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Introduction to Mobility

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Etymology: Middle English mobyll, from Middle French mobile, from Latin mobilis, ... 3 : moving habitually or occasionally from one region or climate to another the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Mobility


1
Introduction to Mobility
  • Do van Thanh
  • Forelesning på NTNU
  • 19. September 2001

2
What is mobility?
Moving, in motion
Migrating, changing location
Immobile
Changing roles
Mobile
3
What is mobility?
  • In the Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary
  • Main Entry 1mobile Pronunciation 'mO-bl,
    -"bIl also -"bEl Function adjective Etymology
    Middle English mobyll, from Middle French mobile,
    from Latin mobilis, from movEre to move Date
    15th century 1 capable of moving or being moved
    MOVABLE lta mobile missile launchergt 2 a
    changeable in appearance, mood, or purpose
    ltmobile facegt b ADAPTABLE, VERSATILE 3 moving
    habitually or occasionally from one region or
    climate to another ltthe study of migratory
    birdsgt MIGRATORY 4 a characterized by the
    mixing of social groups b having the
    opportunity for or undergoing a shift in status
    within the hierarchical social levels of a
    society ltsocially mobile workersgt 5 marked by
    the use of vehicles for transportation ltmobile
    warfaregt 6 of or relating to a mobile -
    mobility /mO-'bi-l-tE/ noun

4
Mobility Types
Component Mobility
Terminal Mobility
Application/Service Portability/Mobility
Continuous
Session Mobility
Personal Mobility
Discret
Role Mobility
Portability
5
Mobility Types
  • Terminal mobility allows the terminal to change
    location while maintaining all services.
  • Component mobility allows components e.g.
    earphone, microphone, etc. of a terminal to
    change location while maintaining all services.
    The components form a PAN (Personal Area Network)
  • Personal mobility allows the user to access all
    services independently of terminals and networks.
  • Role mobility allows the user to change roles and
    get access to distinct preferences, rights and
    limitations.

6
Mobility Types
  • Session mobility ensures that active sessions are
    not disrupted while users change terminals.
  • Application/service portability or mobility
    allows software entities (codes, objects,
    processes) to be relocated from one machine to
    another or even moved between machines while
    processing.
  • Ex Applets (code) Mobile Agents (object)

7
Mobility Types
  • Continuous Mobility enables continuous
    availability of services while the user moves.
  • Ex Cellular systems
  • Discrete Mobility enables the availability of
    services within certain areas and for certain
    access points, e.g. Home an Office, but not while
    moving from one area to another
  • Ex DECT, Wireless LAN
  • Portability is an example of discrete terminal
    mobility, where it is allowed to move a terminal
    from one plug to another.

8
What is mobility?
  • Mobility is confined to any particular networks.
  • Mobile does not mean necessarily wireless since
    wireline networks can also offer mobility
  • Wireless does not mean mobile since devices like
    parkometer, soft drink automate may communicate
    wireless and remain immobile.
  • Mobility is not a service because mobility as
    such has no value for a user if not supplemented
    with other services.
  • Mobility enhances the availability of other
    services.
  • Mobility is a capability that can be added to any
    network system

9
How can mobility be introduced?
Communication System
Application/Service Layer
Example IP-based networks do not originally
support mobility. By introducing Mobile IP than
discrete terminal mobility is supported
Mobility Layer
Network Layer
10
The Mobility functions
  • 1. Identification
  • When moving the mobile entity needs to change
    Network Access Point
  • Every mobile entity (person, terminal) must have
    its own identity
  • For terminal mobility Every terminal must have
    an identity distinct from the Network Access
    point's one ( Network Address)
  • For Personal mobility Every person must have an
    identity distinct from the terminal' one

Network
Access Points
11
The Mobility functions
  • 1. Identification
  • Every entity has only one identity, but may have
    several identifiers
  • An identifier is assigned uniquely to one mobile
    entity
  • An identifier may be permanent or temporarily
    allocated according to time, location, context,
    etc.
  • A human user may have several identifiers, one
    public such as email or personal such as login
    name
  • Example In GSM
  • Each terminal has a IMEI (International Mobile
    Equipment Identity)
  • Each mobile subscriber has two identifiers
  • IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity)
  • TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity)

12
The Mobility Functions
  • 2. Authentication
  • It is not sufficient that the mobile entity
    identifies itself, but the system must be capable
    to verify that the mobile entity is the one it
    claimed to be
  • A generic security function that is more
    necessary and more difficult to realize with
    mobility

claim
Principal
Entity Authentication
verify
delegation
claim
Claimant
Verifier
verify
claim
Trusted Third Party
Trusted Third Party
verify
13
The Mobility Functions
  • 2. Authentication
  • Authentication methods relies on
  • Something known, e.g password, pin code, etc.
  • Something possessed, e.g magnetic card, smart
    card, etc.
  • Some immutable characteristics, e.g. biometric
    identifiers
  • Accepting that a 3rd entity has established
    authentication
  • Context e.g. Location of principal
  • Authentication method must fit the principal's
    characteristics
  • Passive characteristics, e.g. Fingerprint,
    retinal, etc.
  • Information storage capability
  • Information exchange and processing capability
  • Unique fixed location

14
Mobility Functions
  • 2. Authentication
  • Authentication of the human user must in addition
    fit the used terminal when a user is allowed to
    use different terminals
  • Authentication of the communication system by the
    mobile entity is also necessary ( Not in GSM
    but in UMTS)

SRES A3(Ki, RAND) Kc A8(Ki, RAND)
Authentication in GSM
15
Mobility Functions
  • 3. Access Control (or Authorisation)
  • Even though a mobile entity is authenticated it
    is not necessarily authorised to access services.
  • Access control' s goal is to counter the threat
    of unauthorized access.
  • The access rights of the mobile entity is limited
    by
  • Roaming restriction
  • Time restriction
  • Credit limit

16
Mobility Functions
  • 3. Access Control
  • In a system supporting both terminal and personal
    mobility, a user is subject to three types of
    access control
  • Access control for the use of the terminal
    (protection of 3rd party)
  • Access control concerning the access to the
    communication system
  • Access control concerning the use of the service
    requested

17
Mobility Functions
  • 4. Registration/Deregistration
  • When a terminal moves and uses different access
    points
  • Or when a user is using different terminals
  • The system must know about it. A registration is
    necessary.
  • Registration is the procedure that associates a
    mobile entity with a location directly or
    indirectly.

