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The New Academic Structure for Senior Secondary Education and Higher Education

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Second consultation of multi-stage development of curriculum and assessment ... Incomprehensible observations, etc. Learner's prior knowledge. Straight line ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The New Academic Structure for Senior Secondary Education and Higher Education


1
The New Academic Structure for Senior Secondary
Education and Higher Education
Action Plan for Investing in the Future of Hong
Kong
  • June 2005
  • Education and Manpower Bureau

2
The Way Forward the contexts of NSS school
subjects
  • Committed actions and critical milestones in
    response to consensus and concerns, setting
    further direction for curriculum and assessment
  • Second consultation of multi-stage development of
    curriculum and assessment frameworks from June to
    September 2005
  • Dialogue with stakeholders on developmental
    issues (e.g. COS special education) as well as
    communication and partnership with all
    stakeholders (e.g. through focus group, web
    bulletin)

3
Year of Implementation 2009
  • Sept 2009
  • 1st cohort of NSS students (existing P5 students
    to be the first to partake in the new structure)
  • 2012
  • 1st HKDSE exam
  • 1st cohort of SS3 students entering the
    university
  • 2016
  • 1st batch of university students to be graduated
    under the new structure

4
Building on Strengths of Basic Education The
Whole Curriculum Framework
4 Core Subjects Chinese Language, English
Language, Mathematics, Liberal Studies (45-55)
2-3 Elective Subjects out of 20 subjects or out
of courses in career-oriented studies (20-30)
Other Learning Experiences including moral and
civic education, community service, aesthetic and
physical experiences and work-related experiences
(e.g. job attachment) (15-35)
NSS
Generic Skill
Value Attitude
General Studies
P1- S3
5
Curriculum (1)
Learning Goals for NSS Learning Better for All
  • to be biliterate and trilingual with adequate
    proficiency
  • to acquire a broad knowledge base, and be able to
    understand contemporary issues that may impact on
    their daily life at personal, community, national
    and global levels
  • to be an informed and responsible citizen with a
    sense of global and national identity
  • to respect pluralism of cultures and views, and
    be a critical, reflective and independent
    thinker
  • to acquire IT and other skills as necessary for
    being a life-long learner
  • to understand their own career/academic
    aspirations and develop positive attitudes
    towards work and learning
  • to lead a healthy life style with active
    participation in aesthetic and physical
    activities.

6
Curriculum (2)
Principles of Design Learning Better for All
  • Prior knowledge
  • Balance between breadth and depth
  • Balance between theoretical and applied learning
  • Balance between essential learning and a flexible
    and diversified curriculum
  • Learning how to learn and inquiry-based learning
  • Progression of studies
  • Smoother articulation to multiple progression
    pathways
  • Greater coherence

7
Curriculum (5)
No of Xs
  • Time allocation 10 (270h) each
  • Same as proposed - 2 to 3Xs, may include COS
  • Students could take more than 3 subjects at SS1
    before making decision on their elective subjects
    at SS2/3

Other Learning Experiences
  • Moral civic education, community service,
    aesthetic
  • physical activities, career-related
    experiences
  • Time allocation 15 - 35 (405h 945h)

8
Curriculum (6)
Progression of Studies
  • Through sequencing of themes, induction of
    students to the subject flexible time-tabling,
  • SBA to start in SS2 and exams at the end of SS3

9
NSS Economics
Example of Progression of Studies
Compulsory Part
Elective Part (10)
SS3
SS2

SS1
Economics
10
NSS Economics
Others
11
Senior Secondary Curriculum Guide 2006
Curriculum and Assessment Guides for NSS Subjects
2006
Curriculum (7)
  • As a continuation of Basic Education Curriculum
    Guide, (CDC, 2002)
  • To support planning
  • implementation of NSS,
  • e.g. other learning experiences,
  • assessment literacy

12
Assessment
  • Single credential
  • Standards-referencing
  • School-based Assessment
  • Statistical moderation
  • Student learning profile
  • International recognition

