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How Do We Prove the Value of Museums?

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Carol Scott, Renaissance London Programme Manager for 2012 ... Concept Map Showing Aspects of Museum. 35. 01/05/2009. C1. Staff & Operations. C11. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How Do We Prove the Value of Museums?


1
How Do We Prove the Value of Museums?
  • AAM annual meeting
  • Friday, May 1, 2009 at 215pm
  • Philadelphia, PA

2
Todays Panel
  • Marsha Semmel, Deputy Director for Museums and
    Director for Strategic Partnerships, IMLS
  • Carol Scott, Renaissance London Programme Manager
    for 2012
  • Jane Legget, Associate Director, New Zealand
    Tourism Research Institute at Auckland University
    of Technology
  • Barbara Soren, University of Toronto Museum
    Studies/Independent Consultant
  • Mamie Bittner, Deputy Director for Policy,
    Planning, Research and Communications, IMLS

3
Questions to Focus our Thoughts
  • If museums did not exist, what would our society
    miss? Give one example.
  • What is one example of evidence that indicates
    the value of museums to communities?
  • What is one example of evidence that indicates
    the value of museums to individuals?
  • We will collect your responses following the
    session.

4
Session Goals
  • Increase awareness of studies that explore the
    value of museums across different dimensions
    (national, community, individual).
  • Identify areas for further investigation.

5
IMLS Mission
  • The Institutes mission is to help build the
    capacity of libraries and museums
  • To connect people to
  • information and ideas
  • The Institute is the federal voice for the
    nations 123,000 libraries and 17,500 museums.

6
IMLS Activities
  • Through grant-making, convenings, research, and
    publications, the Institute builds the capacity
    of museums and libraries to serve the public.
    We
  • Sustain Heritage, Culture, and Knowledge
  • Enhance Learning and Innovation
  • Build Professional Capacity.

7
IMLS and Public Value
  • Government Performance and Results Act, 1993
  • Perspectives on Outcomes Based Evaluation for
    Libraries and Museums, 2000
  • Shaping Outcomes online course on outcomes-based
    planning and evaluation (shapingoutcomes.com)

8
Grant Application Requirements
  • Mission and strategic plan
  • Community needs assessment
  • Proposed outcomes and impact
  • Dissemination and Prospects for Sustainability

9
Grants for Research
  • National Leadership Grants
  • National impact
  • Raise the bar
  • Move the field forward
  • Up to 1,000,000

10
Exploring the Evidence Base for Museum Value
  • Dr. Carol Scott
  • Renaissance London Programme Manager for 2012
  • London Museums Hub
  • London, UK
  • Friday 1st May 2009
  • AAM Philadelphia

11
Format
  • Background
  • Values typology
  • Value indicators
  • Value evidence
  • A call to action

12
Context
  • measuring and articulating the value and impact
    of the sector is more than an academic exercise
    given the policy, financial and business
    structures in which most cultural organizations
    operate, rightly selecting, rigorously measuring
    and powerfully articulating the value and impact
    of the sector is one of the key pre-requisites
    for its sustainability (Stanziola 2008, 317)

13
What do we mean by value?
  • Noun
  • Worth
  • Importance
  • Significance
  • Meaning
  • Merit
  • Use
  • Verb
  • To appreciate
  • To treasure
  • To cherish
  • To attach importance to.
  • To set great store by

14
What value and whose values?
  • Instrumental outcomes
  • Social cohesion and inclusion
  • Regeneration
  • Access
  • Knowledge and creative economies
  • Problems
  • imposed
  • external
  • dominant
  • hard to assess

15
A holistic concept of value
  • Instrumental value
  • going beyond function and having aspirations to
    a wider agenda of social change
  • Intrinsic value
  • inherent qualities of things, often intangible,
    described in affective language, without a
    utilitarian dimension
  • Institutional value
  • processes and practices that agencies adopt to
    create value for the public rooted in the ethos
    of public service Public Value
  • Use value
  • direct use, indirect use and non-use value of
    museums