Network
Access Points
18
Mobility Functions
  • 4. Registration/Deregistration

19
Mobility Functions
  • 4. Registration/Deregistration
  • Initiated by communication system
  • On-the-fly or Lazy
  • Predetermination
  • Periodic
  • Based on changes
  • Initiated by mobile entity
  • Example of GSM combination of both On-the-fly
    Predetermination

20
Mobility Functions
  • 4. Registration/Deregistration
  • User registration
  • Default registration
  • Local registration
  • Remote registration
  • Registration through profiles
  • User Deregistration
  • Local deregistration
  • Remote deregistration
  • Forced deregistration

21
Mobility Functions
  • 5. User Profile Management
  • Every user has specific preferences concerning
    services and their presentation, look and feel,
    etc.
  • The setup data is saved in the user profile
  • The profile can be extended to comprise a address
    book, a list of favorite links, etc.

22
Mobility Functions
  • 5. User Profile Management
  • Requirements on the user profile
  • The user should be able to modify his profile
    from any terminal anywhere and anytime
  • The applications must be configured according to
    the profile
  • Must be saved in a secured manner
  • When the user is using different terminals and
    different access points, the usage of the profile
    must be in concordance with the terminal
    capabilities and the access point physical
    characteristics.

23
Mobility Functions
  • 5. User Profile Management
  • With the demand for more customisation of
    applications combined with the plurality of
    terminals and devices, the User Profile will play
    a crucial role in the future
  • However, not much has been done yet.
  • The challenge is "Who is doing the User Profile
    Management?"

24
Mobility Functions
  • 6. Initiation of services/applications
  • Distinction between service and application An
    application when being executed will offer a
    service to a user through a session.
  • Ex The application "MS Word" when running will
    offer a word processing service to the user.
  • The user must have the possibility to initiate or
    start the same services independently of the
    access point and the terminal.
  • Application initiated by the user is called
    outgoing application (pull)
  • Two cases according to the location of the
    applications
  • Application located in the mobile terminal no
    problem
  • Ex Laptop or PDA with all applications

25
Mobility Functions
  • 6. Initiation of services/applications
  • Application located at the Home domain
  • Alt 1. Establish a connection with Home domain
  • Use for confidential or large applications which
    are not convenient to move e.g. Information,
    database, etc.
  • Long connection
  • Firewall problem since terminal has a foreign
    address
  • Ex Telnet - rlogin

Home Domain
Application
Visiting Domain
Terminal
Client
26
Mobility Functions
  • 6. Initiation of services/applications
  • Application located at the Home domain
  • Alt 2. Static Replication of application logic
  • The same application logic is replicated at all
    domains
  • The user just use the replicate at visiting
    domain
  • Ex GSM the basic call logic is replicated and
    installed at all domains

Home Domain
Application
Visiting Domain
Terminal
Application
Client
27
Mobility Functions
  • 6. Initiation of services/applications
  • Application located at the Home domain
  • Alt 3. Dynamic replication of application logic
  • The replication is done only on request from the
    user
  • The mobile agent may be used to copy, pack and
    bring an application to the visiting domain
  • The Mobile agent technology is not yet mature
    and suffers from insufficient security and
    standardisation

Home Domain
Application
Move
Visiting Domain
Terminal
Application
Client
28
Mobility Functions
Terminal Y
  • 7. Delivery of services
  • The services are initiated by someone else e.g.
    Another user, the system, etc.
  • Also called incoming services (Push).
  • The system must
  • find the terminal that the user is using
  • establish connection to the respective visiting
    domain
  • Deliver output to the terminal according to the
    terminal capabilities
  • Ex Mobile IP

Client
Home Domain
Application X
initiates
Application
Visiting Domain
Terminal
Client
29
Mobility Functions
  • 8. Service/facility discovery and usage.
  • When visiting a domain the user may want to use
    facilities like printers, faxes, projectors, etc.
    or services like local informations, weather,etc.
  • Nowadays it is not simple since complex tasks
    must be done, e.g. Discover the
    Services/Facilities available, install drivers,
    etc.
  • One solution could be using mobile agent
    technology

Home Domain
Application
agent
move
Visiting Domain
Terminal
Application
Client
agent
30
Mobility Functions
  • 9. Support of mobility-based applications
  • Mobility-based applications are born with
    mobility. They are meaningless without mobility.
  • Examples are taxi dispatch, fleet management,
    public safety, etc.
  • Such application needs location information that
    the mobility layer has.
  • Provides a mobility interface to mobility-based
    applications
  • Ex
  • GetAddress (in TerminalID, out Address, Out
    Status)
  • GetTerminal (in UserID, out TerminalID, Out
    Status)
  • For UMTS, OSA (Open Service Architecture) /Parlay
    has specified such a mobility interface

31
Conclusion
Generic Mobility Layer
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