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WHITE PAPER ON SOUTH AFRICAN PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL PEACE MISSIONS

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From DOD perspective, viewed as the most important part in terms of the policy ... Most of the tasks addressed in the White Paper pertain to traditional peacekeeping. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WHITE PAPER ON SOUTH AFRICAN PARTICIPATION IN INTERNATIONAL PEACE MISSIONS


1
WHITE PAPER ON SOUTH AFRICAN PARTICIPATION IN
INTERNATIONAL PEACE MISSIONS
2
BRIEFING TO THE JOINT STANDING COMMITTEE ON
DEFENCE
  • 26 March 2003

3
WHITE PAPER ON SOUTH AFRICAN PARTICIPATION IN
INTERNATIONAL PEACE MISSIONS
  • PROBLEM STATEMENT
  • Very progressive document. It provides sound
    policy guidance and procedures required for
    effective participation in peace missions. It
    further transversely affects all potential
    participating departments.
  • Although above is true, the White Paper has
    aged. Events have overtaken some of the policy
    pronouncements and some legislation has been
    amended or repealed. As a result, there are
    aspects of the White Paper that may have to be
    addressed and possibly amended to ensure future
    effective DOD participation in these missions.

4
AIM
  • To propose, from the Department of Defence
    perspective, possible changes to the White Paper
    on South African Participation in International
    Peace Missions, based on experience over the last
    four years.

5
SCOPE
  • An overview of the policy pronouncements made in
    the White Paper.
  • Identification of issues in the White Paper that
    worked well during SANDF peace mission
    deployments over the last four years.
  • Identification of parts/issues in the White Paper
    which may need amendment.

6
An overview of the policy pronouncements made in
the White Paper
7
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper
  • Aim of the White Paper.
  • To describe the nature of contemporary peace
    missions and to provide clear and concise
    inter-departmental policy guidelines on South
    African participation in such missions.
  • The Nature and Scope of Contemporary Peace
    Missions.
  • background, history, terminology and definitions
    in peace missions.
  • roles of civilians, the military and civilian
    police.
  • provides the basis and background for
    participation in peace missions.
  • describes the multifunctional nature of modern
    peace missions.

8
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper (contd)
  • The International Mandate for Conducting Peace
    Missions.
  • Adherence to international legal requirements.
  • process of mandating as well as endorsement of
    peace missions on the grand strategic
    (international) level.
  • The endorsement of operations in terms of Chapter
    VIII of the UN Charter ( i.e. on regional (AU).

9
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper (contd)
  • South African Philosophy on Participation in
    Peace Missions
  • South Africas foreign policy, as an important
    component of this definition of national
    interest, is based on six key principles
  • A commitment to the promotion of human rights.
  • A commitment to the promotion of democracy.
  • A commitment to justice and international law in
    the conduct of relations between nations.
  • A commitment to international peace and to
    internationally agreed- upon mechanisms for the
    resolution of conflicts.
  • A commitment to the interests of Africa in world
    affairs.
  • A commitment to economic development through
    regional and international co-operation in an
    inter-dependent world.

10
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper (contd)
  • In the South African national interest to assist
    peoples who suffer from famine, political
    repression, natural disasters and the scourge of
    violent conflict. South Africa may thus provide
    civilian assistance and armed forces in common
    international efforts when properly authorised by
    international authorities to help in such
    efforts.
  • "Although South Africa acknowledges its global
    responsibilities, the prioritisation afforded
    Africa in South African foreign policy makes
    Africa the prime focus of future engagements.
    South Africa has an obvious interest in
    preserving regional peace and stability in order
    to promote trade and development and to avoid the
    spill-over effects of conflicts in the
    neighbourhood.