16
A values typology
Instrumental Intrinsic Institutional Use
Individuals Learning Self -directed learning in a free choice setting Skill building Cognitive Discovery/Enrichment/ Excitement/ Inspiration Well being Joy/ Pleasure Empathetic Perspective/Awareness Direct Indirect Non-use
Society Community capacity Learning resource/ knowledge building/leisure/ civic pride Social cohesion Engagement/inclusion/ diversity Economy Tourism/branding/inspiration/ employment/ value adding/ urban regeneration Historical Communal archive/ cultural transmission/ experience of the past/ learning the lessons of history/ belonging Social Sense of place/ identity Spiritual Meaning Symbolic Commemoration Democracy Debate ideas/issues Information Unbiased/ objective/ trustworthy Trust Service/ excellence/ continuity Relationships Local/ national/ inter Citizenship Access to collections Direct Indirect Non-use
17
Value indicators
  • Can we translate a values typology into
    assessable indicators?

18
Use value indicators
  • 1) Direct use (physical visits)
  • 1a) Number of visitor attendances to museums
    annually
  • 2) Indirect use (use of outreach services)
  • 2a) Number of users of outreach programs ie.
    number of participants to traveling exhibitions
  • outreach programs including lectures and
    workshops
  • 2b) Number of unique visits to museum websites
  • 3) Engagement
  • 3a) Number of volunteers
  • 3b) Total number of volunteer hours per annum
  • 3c) Number of members
  • 3d) Number of unpaid hours contributed by Boards
    of Trustees, fundraising groups, etc.
  • 3e) Number of visits per visitor per year
  • 4) Non use
  • 4a) Willingness to pay irrespective of direct
    engagement

19
Institutional value indicators
  • 1) Recognition of trusted expertise
  • 1a) Number of public enquiries annually
  • 1b) Number of external projects for which museum
    expertise has been requested
  • 2) Building relationships
  • 2a) Number of local, national and international
    partnerships involving museums and other
  • government agencies
  • 2b) Significance of these projects in terms of ,
    number and type of major stakeholders
  • 3) Attracting investment
  • 3a) Value of government grants (capital and
    recurrent)
  • 3b) Number and value of sponsorships (cash and in
    kind)
  • 4) Capacity to bequests and donations
  • 4a) Number and value of donations
  • 4b) Number and value of bequests

20
Indicators of instrumental value
  • 1) Providing educational resources
  • 1a) Number of school students visiting
  • 1b) Number of partnerships with education
  • bodies
  • 1c) Number of adult education programs/participant
    s
  • 2) Knowledge building
  • 2a) Number of research publications based
  • on collections
  • 2b) Number and value of museum/university
  • projects funded by Research Grants
  • 3) Contribution to tourism
  • 3a) Number of domestic tourists annually
  • 3b) Number of international tourists annually
  • 3c) Number of museums that win tourism
  • awards annually
  • 4) Contribution to local economy
  • 4a) Number of EFT employed staff
  • 4b) Value of local services purchased
  • 5) Social inclusion
  • 5a) Number and percentage of visitors
    by ethnicity
  • 5b) Number and percentage of visitors
    by socio-economic status

21
Evidenceof value
  • Does the evidence exist to support value?

22
Where is the evidence?
  • Central government agencies eg National Bureaux
    of Statistics, Tourism Research Centres, Time Use
    Surveys
  • Government Departments
  • National Museum Bodies
  • Individual Museums

23
Issues
  • Evidence is dispersed central point to collect
    and collate data on a regular basis
  • Absence of consensus on a set of values
    indicators
  • A sector-wide approach to research
  • -intrinsic value
  • -contingent valuation studies
  • Intentional planning for long term social impact
    is the exception rather than the norm
  • Methodological suite of evaluation methods is
    limited

