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Implementing Outcomes Based Teaching

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(SOLO) Taxonomy (Biggs & Collis 1982) ... The SOLO Taxonomy with. sample descriptive ... 6. Share experiences. Activities to be conducted after the workshop ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Implementing Outcomes Based Teaching


1
Implementing Outcomes Based Teaching Learning
at CityU Designing Intended Learning Outcomes
(ILOs) 9 September 2005
Facilitated by Dr. Catherine Tang
2
Intended Outcomes of the Workshop 1.
Define the characteristics of ILOs. 2.
Outline the procedures in designing ILOs. 3.
Explain the significance of the procedures. 4.
Review existing programme/course specific
ILOs. 5. Identify areas requiring
changes. 6. Revise or re-design
programme/course specific ILOs.
3
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs) .
Statements of what students are expected to be
able to do as a result of engaging in the
learning process (studying a
course/programme). . Expressed from the
students' perspective. . Expressed in the form
of action verbs leading to observable
and assessable behaviour. . Related to
criteria for assessing student
performance.

4
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs) Example of
ILOs of a course on Theories of
assessment Participants would be able
to 1. Explain the different theories of
assessment. 2. Identify the major differences
between assessment for selection and assessment
for facilitating learning. 3. Apply the
theories in designing assessment tasks
which are aligned with the ILOs.

5
Distinction between Teaching Objectives and
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs) Teaching
objective (aims) input What the teacher
intends to do. e.g. Introduce the theories of
Assessment. Intended learning outcomes (for the
participants) - output What the participants are
expected to be able do having been introduced
to the theories of assessment? e.g. 1.
Explain different theories of assessment.
2. Identify the major differences between
assessment for selection and
assessment for facilitating learning. 3.
Apply the theories in designing assessment tasks
which are aligned with the
ILOs.

6
Distinction between Desirable and Intended
Learning Outcomes Desirable Learning Outcomes
(DLOs) Things that a student learns and is able
to do which are desirable in terms of the
general aims of university education and the
ideal graduate. Intended Learning Outcomes
(ILOs) What students are expected to be able to
do as a result of engaging in the learning
process (studying a course / programme). Uninte
nded Learning Outcomes (ULOs) Things that a
student learns which are not intended but are
desirable. e.g. A student may develop a deep
interest in a particular aspect of the subject
area, studies beyond what is required in the
course, and demonstrates a standard of
performance beyond what is expected.
7
Assessing Intended and Desirable Learning
Outcomes Constructively aligned assessments
should provide opportunities for students to
demonstrate that they have achieved the ILOs and
the level of achievement as well as making
provision for students to demonstrate their
achievement of unintended but desirable learning
outcomes. This is possible with assessments
which offer an open format such as assessment by
portfolio.
8
In education, ILOs should inform
9
Designing/revising ILOs Based on an analysis
of what students should be able to do after
completing the course / programme.
What are the possible sources of information
that would contribute towards identifying or
revising ILOs?
10
Procedures in designing ILOs
1. Decide what kind of knowledge is to be taught
- Declarative or functioning. 2. Select the
topics to be taught. 3. Decide the levels of
understanding the students are expected
to achieve for the different topics. 4. Ensure
a clear understanding and agreement of the
ILOs within the teaching team and other
relevant parties e.g. External
Reviewer. 5. Communicate the ILOs to
students.


11
To effectively define the ILOs, both the
breadth and depth should be identified
12
Defining the Levels of Understanding
The Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes
(SOLO) Taxonomy (Biggs Collis 1982)
provides a range of levels that could be
adapted to the levels appropriate to particular
topics.
13
The SOLO Taxonomy Structure of the Observed
Learning Outcome (Biggs Collis, 1982)
Prestructural Unistructural Multistructural Relati
onal Extended Abstract
Biggs, J. B. Collis, K.F. (1982).
Evaluating the quality of learning the
SOLO taxonomy. New York Academic Press
14
The SOLO Taxonomy with sample descriptive verbs
(levels of understanding)
Competence
Fail Incompetent Misses point
one relevant several relevant
integrated into generalized to
aspect independent
aspects a structure new domain
Incompetence
Prestructural Unistructural
Multistructural Relational
Extended Abstract
15
Levels of Understanding Some examples Unistru
ctural identify, name, state (a
principle) Multistructural classify, combine,
describe, elaborate, give an account of,
list Relational analyze, apply, argue,
compare/contrast, criticize, discuss,
explain, justify, relate, solve
problem Extended abstract create, formulate,
generate, hypothesize, reflect,
theorize Each discipline would have its own
verbs. A verb may have different applications in
different subject areas or contexts.
16
Levels of Understanding Some vague
verbs Appreciate Become aware of
Familiarise with Know Learn
about Understand How do these verbs
manifest themselves in terms of change of
behaviour / performance?
17
Levels of Understanding In your group,
discuss and identify some of the verbs which
appropriately indicate the levels of
understanding that students taking your
programme/course are expected to achieve.
18
Designing ILOs
Review the specific objectives of one of
your courses, identify the breadth and
depth of the ILOs.
1. Are the content areas relevant? 2. Are the
levels of understanding appropriate and clear?
19
Designing ILOs
1. Based on the previous exercise, identify any
areas for improvement. 2. Rewrite the ILOs as
appropriate.
20
Levels of ILOs
University level What are the attributes of an
ideal graduate of CityU? Programme
level What are the intended learning outcomes
for students enrolled in the programme? Cours
e level What are the intended learning outcomes
for students taking a particular course at a
particular level within the programme?


