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The%20Psychology%20of%20the%20Eyewitness%20Testimony

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The 'life space' (or environmental forces) that affect one's personality ... Sample Filler Items and from Rotter's. Locus of Control Scale. 1a. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The%20Psychology%20of%20the%20Eyewitness%20Testimony


1
Personality III
How do cognitive psychologists study personality?
  • Cognitive Theories of Personality
  • The Early Gestalt Connection
  • Lewins Field Theory
  • Asch and Witkins Field Dependence Theory
  • More Recent Cognitive Theories
  • Social-Cognitive Theory
  • Locus of Control Theory

2
Early Gestalt Theories
  • Lewins Field Theory
  • The life space (or environmental forces) that
    affect ones personality

  • Asch and Witkins Field Dependence Theory
  • High Field Dependence sensitive to context
  • High Field Independence problem focused



3
Field Dependence
The degree to which a persons perception of
information is affected by the surrounding
perceptual contextual field.




4
Characteristics Associated with Field Dependence
Domain Characteristics

Children's play preferences Field-independent
children are more likely to favor solitary
play over social play. Socialization
patterns Field-independent people are more
likely to have been socialized with an
emphasis on autonomy over conformity.
Career choices Field-independent people are
more likely to be in technological rather
than humanitarian occupations Preferred
interpersonal Field-independent people are more
likely to distance for conversation sit
farther away from a conversational partner
Level of eye contact Field-independent people
make less frequent and less prolonged eye
contact with a conversational partner.

5
More Recent Cognitive Theories of Personality
  • Social-Cognitive Theories
  • Theories that look at how we think and feel
  • and why we behave the way we do

Julian Rotters Locus of Control Theory as
an example
6
Cognitive Factors of Locus of Control Theory
  • Internal and External Locus of Control
  • Learned Helplessness

7
Sample Items and from Rotter's Locus of
Control Scale
2a. Many of the unhappy things in people's lives
are partly due to bad luck.
2b. People's misfortunes result from the
mistakes they make


11a. Becoming a success is a matter of hard work
luck has little or nothing to do with it.

11b. Getting a good job depends mainly on being
in the right place at the right time.
18a. Most people don't realize the extent to
which their lives are controlled by accidental
happenings.
18b. There is really no such thing as "luck."
23a. Sometimes I can't understand how teachers
arrive at the grades I get.
23b. There is a direct connection between how
hard I study and the grades I get.
8
Sample Filler Items and from Rotter's Locus of
Control Scale
1a. Children get into trouble because their
parents punish them too much.



1b. The trouble with most children nowadays is
that their parents are too easy with them.
14a. There are certain people who are just no
good.
14b. There is some good in everybody
9
Cognitive Factors of Locus of Control Theory
  • Internal and External Locus of Control
  • Learned Helplessness

Cognitive Styles and Explanatory Styles
10
Behavioural Factors of Locus of Control Theory
  • Outcome Expectancy general and specific
  • Will I be rewarded for my behaviour ?
  • Reinforcement Value
  • How big will the reward be?
  • Behaviour Potential
  • What behaviour is required in this situation?
  • The Psychological Situation
  • A combination of the above three
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