24
A call to action
  • A set of shared indicators around a holistic
    values framework
  • Centralised agencies charged with data collection
  • Coherent national programmes for ongoing research
    (a) sector-wide studies that examine the
    intrinsic value of museums (b) contingent
    valuation studies ( c) long term social impact
  • Acceptance that there are implications for our
    practice

25
Thank you
  • Carol Scott
  • carolannscott_at_fastmail.co.uk
  • 44 787041 7079

26
Treasuring and Measuring Evidence From
Community Stakeholdersa case study from New
Zealand
American Association of Museums 2009/Philadelphia
1st May 2009
  • Dr Jane Legget
  • Auckland University of Technology
  • In cooperation with
  • The New Zealand Tourism Research Institute

NZTRI I Private Bag 92006 I Auckland 1142 I New
Zealand I Ph (64 0) 21 109 8884 I
Jane.Legget_at_aut.ac.nz I www.nztri.org
27
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction
  • Case-Background
  • Methodology
  • Community Stakeholder Findings
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Outlook

28
Introduction
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
  • What is it about museums that matters to
    stakeholders?
  • How do stakeholders make their assessments of
    their museums performance in the context of
    public accountability?
  • Identifying where community stakeholders locate
    their museum's value

29
Stakeholders in the Museum
Stakeholder Categories Involved in the Research
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
Board
English Language Schools
Friends of the Museum
Researchers
School Users
Iwi Maori
Visitors
Staff - Paid/Unpaid
Media
Public Enquirers
Corporate Sponsors
Lenders Borrowers
Consultants
Tertiary Education
Local/Regional Museums
Tourism Operators
Donors
Special Interest Groups
Suppliers
Ratepayers
Benefactors
Local/Regional Central Government
Community Stakeholders Museum Sector
Stakeholders Governance Stakeholders
30
Case Study Concept Mapping Process (I)
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
Development of Focus Group Question
Stakeholder Identification and Focus Group
Selection
Stakeholder Focus Groups (SFGs)
Workforce
Board
Media
School Users
Ohaki
Donors
Tangata Whenua
Tertiary Users
Local Authority
Other Museums
Special Interests
Generate possible performance statements ? 310
Statements
31
Case Study Concept Mapping Process (II)
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
1st shift edit ? 207 Statements
2nd shift edit ? 140 Statements
Prepare Statements for follow-up tasks
Sorting Tasks
Rating Tasks
Analysis of data via Concept System
Concept Maps
Pattern Matching
Interpretation of Results
Generate possible performance statements ? 310
Statements
32
Focus Group Question
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
  • How would you know how your museum is doing?
  • In other words
  • How would you know if your museum is performing
    effectively?
  • Responses effectively complete the following
    sentence
  • We would know how our museum is performing
    by/because/if.

33
Examples of 140 Possible Museum Performance
Indicatorsgenerated by community, governance
and sector stakeholders
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
  • Museums share of the total visitor market
  • Success in applications for grants from central
    government
  • How culturally safe Maori feel in the museum
  • The time taken to respond to public enquiries
  • Number of repeat visits by schools and other
    educational groups
  • Quality of touring exhibitions loaned to the
    museum
  • Relevance of the museum to its diverse local
    communities
  • Courtesy with which staff respond to offers of
    objects
  • Level of spending per visitor in shop and café
  • Range of visitors (age, gender, nationality etc.)
    visiting the museum

34
Sorting the Possible Performance Statements
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
35
Concept Map Showing Aspects of Museum
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
Performance Areas Identified by Community
Stakeholders
C1. Staff Operations
C5. Public Interactions
C11. Visitor Response
36
Collections - Quality and Management
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
Considered a safe place for Maori artefacts and
human remains
Appreciation of the significance and value of
items given
State of cleanliness of the displays no dusty
birds!
Display of taonga (Maori treasures) taking into
account contemporary Maori perspectives
Security systems' in place
Confidence of donors in offering items for the
collections
Collections representation of, and relevance to,
the local community
Proper care and management of the objects,
taonga and specimens
37
Staff Calibre Management of the Staff
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
Whether staff are outward-looking, promoting the
museum in the community
Whether staff share a common purpose goals
Whether staff are well-trained in their
respective fields
Maori representation on the staff
Quality of research undertaken by museum staff
Staff giving talks, lectures on request
Museums ability to attract keep high quality
staff volunteers
  • Whether staff can keep up with their workload