11
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper (contd)
  • South Africas Potential Contributions to Peace
    Missions.
  • UN Standby Arrangements System (UNSAS)
  • Civilian Resources
  • Police Resources
  • Military Resources

12
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper (contd)
  • Military Resources.
  • Potential contributions in the White Paper is
    taken from the Defence Review and "provides for
    participation in peace support operations at the
    level of up to one infantry battalion group".
  • The Defence Review states that participation in
    peace support operations is a secondary function
    of the SA Armys Rapid Deployment Ground Force,
    and that two battalion groups will be prepared
    for participation in peacekeeping operations
    (with the understanding that only one battalion
    group will be deployed at a time, with the other
    held in readiness for rotation).
  • Where participation in operations with a Chapter
    VII mandate is required, the capabilities of the
    mechanised and parachute forces may also be used.
    Other possible contributions include UN Military
    Observers, Staff Officers and Liaison Officers.

13
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper (contd)
  • Principles Governing South African Participation
    in Peace Missions.
  • A Clear International Mandate.
  • The mandate for a mission is obtained through a
    UN Security Council Resolution.
  • The mandate for the peace mission in question
    must be clear and agreed to between the UN,
    regional bodies (where applicable), the host
    country and conflicting parties and contributing
    countries.
  • Sufficient Means.
  • South Africa will not commit itself to
    participating in any peace mission which is
    patently under-resourced and which does not have
    sufficient means to achieve the set mandate.

14
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper (contd)
  • A Domestic Mandate and Budget.
  • Parliament plays a critical role in securing
    approval for South African participation in
    international peace missions.
  • In all cases, Parliament must authorise finances
    for South African participation in peace
    missions.
  • In all cases, the Department of Foreign Affairs
    will take the lead in securing finances for South
    African participation in specific peace missions.
  • The Department of Finance, on instruction from
    either the President or the Deputy President,
    will authorise the necessary funds.
  • The Department of Defence and the Department of
    Safety and Security will be responsible for
    budgeting for and meeting the pre-deployment
    costs, as well as a six-month post-deployment
    cost of the potential contribution earmarked for
    each department.

15
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper (contd)
  • Volunteerism.
  • Principle was based on the "old" Defence Act
    which provided that SANDF personnel may only be
    compelled to serve outside the borders of the RSA
    "in time of war ... against the enemy".
  • This however will change with the proclamation of
    the new Defence Act.
  • Clear Entry and Exit Criteria.
  • Political decision-makers to be reasonably
    assured that South African involvement will not
    be open-ended and that such involvement will not
    be regarded as part of a larger diplomatic or
    political failure on the part of contributing
    nations.

16
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper (contd)
  • Regional Co-operation. South Africa will
    continue to co-operate with regional partners,
    especially those within the SADC, in enhancing
    its capacity to participate in international
    peace missions.
  • Foreign Assistance. South Africa will continue to
    welcome offers of assistance, particularly those
    that may expedite and add to the quality of the
    type of contributions to international peace
    missions outlined in the White Paper.

17
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper (contd)
  • Procedures for the Deployment of South African
    Personnel
  • Permanent Mission to UN receives request to
    contribute a military contingent to a peace
    mission.
  • Extra-territorial deployment of South African
    forces in fulfilment of an international
    obligation will, in terms of Constitution,
    require the authorisation of the President.
  • President, acting on advise from the Minister of
    Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Defence,
    decide in principle whether or not to authorise
    deployment . This should be done on the basis of
    a Cabinet Memorandum jointly prepared and
    submitted by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and
    the appropriate Ministry and/or Ministries
    concerned and approved by the Cabinet.
  • Procedures which should be followed prior to
    tabling a proposal in Parliament for ratifying
    the participation of a South African military
    contingent in a particular peace support
    operation, are discussed in detail.

18
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper (contd)
  • The terms of reference with the UN (Memorandum of
    Understanding and the Status of Forces Agreement
    between the UN and the host nation) as well as
    the procedures are laid down in the White Paper.
  • Once agreement has been concluded to participate
    in a peace support operation, the DFA will have
    lead responsibility for overseeing and
    coordinating continuing RSA involvement in the
    operation at a national and international level.

