    to Canvas in/out marks, multi-camera
  • Superimpose editClip placed at Canvas in marker
    on new track
  • Fit to Fill editSource clip speed modified to
    fit in Canvas in/out marks, render required
  • Transition editInsert and overwrite, includes
    default transition at beginning of clip

50
Split Edit
  • Different edit points for audio and video
  • Allow reaction shots, etc.
  • Trim in Viewer
  • Control or right click on scrub area in Viewer
  • From menu select Mark Split
  • Choose audio or video in and out marker
  • Also, on timeline, unlink and roll edit either
    audio or video

51
Transitions
  • Audio and video transitions
  • Overlapping clips past in/out points
  • Drag transitions to cuts in Timeline from effects
    tab in Browser
  • Types-dissolve, wipe, stretch, peel, iris, etc.
  • Transition editor-transition duration, position,
    color, other specific options
  • Default/favorite transitions
  • Rendering!!

52
Effects Menu
  • Effects tab in Browser
  • Select filters or transitions
  • Drag effect to clip in timeline
  • If line above clip at top of turns red, render
  • Adjust effects in Viewer window

53
Transition Control
  • Select transition on timeline
  • Allows transition adjustment
  • Shows clip overlap
  • Drag playhead to see

54
Transition Problems
  • Transition will not straddle cut
  • Extra footage appears in the transition

In point
Clip 2
Out point
Clip 1
Video track
Transition
55
Filters
  • Modify audio and video clips
  • From effects tab of Browser
  • Drag to clips on Timeline
  • Video types-blur, color correct, distort, image
    control, sharpen, stylize, etc.
  • Audio types-audio levels, band pass filters
  • Control filters with viewer tab
  • Render

56
EffectsFilters
  • Double click on clip in time line
  • Choose filter tab in Viewer
  • Adjust parameters
  • To delete, select and clear, un-check

57
Audio Mix and Control
  • Timeline has video and audio tracks
  • Clips may be have either or video and/or audio
    components
  • Video and audio components may be linked, i.e.
    synchronized
  • Audio may be mix of several tracks
  • Track volume may be separately adjusted
  • Overall output mixer
  • Audio and video tracks may overlap and stagger

58
Text and Titling
  • Generator menu from Viewer window, bottom right
  • Select text, title 3D, title crawl
  • Generates an entry in the Browser, drag into
    Timeline
  • Titles over background-drag to separate video
    track
  • Text motion and effects-crawl etc.

59
Titling
  • Start from icon on lower right of Viewer
  • Input text in Control tab
  • Select video tab and drag to timeline
  • Use track above background
  • Adjust position in Motion tab

60
Exporting Project
  • File for streaming, DVD, CD, online, media for
    applications
  • Timeline to tape
  • Print to Tape, automatic
  • DVD, make quicktime (mov), import into iDVD, burn
  • DVD writer, finalize
  • File menu-gtexport or print to video

61
Export File
  • File use-DVD, CD, online, Web streaming, media
    application (in powerpoint, etc.)?
  • File type-quicktime, avi, mpeg, windows media,
    realmedia streaming
  • Compression-codec
  • Video format-color depth, frame size, frame rate,
    aspect ratio, data rate

62
Tape Export
  • Output as DV on firewire, 25 Mbits/sec
  • May require rendering
  • Automatic, include tone and bars
  • Export from Timelime, print to tape
  • External conversion to composite video to write
    VHS or other analog tape
  • Performance problems, lost frames

63
Make DVD
  • Highly compressed, 3Mbits/sec
  • In computer, no lost frames
  • Output quicktime file, about real time
  • DVD compression, 3 X real time
  • Write DVD, real time
  • External to DVD writer
  • Connect to writer, audio and video (s, composite,
    component) or firewire (problem with recognizing
    DVD)?
  • Record and finalize
  • Real time performance, possibly lost frames

64
Editing Problems
  • Jerky video or play stops with performance error
    messagebe sure your media files are on your
    computer not the server.
  • Poor quality musicdo not use MP3, convert to
    AIFF, see class web site
  • Sync problemscaptured files too long, editing
    errors, move audio tracks, red numbers show sync
    position
  • Project problemsrestore project from file menu

65
How Does FC Work?
  • Raw media-video, audio, images, titles-maintained
    in files which are not modified by edit
    operations
  • Project files describe the components in the
    browser, in and out points for all edits, clip
    locations in timeline, filters and transitions
  • Render files contain media for transitions,
    overlays, etc.
  • Rendering generates media files that cannot be
    produced real time.

66
Project Structure
Master Clip
Media File
Project File
Affiliate Clip
67
Server
  • CS Mac Server (192.168.2.1) go connect
  • Capture on workstation, copy to server, copy from
    server to other team workstations
  • Music and sound effects
  • Copy your assignments to server as a quicktime
    movie
  • Share raw footage on mini and iMacs in the
    /users/Share directory
  • Backup raw footage on server
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