Level of staff satisfaction
38
Relative Importance of Concepts to Community
Stakeholders
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
  • Community Stakeholders
  • Staff management operations
  • Quality of collection management
  • Maori confidence in museum
  • Education in the community
  • Public interactions
  • Utilisation of collections
  • Reputation
  • Management effectiveness
  • Maori values
  • Visitor demographics
  • Visitor response

39
Comparing Perspectives Governance, Sector
Community
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
Governance Stakeholders Collection care and presentation Intellectual physical assets Financial achievement Visitor response Responsiveness to communities of interest Treaty of Waitangi Educational strengths Maori/multicultural engagement Effective governance management Sector Stakeholders Higher management Spirit of partnership/collaboration Kaupapa Maori Community confidence in museum Customer service local support Maori engagement in museum Successful marketing to visitors Management use of heritage resources Access, respect, professionalism Resources to add value to collection Educational services quality use Community Stakeholders Staff management operations Quality of collection management Maori confidence in museum Education in the community Public interactions Utilisation of collections Reputation Management effectiveness Maori values Visitor demographics Visitor response
40
Community KRG Ratings Correlated with
Governance and Sector Stakeholder Ratings
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
Community KRG
Sector KRG
Governance KRG
4.17
4.07
4
Staff Management Operations
Reputation in Community
Quality of Collection Management
Public Interaction
Visitor Response
Utilisation of Collections
Visitor Demographics/Trends
Maori Confidence in Museum
Education in the Community
Maori Values
Management Effectiveness
3.6
3.42
3.21
r .50
r .61
41
Towards a Framework for StakeholderDetermined
Performance Assessment
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
Performance Domains Dimensions
Management and Governance Board performance / management Operational effectiveness
Collections Collection integrity - Quality of objects - Utility value (associated research etc.) Collection management Collection uses (exhibitions, education etc.)
Staffing Calibre / Management of staff
Participation Visitation - Statistics demographics - Visit patterns and satisfaction Public usage of museum resources
Maori concerns Integration of Maori values Maori participation
Education Schools focus Community education programmes
Community Relationships Effective partnerships Community perceptions
42
Future Research
Introduction Case-Background Methodology Findings Conclusions Outlook
  • Undertake similar exercise with two or three
    other museums of different scale in different
    parts of the country
  • Refine the performance assessment framework to
    articulate the value and means of assessing
    museums effectiveness in maintaining and
    enhancing this
  • Develop menu of practical performance indicators
    in consultation with NZ museum directors

43
Thank You!
  • With grateful thanks to the US Embassy,
    Wellington, NZ, for assistance towards attending
    this conference, and the Board, Director
    stakeholders of Canterbury Museum, NZ, for their
    participation, and Professors Kerr Inkson and
    Mason Durie of Massey University for their
    guidance.
  • Contact Details
  • JANE LEGGET, PHD, FMA
  • Associate Director (Cultural Heritage)
  • New Zealand Tourism Research Institute at AUT
  • www.nztri.org
  • jane.legget_at_aut.ac.nz

NZTRI I Private Bag 92006 I Auckland 1142 I New
Zealand I Ph (64 0) 21 109 8884 I
Jane.Legget_at_aut.ac.nz I www.nztri.org
44
  • Museum
  • experiences that change visitors
  • ---------------------------
  • evidence that indicates the value of museums to
  • individuals