19
Overview of Policy Pronouncements made in the
White Paper (contd)
  • The DOD will have lead responsibility for the
    management and oversight of the operational
    deployment and maintenance of the South African
    military forces in a peace mission. This will be
    done in regular and close liaison with other
    state departments and will be coordinated via the
    establishment of a Joint Peace Operations
    Coordinating Committee within the Department of
    Foreign Affairs, or as determined by the
    President.
  • South African participation in international PSOs
    is always voluntary, and troops can be withdrawn
    at any stage of the operation subject to the
    details of the agreement between the UN (or other
    relevant international organisations) and South
    Africa.

20
Identification of issues in the White Paper that
worked well during SANDF peace mission
deployments over the last four years
21
Issues That Worked Well During SANDF Deployments
Over the Last Four Years
  • Initial Participation of the DOD in Peace
    Missions
  • Started off well and placed on the map by the
    SANDF's deployment of observers to Ethiopia and
    Eritrea as well as the placing of a Military
    Liaison Officer in Kampala as part of MONUC Phase
    I.
  • Prioritisation Afforded Africa in South African
    Foreign Policy.
  • A Clear International Mandate.
  • In all cases of SANDF's participation in peace
    missions, international mandate was obtained.
  • A Domestic Mandate and Budget.
  • A national mandate for participation in all the
    SANDF missions was obtained according to the
    guidelines laid down in the White Paper.
  • (Budgeting issue will be dealt with later).

22
Issues That Worked Well During SANDF Deployments
Over the Last Four Years
  • Clear Entry and Exit Criteria.
  • The entry and exit criteria for participation in
    all the peace missions were included in the
    Cabinet Memoranda for decision and confirmation
    by Cabinet
  • Procedures for the Deployment of South African
    Personnel.
  • From DOD perspective, viewed as the most
    important part in terms of the policy to be
    followed for peace mission deployments.
  • Clear and Concise Inter-departmental Policy
    Guidelines on South African Participation.
  • Before the requirement for South Africa's
    participation in MONUC Phase I was communicated
    to the DOD via DFA, the planning and
    establishment of a national structure for the
    co-ordination of these missions was done. Close
    co-operation was ensured between the DOD and DFA

23
Issues That Worked Well During SANDF Deployments
Over the Last Four Years
  • SANDF Deployment for Non-traditional and
    Specialised Tasks/ Requirements.
  • Most of the tasks addressed in the White Paper
    pertain to traditional peacekeeping.
  • MONUC Phase II specialised. Burundi
    non-traditional.
  • Sufficient Early Warning.
  • For the planning and deployment of the military
    in a peace mission, sufficient political early
    warning and intent is of the utmost importance.
  • Involvement of DOD planners and National Treasury
    at early stage.

24
Parts of the White Paper which could be
Considered for Amendment
25
Parts/issues in the White Paper which could be
Amended
  • Background (Par 1.1).
  • The background and general approach to peace
    missions needs updating to include new approach
    of the AU, South Africa's position in the AU and
    its priority commitment towards Africa regarding
    the resolution of conflicts.
  • Regional and Sub-regional Mandates (Par 2.1)
  • The change in the region's structures and
    approach towards the resolution of conflict in
    Africa should be included in this paragraph
  • The new AU structures for the resolution of
    conflicts (peace missions)
  • The influence of the SADC Defence Pact on
    sub-regional conflict resolution to be included

26
Parts/issues in the White Paper which could be
Amended
  • Clear Liaison Channels
  • Liaison between the military planners and the UN
    DPKO (as well as AU planners in future) at the
    earliest possible stages of the planning is
    important. In part 3.1 of the White Paper it is
    stated "To facilitate early involvement in the
    planning process, the UN should maintain liaison
    with national military headquarters as soon as it
    considers involving a particular country in an
    operation
  • Although this channel must be established through
    the NOCPM, such liaison between planners forms
    the basis for successful deployments
  • (The placement of a military liaison officer in
    the RSA Mission to the UN in New York and at the
    AU may be seen as part of the solution).
  • Peace Missions and National Interests (Par 4.2).
  • This part reflects the RSA's foreign policy and
    its prioritisation afforded Africa. NEPAD
    principles will have to be included and supported
    in updating this part of the White Paper.

