Alabama and Mississippi Estuarine Habitats Status and Trends - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Alabama and Mississippi Estuarine Habitats Status and Trends PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 16f891-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Alabama and Mississippi Estuarine Habitats Status and Trends

Description:

Alabama and Mississippi Estuarine Habitats Status and Trends – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:40
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 63
Provided by: lad64
Learn more at: http://www.masgc.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Alabama and Mississippi Estuarine Habitats Status and Trends


1
Alabama and Mississippi Estuarine Habitats Status
and Trends
  • LaDon Swann
  • Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium and
    Auburn University

2
Topics to Be Addressed
  • Value of Estuarine Habitats
  • Sources of Habitat Loss
  • National Status and Trends of Wetlands
  • Seagrasses
  • Alabama
  • Mississippi
  • Salt Marshes
  • Alabama
  • Mississippi
  • Oyster Reefs
  • Alabama
  • Mississippi
  • Dunes and Barrier Islands
  • Beaches, Bars and Shoals
  • Conclusions
  • Recommendations

3
Background
4
On Earth Day 2004 President Bush set a goal of
restoring, improving, and protecting more than 3
million acres of wetlands by 2009.
5
Who Tracks Progress of 2009 Goal
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife service is charge with
    reporting to Congress on wetland status and
    trends
  • Shaw and Fredine. 1956 (non-statistical)
  • Frayer et al. 1983
  • Dahl and Johnson. 1991
  • Dahl. 2000
  • Dahl. 2006
  • USFWS Status and Trends Limitations
  • No submerged aquatic vegetation
  • No Submerged reefs
  • No data for Pacific coast estuarine wetlands.
  • NOAA and EPA Roles?
  • Marine Resources Role?
  • What is the role of other federal and state
    agencies?

6
Marine and Estuarine Habitats
7
Habitat Continuum
Living shoreline continuum
Source http//www.jefpat.org/Living20Shorelines/
lsmainpage.htm
8
Value of Habitats
9
Value of Estuarine Habitats
  • Wetland Habitats
  • Natures kidney
  • Natures bread basket
  • Natures womb
  • Natures nursery
  • Natures bank

10
Faunal Differences of Three Habitat Types
Data provided by Coen, L.D. and Snoots, T.R.
South Carolina Department of Natural Resources
11
Value of Estuarine Habitats
  • Clean Water
  • Solids removal
  • Heavy metals removal
  • Nutrients
  • If one-half of the existing wetlands were removed
    it would cost 62 billion per year to upgrade and
    maintain sewage treatment facilities

12
Value of Estuarine Habitats
  • Food Production
  • Some animals feed directly on plants and oysters
  • Others feed on insects and crustaceans
  • Detritus feeders
  • Menhaden rely on detritus for on-third of their
    diet

13
Value of Estuarine Habitats
  • Spawning and Nursery Areas
  • Some aquatic animals return to wetlands to spawn
  • Protection from predators
  • Most shrimp use marshes for nurseries

Source Boesch and Turner. 1984. Estuaries. 7
(4A) 460-468.
14
Value of Estuarine Habitats
  • Refuge
  • Adult and juvenile fish use habitats to hide from
    predators
  • Use habitats for refuge from changes
  • Salinity
  • Temperature
  • Dissolved oxygen
  • Water level
  • Storm events

15
Human Dimension Value of Estuarine Habitats
  • Economic
  • Recreational and Commercial Fishing
  • 98 of the Gulfs fish, shellfish, and
    crustaceans depend on estuaries
  • Birding and other forms of nature-based tourism
  • Hunting
  • Subsistence

Photo by Buzz
16
Sources of Estuarine Habitat Loss
17
Sources of Coastal Habitat Loss
  • Agriculture
  • Horticulture and row crops
  • Hay and pasture
  • Other farmland
  • Forested Plantations
  • The South was covered with between 70 million and
    90 million acres of longleaf pines
  • About 9,000 acres of the original forest remains.

18
Sources of Coastal Habitat Loss
  • Non-native invasive Species
  • Plants and animals
  • Rural Development
  • Low building density
  • Strip mines/quarries
  • Recreational facilities
  • Power facilities
  • Roads/parking lots

19
Sources of Coastal Habitat Loss
  • Urban Development
  • Public Infrastructure
  • Parking lots and sidewalks
  • Roads and Driveways
  • Recreational facilities
  • Buildings
  • Residential
  • Businesses

Runoff
20
Sources of Coastal Habitat Loss
  • Schools
  • What kind of example for the community?
  • How do communities develop afterwards?
  • Mandate environmentally friendly specifications?