American Association of Museums 2009/Philadelphia
1st of May 2009
45
  • Pipilotti Rist Pour Your Body Out
  • (7354 Cubic Meters), Museum of Modern Art
  • November 19, 2008February 2, 2009
  • ... A printed text at the entrance asks visitors
    to explore the space and themselves within it, to
    stretch and even sing, to yes pour their
    bodies out.... after a couple of visits over the
    weekend I'm still under its calming influence My
    body never before realized museums could be so
    physically rapturous and transformative.
  • Globe and Mail, Houpt, 2009

46
Outline of presentation
  • an exploration of the meaning of
    transformational experiences
  • triggers for transformational museum
    experiences
  • two case studies describing how visitors
    articulate change they have experienced and
    actions they may take as an outcome of a museum
    program or exhibition visit

47
Introduction
  • The nature of transformational experiences
  • provide new opportunities to invent knowledge and
    explore new ideas
  • create challenges to discover the
    interconnectedness of ideas
  • transform experiences into knowledge, skills,
    attitudes, values, emotions, beliefs, and senses
  • change individuals by giving cognitive hooks to
    the hookless
  • become more inclusive, discriminating,
    emotionally capable of change, and reflective

48
Triggers for transformational museum experiences
Trigger Description
Attitudinal A shift in perspective
Authentic Awe with the authentic object
Behavioural Over time, coming to know
Being witness Stories of survivors personal objects
Cultural New insight into cultural changes
Emotional Powerfully emotive to the point of tears
Motivational Crystallizing experience
Sublime Imagination, reason, and sense of vastness
Traumatic Physical response to horrors in history
Unexpected Shocking and unexpected surprise
49
Case study 1 Summer InstitutesRoyal Ontario
Museum, 1995-1998
A Moving Photo Album
50
Matrix to identify and predict interactions
between museum experiences and transformation
Level of change Trigger for transformation
conditions necessary for transformation but not sufficient to sustain transformation attitudinal shifts (e.g., feeling of community, taking personal risks, connections with prior experiences)
potential for sustained transformation increased awareness of the value of arts and culture (e.g., enhanced images of artists, changing views of the arts)
profound changes and longer-term transformation motivation for behavioural change (e.g., sustained pursuit of new art forms, altered life practices, increased participation in community cultural events and on-site/online museum visits)
51
Case Study 2 Bridges that Unite Aga Khan
Foundation Canada2008-2009
  • an interactive travelling exhibition that invites
    visitors to consider Canadas role in the world
    through the lens of a remarkable 25-year
    partnership with the Aga Khan Development
    Network. Built on a set of common values, such as
    pluralism, democracy and peace, this unique
    partnership is transforming lives around the
    world. bridgesthatunite.ca

52
triggers for transformation
  • shifts in attitudes about international
    development work today
  • changes in awareness of the impact of grass roots
    development work on diverse cultural communities
  • emotional responses to stories of people living
    in developing countries and interns working in
    communities abroad
  • motivation to continue the conversation and
    contribute to a more pluralistic, tolerant and
    equitable world

53
evidence of changed values
  • Culture module
  • unexpectedly beautiful images of the lush garden
    in Baghe Babur highlighted cultural change (e.g.,
    the look of the garden before and after the
    reconstruction)
  • connecting emotionally with photographs in the
    Culture module (e.g., going back to see the
    restoration in stone town related to images of
    Zanzibar having a sense that the place looks
    tough it would be hard living there)
  • attitudinal shifts in the jobs and training
    opportunities for local Afghans, and restored
    hope that Afghanistan could rebuild with dignity

The garden in Baghe Babur bridgesthatunite.ca/cult
ure1/
54
evidence of changed values
  • Rural Development module
  • better understanding of grass roots cultural
    change
  • changes in attitudes about how effective rural
    development work can be when there is a bottom
    up rather than a top down approach for helping
    people
  • unexpected realization that Everyone can speak
    here in the circle It gives them hope It is
    good to see everyone working together There is
    a feeling of self-reliance and ownership.