21
The Ideal Graduate of CityU
. Qualified, component professionals . Proficie
nt communicators . Ability to think
quantitatively and analyse problems
critically . Knowledge of a particular
subject area . Confidence to enter a more
international and culturally diverse workplace
. Take up broad responsibilities in
community . Will be able and willing to
continue to learn (Extract from
Strategic Plan 1997 2002)


22
Alignment of ILOs
Are the three levels of ILOs aligned? Alignment
between programme and course ILOs . Are they
aligned? . Do the course ILOs appropriately
address the programme ILOs? . Are the
weightings appropriate? . Are there any gaps?
Alignment between programme ILOs and
Universitys ideal graduate attributes .
Are they aligned? . Do the programme ILOs
appropriately contribute towards the
development of an ideal graduate of CityU? .
Are the emphases appropriate? Different
programmes may have different emphases when
addressing the ideal graduate attributes.


23
Programme and Course ILOs
Review the alignment between the
programme and course ILOs.
1. Are the ILOs aligned? 2. Do the course ILOs
appropriately address the programme ILOs? 3.
Are the weightings appropriate? 4. Are there
any gaps?
24
University and Programme ILOs
Review the alignment between the ideal
graduate attributes and programme ILOs.
1. Do the programme ILOs appropriately
contribute towards the development
of an ideal graduate of CityU? 2. Are the
emphases appropriate? Different programmes
may have different emphases when addressing
the ideal graduate attributes.
25
Alignment of ILOs
Ideal graduate attributes
1. Qualified, component professionals

26
Ensure a clear understanding and agreement
of ILOs within the teaching team Suggest
ways that may help facilitate a
clear understanding and agreement of ILOs
within your course/programme.


27
Ensure a clear understanding and agreement
of ILOs within the teaching team . A
collaborative effort in designing the ILOs. .
Clear and explicit documentation. . On-going
discussion and sharing. . Formative peer review
and feedback. . Others??


28
Communicate ILOs to Students Suggest
means that would help facilitate a
clear communication of the ILOs to your
students.
29
Communicate ILOs to Students . Clear and
explicit documentation. . Opportunities for
discussion and clarification. . Enforcement
through constructively aligned TLAs,
assessment and grading procedures. . Appropriat
e reminding during the teaching and learning
process. . Reminding students of the ILOs to
be assessed. . Others??
30
Designing ILOs
Activities to be conducted after the workshop
1. Review programme/course ILOs with respect to
relevancy (to professional
requirement), appropriateness (levels of
understanding) and clarity. 2. Identify areas
that may require changes. 3. Revise
programme/course ILOs as appropriate. 4. Review
alignment between the ideal University
graduate attributes, programme and course
ILOs. 5. Involve other colleagues in the
exercise. 6. Share experiences.
This is not an exercise just for your group, it
applies to ALL programmes and courses taught
in your department. ALL staff should
contribute towards reviewing and revising the
ILOs.
31
Designing ILOs
Schedule
1. OBTL co-ordinators to meet with DUE in
mid- October 2005 to report and discuss
progress. 2. Complete revised programme ILOs of
all programmes by end of October 2005 for
uploading onto OBTL website. 3. Complete
revised course ILOs of all courses by
mid-December 2005 to be uploaded onto OBTL
website. OBTL co-ordinators to work out a
departmental action plan to ensure that the
exercise will be completed on schedule.
32
OBTL Website http//www.cityu.edu.hk/obtl
33
Intended Outcomes of the Workshop 1.
Define the characteristics of ILOs. 2.
Outline the procedures in designing ILOs. 3.
Explain the significance of the procedures. 4.
Review existing programme/course specific
ILOs. 5. Identify areas requiring
changes. 6. Revise or re-design
programme/course specific ILOs.
34
References
Biggs, J. B. Collis, K.F. (1982). Evaluating
the quality of learning the SOLO taxonomy. New
York Academic Press. Biggs, J. (2003).
Teaching for quality learning at university.
The Society for Research into Higher Education.

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