21
Sponges or Countertops?
22
Sources of Coastal Habitat Loss
  • Shoreline armoring
  • Vertical Bulkheads
  • 30 of Mobile Bay (Douglas, 1997)
  • Fishing
  • Recreational
  • Commercial
  • Oyster reefs
  • Hypoxia
  • Failure to plant cultch

23
Sources of Coastal Habitat Loss
  • Channelization
  • Dredge/Fill
  • Other
  • Brown fields
  • Scrub lands
  • Barren lands

24
Sources of Coastal Habitat Loss
  • Storm Events
  • Hurricanes
  • Tropical Storms
  • Sea Level Rise and Land Subsidence
  • Boats
  • Propeller scaring
  • Wakes

Venice, LA During Katrina
25
National Status and Trends Summary is based on
data from 1998-2004 USFWS Status and Trends
Report.
26
National Overview
  • Total Land Area
  • Freshwater and estuarine habitats 5.5
  • Deepwater 1
  • Upland 93.5

Source Dahl, T.E. Status and Trends of Wetlands
in the Conterminous United States 1998-2004.
2006. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
27
National Overview
  • Estimated 107.7 million acres of wetlands in
    conterminous U.S. in 2004
  • 102.32 million acres Freshwater (95)
  • 5.36 million acres estuarine (5)

Source Dahl, T.E. Status and Trends of Wetlands
in the Conterminous United States 1998-2004.
2006. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
28
National Estuarine Wetlands
  • Breakout of the 5 of total U.S. Wetlands
  • Vegetated
  • 73 emergents marsh (3,889,500 acres)
  • 13 estuarine shrubs (682,200 acres)
  • Non-vegetated
  • 14 flats and beaches (728,540 acres)

Source Dahl, T.E. Status and Trends of Wetlands
in the Conterminous United States 1998-2004.
2006. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
29
Intertidal Estuarine Wetlands
  • Estuarine Marshes
  • 2004 estimate of 3.9 million acres
  • 33,230 acres LOST (1.4)
  • Estuarine Shrub Wetlands
  • Salt tolerant species
  • 800 acres GAINED
  • For every acre destroyed a withdrawal is made our
    childrens bank.
  • Is this to be our legacy?

Source Dahl, T.E. Status and Trends of Wetlands
in the Conterminous United States 1998-2004.
2006. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
30
Intertidal Estuarine Wetlands
  • Estuarine Intertidal Non-Vegetated Wetlands
  • Exposed Coastal Beaches
  • 1,900 acres LOST
  • Sand bars, tidal flats and shoals
  • 4,000 acres GAINED
  • Gain was at the expense of salt marshes

Source Dahl, T.E. Status and Trends of Wetlands
in the Conterminous United States 1998-2004.
2006. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
31
Major Changes Since 2004
  • What were the effects of hurricanes
  • Ivan 2004
  • Katrina 2005
  • What are the cumulative effects of tropical
    storms
  • Everyone recognizes the damaged caused to
    marshes, oyster reefs, dunes, and barrier islands

32
National Trends in Wetland Loss
Source Dahl, T.E. Status and Trends of Wetlands
in the Conterminous United States 1998-2004.
2006. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
33
Hydrographic Units
  • Perdido Bay (130 km2)
  • Perdido River
  • Mobile Bay (1059 km2)
  • Mobile River (62,500 cfs)
  • Tensaw River (61,024 cfs)
  • Mississippi Sound (4792 km2)
  • Pascagoula River (15,185 cfs)
  • Biloxi River (201 cfs)
  • Wolf River (665 cfs)
  • Jourdan River
  • Pearl River (12,890 cfs)

34
Seagrasses
35
Alabama Seagrass Acreage
Mobile County Western short north of Dog River,
Western Short South of Dog River, Dog River,
Mississippi Sound. Baldwin County Eastern Shore
North of Point Clear, Eastern Shore South of
Point Clear, Little Lagoon, Wolf Bay, Arnica Bay,
Bay La Launch, Perdido Bay.
Sources Vittor and Associates. 2005 . Final
Report to Mobile Bay National Estuary Program.
36
Areas Examined for Historic SAV Distribution in
Coastal Alabama Barry A. Vittor Associates,
Inc. 2005. Historical SAV Distribution in Mobile
Bay national Estuary Program Area and Ranking
Analysis of Potential SAV Restoration Sites. 13
pages.
37
Mississippi Seagrass Acreage
Sources 1) Fish and Wildlife Service. January
1991. 2) Handley. 1995. Status and Trends of
the Nations Biological Resources
http//biology.usgs.gov/st/index.htm. 3)
Foster, M and Peneva, E. 2005 Unpublished data.
38
Marshes
39
Statewide Wetland Loss in Alabama and Mississippi
59
50
Estimated total area of wetlands in 1780s and
1980s from Dahl, T.E. 1990. U.S. Dept. of
Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service
http//www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/othrdata/wetlos
s/wetloss.htm
40
Coastal Alabama Marsh Status and Trends
Wetland type below the 10 ft contour. Source
Stout and Lelong 1981 and Stout et al. 1982.
41
Coastal Mississippi Marsh Status and Trends
Source Patrick Biber, personal communication and
1973 GMI Report.
42
Salt Marsh Habitat
  • Fresh and brackish marshes have greatly declined
    during the past several hundred years, with
    current acreage only around 50 of historical
    values.
  • The sparse data available since the 1980s
    suggest that losses have slowed.