Aga Khan Rural Support Program bridgesthatunite.ca
/rural-development1/
55
visitor questionscontinuing the conversation
...
  • What is Canadas role in a world where poverty
    and hopelessness thrive?
  • Where difference is seen as a threat, not an
    asset?
  • Where progress means rejecting the past?
  • What do YOU think is the most important question
    of the 21st century?

56
Motivational triggers and behavioral change
  • Behavioral changes needed to sustain and grow
    Canadas role in international development
    through, for example
  • ensuring sustainability and reducing poverty
  • promoting diversity, pluralism and tolerance
  • reducing violence, security, conflict, and war
  • becoming proactive in international
  • development work

57
Current research
  • continuing to explore triggers for
    transformational experiences through a two-year
    NSF project focused on the Discovery Centers
    Living Laboratory at the Museum of Science,
    Boston (2007-2009)
  • potential triggers for transformation
  • unexpected (having a child participate in a study
    in a Living Laboratory)
  • behavioural (coming to better understand the
    process of cognitive research)
  • attitudinal (finding out that at 15 months there
    is a theory of mind and younger children may
    have abstract or causal thinking)
  • motivational (wanting to observe children
    differently at home)

58
Thank you!
  • With grateful thanks to the Aga Khan Foundation
    Canada Bridges that Unite team for inviting me to
    evaluate their project and consenting to have
    material from evaluation reports included in this
    presentation
  • Contact Details
  • Barbara J. Soren, PhD
  • www.barbarasoren.ca
  • bjs_at_barbarasoren.ca

59
Comments and Thoughts for the Future
Mamie Bittner Deputy Director for
Policy, Planning, Research, and Communications,
IMLS
60
Museum Service Act
  • Public service role connect whole of society to
    cultural, artistic, historic, natural and
    scientific understandings
  • Education in partnership with schools,
    families, communities
  • Conservation
  • Leadership innovation and use of technology
  • Management (ease burden of increasing public use)
  • Partnership

61
Office of Policy, Planning, Research, and
Communications
  • Analysis of impact of museum and library services
  • shall be conducted in ongoing consultation
  • shall identify national needs for, and trends of,
    museum and library services
  • shall report on the impact and effectiveness of
    programs
  • shall identify, and disseminate information on,
    the best practices.
  • (from the Museum and Library Services Act)

62
Five Areas for Future Exploration
  • Contribute to field-wide measures of social
    sector effectiveness and value
  • Define museums as a sector
  • Field-wide studies
  • Use existing community value metrics
  • Research the intersection between formal and
    informal learning

63
Contribute to Field-Wide Measures of Social
Sector Effectiveness and Value
  • Accountability for public dollars
  • Create the language of public value
  • Grantee reporting outcomes and outputs results

64
Define Museums as a Sector
  • Museum Data Initiatives

65
Define Museums as a Sector
  • Exhibiting Public Value Government Funding for
    Museums in the United States

66
Field-Wide Studies - Institutions
  • True Needs, True Partners
  • Heritage Health Index and Connecting to
    Collections

67
Field Wide Studies - Public
  • InterConnections

68
Use Existing Community Value Metrics
  • Museums and Libraries Engaging Americas Youth
  • Positive Youth Development
  • Museums, Libraries, and 21st Century Skills
  • Global awareness, tech literacy, critical
    thinking, etc
  • Museums in the Neighborhood
  • Social and economic impact

69
Research the Intersections of Formal and Informal
Learning
  • Putting Learner at the Center Transforms Practice
  • Partnership for a Nation of Learners
  • Why Zoos and Aquariums Matter
  • BOSS

70
Inventory of Assets
  • Infrastructure
  • Size and scope of sector
  • Collections - Places
  • Expertise/Quality/Content
  • Staff
  • Practice
  • Relationships/Community
  • Deep community connections
  • Power to Transform
  • Experiences that inspire learning
  • Lead to creative action

TRUST
71
Conclusions
  • What we collect defines us
  • We are just beginning to understand the power of
    the museum sector

72
Museum Management and Curatorship
  • Coming Fall 2009
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