Schools views on SBA to be sought in 2nd
consultation …
13
NSS Economics
  • Development since 28-10-2004

14
Feedback from teachers and stake-holders
  • 20 on supplementary sheet
  • 44 on SBA
  • 418 returns from teachers representing schools
  • 1 from a student
  • 1 from Consumer Council

15
Issues raised and considerations
  • A From 418 responses
  • Rationale, aims, framework and coverage supported
    (over 95 for first two and over 80 for the last
    two)
  • Some doubts on assessment 12.9 disagreeing,
    while 53.6 supporting and the rest returned no
    opinion
  • Additional content 69.75 supported but with
    7.7 disagreeing

16
  • Introduction of normative issues, which is a
    major change in relationship to curriculum
    conceptualization, are supported with reservation
    as reflected in the return on module Efficiency,
    Equity and the Role of Government (agree61.2
    (256), agree with reservation33 (138) and 4.6
    (19) disagree)
  • 416 out of 418 schools expressed intention to
    offer Economics in NSS curriculum

17
  • B Feedback on contents
  • Should MUV be adopted? (Opinion divided)
  • Should PPF be included?
  • Profit maximization or wealth maximization?
  • Should graphs be used for market structure?
  • How to teach equity and efficiency?
  • Inclusion of transactions costs/public goods
    etc.?
  • Should anti-competition policy be included?

18
  • AS-AD required depth and scope?
  • Credit creation?
  • Scope and depth for economic growth?
  • Role of interest rate on AS-AD analysis and
    treatment in the micro-component?
  • Forms of business ownership

19
  • C Other concerns
  • SBA test and exams in schools? Weighting?
    Principles and criteria? Methods and forms?
    Calibration? Cheating and plagiarism?
  • Time for learning and teaching adequate?
  • Student diversity, especially weaker and
    unmotivated students?
  • How to move towards more student centred teaching
    and learning?

20
To address the above concerns
  • introduction of the elective part more advanced
    component or components that are not core to
    understanding or do not affect coherence of the
    curriculum
  • SBA balancing need for better student learning
    and feasibility, details follow
  • One-committee has made decision on required depth
    and scope for most topics, but is still open for
    views
  • Curriculum development through capacity building,
    experimenting and networking are now under
    planning

21
Some of the decisions related to content
  • The two electives extensions and broadening
  • Micro-/macro- sections -gt topics
  • PPF not in compulsory component
  • Willingness to pay used (not MUV) in demand
    analysis
  • Concept and skill of decision at the margin
    required
  • Relationships among cost curves not required
  • Profit maximisation adopted zero profit in
    competitive case

22
  • Multiplier derivations and calculations not
    required
  • Interest rate in AS/AD model taken as exogenously
    determined
  • Monetary policy in Hong Kong constrained by the
    linked exchange rate system
  • SBA newspaper commentary and reports as initial
    requirements (10)
  • Business ownership weights lowered
  • Private property rights in Topic A public goods
    in Topic B - elementary requirements

23
  • Allocative function of prices no graphical
    analysis
  • Efficiency demand-supply framework
  • Equity fairness- process and result possible
    trade-off with efficiency
  • Money market interest rate not linked to AD/AS
    analysis
  • Quantity theory of money- not linked to AS/AD
    analysis
  • Causes of inflation not explicitly required
  • Evaluation of free market economy in terms of
    efficiency and equity re-drafted to more
    acceptable requirements

24
  • Roles and influences of international economic
    institutions (e.g. WTO) subsumed under trade
    barriers
  • Elective modules
  • Elective 1
  • monopoly pricing provides a more powerful tool
  • anti-competitive behaviors etc. descriptive
    cases for learning and discussion
  • Elective 2
  • PPF use of a standard graphical tool
  • Comp. Advantage and Globalisation use of
    economic knowledge