43
Oyster Reefs
44
Alabama Oyster Reefs
Red areas indicate most productive reefs
45
Alabama Oyster Habitat
1971 - This value includes marginal or potential
bottoms, leased bottoms, and riparian bottoms.
1995 - Survey took place around Cedar Point
and Dauphin Island only.
46
Primary Alabama Oyster Reefs
Sources May. 1971. Alabama Marine Resource
Bulletin No. 4. Tatum, W.M, et al. 1995. Alabama
Marine Resource Bulletin No. 14.
47
2004-2005 Oyster Reef Creation
  • University Research and Restoration
  • The University of South Alabama oyster
    restoration initiative
  • 27 reefs totaling 4 acres
  • Auburn University Shellfish Lab
  • 1,000,000 live oysters
  • AL-MRD and MS-DMR clutch plantings on established
    or storm damaged reefs

48
Mississippi Oyster Habitat
Approximately 97 of the commercially harvested
oysters in Mississippi come from the reefs in the
western Mississippi Sound, primarily from Pass
Marianne, Telegraph and Pass Christian reefs.
1966 Method of determining acreage values
unknown. Areas surveyed in 1998 do not include
all of the areas surveyed in 1966. 2004 survey
was estimated by DMR. 2006 estimate based on 90
mortality from Katrina. Primary oyster reefs are
located.
Bradley Randall and Scott Gordon, MS DMR
Personal Communication
49
Oyster Reef Habitat
  • Damage from storm events
  • Hurricanes Ivan and Katrina
  • destroyed 90 of Mississippis reefs
  • Cedar Point Reef densities decreased from
    80,000/a to 18,000/a after Hurricane Ivan
  • Stable total acreage
  • Regular cultch plantings by resource agencies
  • Additional efforts by DMR and MRD through
    hurricane supplements

50
Dunes and Barrier Islands
51
Dunes and Barrier Islands
  • 50 barrier islands
  • Dauphin Island
  • Essential flyway for birds
  • Minimizes Mobiles storm
  • Regulates salinity and other water quality
    parameters
  • Impact on State economy
  • Significant damage to unprotected and
    non-vegetated parts of all of Mississippis

52
Dunes and Barrier Islands
  • Dune Loss
  • Construction on dune systems
  • Normal shifting sands
  • Storm protection, but needs time to rebuild

Construction on dune system
53
Beaches, Bars, and Shoals
54
Beaches, Bars, and Shoals
  • All three appear to be on the increase
  • At the expense of marshes and dunes
  • Beach Nourishment
  • Gulf Shores
  • Orange Beach
  • Dauphin Island
  • Ocean Springs
  • Biloxi

55
Overall Estuarine Habitat Trends in Alabama and
Mississippi
Caveats Often different methodologies and
different areas studied
56
Prevention Recommendations
  • City and county governments must lead by example
  • Capital improvements should take into account
    economic AND environmental costs
  • Provide incentives and remove barriers for
    citizens to do the right thing
  • Implement focused and coordinated outreach
    programs on causes and cures for habitat loss

57
Status and Trends Recommendations
  • Host a Status and Trends Workshop
  • Bring EVERYONE who collects data together and
    develop a sampling plan
  • Standardize data collection periods
  • Decadal time frame?
  • Standardized methods must be used including
    verification.
  • Implement outreach programs to regularly inform
    citizenry of status and trends.
  • Most people do not need nor want 200 page reports

58
Restoration Recommendations
  • Need a comprehensive restoration plan
  • Ecosystem level restoration divided into
    manageable components
  • Take advantage of funding opportunities
  • Restore areas with high probabilities of success

59
Restoration Recommendations
  • Standardize restoration reporting

http//restoration.disl.org/database
60
(No Transcript)
61
Acknowledgements
  • Dr. Ken Heck Dauphin Island Sea Lab
  • Mr. Mark VanHoose Alabama MRD
  • Dr. Scott Douglas The University of South
    Alabama
  • Mr. Scott Gordon Mississippi DMR
  • Dr. Patrick Biber The University of Southern
    Mississippi
  • Dr. Judy Stout The University of South Alabama
    (retired)
  • Dr. Sean Powers Dauphin Island Sea Lab
  • Dr. John Dindo Dauphin Island Sea Lab
  • Vittor and Associates
  • Mobile Bay National Estuary Program
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services

62
Learning is mostly talking. Teaching is mostly
listening. Enjoy the session!
About PowerShow.com