27
Parts/issues in the White Paper which could be
Amended
  • Standby Arrangements (Par 5.1)
  • To include South Africa's commitments (as
    approved by Cabinet and Parliament) towards the
    international (UNSAS), regional (AU) and
    sub-regional (SADC) environments
  • Military Resources (Par 5.4)
  • This part of the White Paper needs updating in
    terms of the SANDF's participation in peace
    missions over the last four years
  • The general approach of the SANDF for
    participation in peace missions will have to be
    reviewed according to the Force Employment
    Strategy

28
Parts/issues in the White Paper which could be
Amended
  • Level and Size of Contribution and Sufficient
    Means (Par 6.1 and 6.3)
  • These paragraphs should be reviewed to address
    the possibilities of over-extension of
    capabilities, including civilian and other
    contributions. The importance of selective
    engagement to participate in specific missions,
    weighed against the RSA's national interests
    should form the basis for decision on the size of
    a contribution
  • (A suggestion is that the ceiling of military
    contribution be determined by the RSA's foreign
    strategy as well as the Defence Strategy. This
    will have to be determined on an annual basis to
    reach consensus on the availability of means per
    financial year.

29
Parts/issues in the White Paper which could be
Amended
  • Domestic Mandate and Budget (Par 6.4)
  • Peace missions are by its very nature extremely
    expensive. White Paper states that Departments
    should include the funding for participation in
    peace missions in their annual budget.
  • The PFMA does not allow for Departments to
    budget for a contingency. Such unplanned and
    unforeseen expenditure should be made visible in
    the Adjustment Budget. In case of Burundi
    special Appropriation Bill.
  • It is suggested that this part of the White Paper
    be re-evaluated and a policy be formulated, in
    co-operation with National Treasury, to address
    the gap in terms of budgeting for participation
    in peace missions.

30
PARTS/ISSUES IN THE WHITE PAPER WHICH NEED
AMENDMENT (contd)
  • Volunteerism (Par 6.5)
  • The Defence Bill, soon to become the new Defence
    Act, will change the present paragraph on
    volunteerism significantly.
  • Entry and Exit Criteria (Par 6.6)
  • Drawn up and submitted by the members of the
    NOCPM. It is important to identify a required
    political end-state for a mission and implies
    political guidance and formulation of written
    criteria
  • This will contribute significantly in the
    planning and decision-making phase for
    participation in any mission.
  • Regional Co-operation (Par 6.7)
  • The paragraph needs amendment in terms of the AU
    structures for the resolution of conflict

31
Inclusion of Issues not Addressed in the White
Paper
  • Humanitarian Assistance.
  • Requirement exists that a process/policy be
    included in the White Paper to address this issue
    or that a separate policy be formulated to deal
    with this issue.
  • Legal Framework for Participation in Peace
    Missions.
  • Suggested that this issue be addressed and
    considered for inclusion in the White Paper in
    order to provide a legal basis for participation
    in peace missions.

32
Inclusion of Issues not Addressed in the White
Paper
  • Training Facilities and Capabilities.
  • That the RSA must have its own national facility
    and capacity to deal with mission specific
    training. Policy guidelines and resource
    allocation in this regard should be included in
    the White Paper for decision.
  • Allowances and Taxation.
  • Guidelines and policy should exist to address the
    issues in terms of equal allowances for deployed
    personnel as well as the taxation thereof.

33
  • QUESTIONS?
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