Musculoskeletal and Neurovascular Disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Musculoskeletal and Neurovascular Disorders

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Tasks requiring forceful exertions place higher loads on the muscles, tendons, ... of the index finger and thumb to forcefully grip an object (i.e., a pinch grip ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Musculoskeletal and Neurovascular Disorders


1
Musculoskeletal and Neurovascular Disorders
  • IENG 321 Ergonomics and Human Factors
    Engineering
  • Spring 2009

2
Risk Factor Model
3
Common Occupational Risk Factors
  • Awkward Posture
  • Force
  • Repetition
  • Duration
  • Contact Stress
  • Vibration
  • Temperature

4
Awkward Posture
  • Awkward Posture
  • Body postures determine which joints and muscles
    are used and the amount of force or stresses that
    are capable or tolerable
  • Greater deviations from neutral postures increase
    risk of MSDs

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Combination of risk factors has a compounding
effect
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Force
  • Tasks requiring forceful exertions place higher
    loads on the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and
    joints. Prolonged or recurrent force may leave
    inadequate time for recovery. May increase with
  • Weight and bulkiness of the load handled or
    lifted
  • Awkward posture
  • Low friction of objects to be handled (requiring
    increased grip force)
  • Vibration (e.g., localized vibration from power
    hand tools leads to use of an increased grip
    force)
  • Use of the index finger and thumb to forcefully
    grip an object (i.e., a pinch grip compared to
    hand grip)
  • Small or narrow tool handles that lower grip
    capacity.

14
Repetitive motions
  • If motions are repeated frequently (e.g., every
    few seconds) and for prolonged periods such as an
    8-hour shift, fatigue and muscle-tendon strain
    can accumulate.
  • Tendons and muscles can often recover from the
    effects of stretching or forceful exertions if
    sufficient time is allotted between exertions.
  • Effects of repetitive motions from performing the
    same work activities are increased when awkward
    postures and forceful exertions are involved.
  • Repetitive actions as a risk factor can also
    depend on the body area and specific act being
    performed.

15
Duration
  • Duration refers to the amount of time a person is
    continually exposed to a risk factor.
  • Job tasks that require use of the same muscles or
    motions for long durations increase the
    likelihood of both localized and general fatigue.
  • In general, the longer the period of continuous
    work (e.g., tasks requiring sustained muscle
    contraction), the longer the recovery or rest
    time required.

16
Contact Stress
  • Repeated or continuous contact with hard or sharp
    objects such as non-rounded desk edges or
    unpadded, narrow tool handles may create pressure
    over one area of the body (e.g., the forearm or
    sides of the fingers) that can inhibit nerve
    function and blood flow.

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Vibration
  • Exposure to local vibration occurs when a
    specific part of the body comes in contact with a
    vibrating object, such as a power hand tool.
  • Exposure to whole-body vibration can occur while
    standing or sitting in vibrating environments or
    objects, such as when operating heavy-duty
    vehicles or large machinery.

20
Hot/Cold Temperatures
  • Hot temperature exposure can lead to annoyance,
    discomfort and health risks.
  • Cold temperatures are associated with discomfort
    in the hands, face and feet.
  • Manual dexterity is affected as temperatures drop
    below 60? F.
  • Sensitivity and strength are also affected in
    cold temperatures.
  • This will be covered in more detail later

21
Musculoskeletal Neurovascular Disorders
  • Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)
  • Disorders of muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments,
    cartilage
  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD)
  • Repeated Motion Injury (RMI)
  • Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD)
  • Neurovascular
  • Disorders of nervous, blood vessels
  • Usually a gradual buildup of stress to the
    musculoskeletal system and neurovascular system
  • Diagnosis by a qualified medical expert
  • Most common in upper extremities and spine

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Categories of Upper Extremity CTDs
  • Tendon disorders
  • Nerve disorders
  • Neurovascular disorders

25
Tendon Disorders
  • Tendonitis
  • Tenosynovitis
  • De Quervains disease
  • Stenosing tenosynovitis crepitans (trigger
    finger)
  • Ganglionic cyst (Bible Bumps)
  • Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow)
  • Medial epicondylitis (golfers elbow)
  • Rotator cuff tendonitis

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Nerve Disorders
  • Cubital tunnel syndrome
  • Pressure on the ulnar nerve behind the funny bone
    causing numbness and tingling in the ring and
    small fingers of the hand.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

31
Neurovascular Disorders
  • Thoracic outlet syndrome
  • Vibration syndrome
  • White finger or Raynauds phenomenon

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Low Back Pain (LBP) Categories
  • Muscular / Ligamentous
  • strain
  • Structural
  • overloading trauma, degenerative disease, facet
    dysfunction, osteoporosis, scoliosis
  • Discogenic
  • herniation, nerve irritation, tumor
  • Others
  • infections, congenital disorders

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