25
  • Economic growth and development
  • extension of economic knowledge
  • Normative approach encourage Ss to examine
    personal values and beliefs and try to see other
    persons beliefs at the same time when
    interpreting issues and phenomena
  • Positive analysis is the basis for Ss to study
    economic issues and problems

26
Learning Teaching
  • Economics
  • should not be regarded as purely abstract and
    theoretical subject.
  • helps students to construct knowledge.
  • empowers students to be able to better
    comprehend the world around them.
  • facilitates students to apply economic theories
    to daily life and real-world situations.
  • i.e. Meaningfulness and connectedness

27
Some Implications from NSS reform
Learning arising from Ss re-construction of
prior knowledge through various learning contexts
Learner engagement, activation of schema and
interaction
context
Learners prior knowledge
Different map projections
Non-Euclidean geometry
New concepts, schema etc.
Straight line
Challenges, Incongruence, Incomprehensible
observations, etc.
projections
representation
28
Expository and similar approaches
……
Euclidean geometry
Straight line
Non-Euclidean geometry
Learners construction of knowledge depends on
good MAPPING with learners
motivational engagement arising from
meaningfulness
prior knowledge
Higher probability and increasing over time
readiness in cognitive skills required
perceived chance of success
etc.
Learner disengagement and failure
29
Changing role of the teacher
Design of learning contexts
Facilitator of knowledge construction Structurin
g of Ss experiences -gt structuring of knowledge
Pedagogical content knowledge development and use
-Knowledge of curriculum and discipline knowledge
-Knowledge of pedagogy
Their organic integration and application
-Knowledge of learner
Networking
Changing the role of assessment -gt as part of
learning, providing Ss with information on
his/her own learning
Collaboration with other curricula in school -gt
looking for increasing returns through
complimentary strategy
30
Changing role of the learner
School curriculum
Active -gt self-regulatory
Assuming personal responsibilities
Teachers
Awareness
Enabling and empowering
Reflection and meta-cognition
Family
Participatory
…
Collaboration with peers
Expanding knowledge base and Generic skills
31
For the learner, consider ?
- How they learn?
- Their motivation?
- What are the optimal challenges for them?
- What concepts, schema, generalizations and
theories do they possess? How to facilitate
change? Through what contexts?
- More inductive approaches
- Variety of teaching strategies, such as case
study, problem solving, project learning, etc.
- Generic skills should be systematically
embedded in learning and teaching contexts designs
- Strategies that cater for increased diversity
of ability and readiness should be incorporated
32
Learning Teaching (contd)
  • Align with the new rationale that encourage
    students to formulate and explore normative
    questions.
  • Teachers could consider discussing more
    controversial issues (like minimum wage law,
    competition policy, etc.) with their students.
  • The proposed Module code in the proposed
    curriculum framework does NOT imply the teaching
    sequence.
  • Examples in document are for reference.
  • A spiral teaching approach may be used.

33
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35
Support Measures
Implications from curriculum change
  • role of teacher
  • rationale, aims and objective
  • design of learning contexts
  • school based assessment
  • teaching repertoires and effective practices
  • updating knowledge

36
  • Mapping teacher needs and aspirations ?
  • Seminars
  • Workshops
  • Experimentation e.g. seed projects
  • Sharing
  • Networking
  • Courses
  • Good practices
  • Web-based materials
  • Others ….

37
The way forward
  • Explicit curriculum evaluation and audit,
    focusing on how well do Ss learn and how well
    Economics prepares Ss for their challenges ahead
  • Changes from tendency of exam-driven learning
    tasks to meaningful learning
  • Inclusion and infusion of more powerful
    organising concepts in the future Economics
    curriculum - after curriculum implementation and
    evaluation

38
  • Strengthening of the Economics education
    profession through cross-school sharing and
    networking
  • Identification of effective and good practices in
    different schools for cross-fertilization
  • R D
  • Updating Economic knowledge
  • Impact of advancing Economic knowledge on
    curriculum
  • Collaboration with Liberal Studies and other
    components in the school curricula

39
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