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A Novel Distributed Dynamic Location Management Scheme for Minimizing Signaling Costs in Mobile IP

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Each MN keeps a buffer for storing IP addresses of mobility agents. ... Introduced a Distributed Dynamic regional location management for Mobile IP ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Novel Distributed Dynamic Location Management Scheme for Minimizing Signaling Costs in Mobile IP


1
A Novel Distributed Dynamic LocationManagement
Scheme for MinimizingSignaling Costs in Mobile IP
  • Authors Jiang Xie, Ian F. Akyildiz
  • CS 6204
  • Oct 11, 2005
  • Presented by Hui Zhang

2
Agenda
  • Introduction
  • Distributed Dynamic Regional Location
    Management
  • Signaling Cost Function
  • Optimal Regional Network Size
  • Analysis Results
  • Conclusion

3
Introduction
  • Mobile IP
  • Increasing Demands for mobile wireless access to
    Internet applications.
  • enables terminals to maintain all ongoing
    communications while moving from one subnet to
    another.
  • Some challenges
  • The signaling cost may become very expensive
  • Location updates may become very significant as
    the number of MNs increases.
  • The signaling delay may be very long
  • If the distance between the visited network and
    the home network of the MN is large, the
    signaling delay for the location registration is
    long.

4
Introduction (contd)
  • Mobile IP Regional Registration aims
  • To reduce the number of signaling messages to the
    home network
  • To reduce the signaling delay when an MN moves
    from one subnet to another

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
5
Care-of address
Care-of address
GFA Gateway Foreign Agent MN Mobile
Node FA Foreign Agent HA Home Agent
6
packets1
Packets2 (Tunnel)
Care-of address
GFA Gateway Foreign Agent MN Mobile Node
FA Foreign Agent HA Home Agent CN
correspondent node
7
Disadvantages
  • Centralized System Architecture
  • A centralized GFA manages all the traffic within
    a regional network.
  • Mobile IP regional registration is more
    sensitive to the failure of GFAs.
  • The number of FAs under a GFA is very critical
    for the system performance.

8
Distributed Dynamic Regional Location Management
  • Distributed GFA management scheme
  • Each FA can function either as an FA or a GFA
  • The first FA should act as GFA
  • GFA maintains a visitor list
  • GFA relays all the home registration requests to
    the HA
  • Dynamic scheme
  • There is no fixed regional network boundary for
    each MN.
  • The number of FAs under a GFA is not fixed, but
    adjusted for each MN according to the
    user-variant and time-variant user parameters.
  • An MN decides when to perform a home location
    update according to its changing mobility and
    packet arrival pattern.

9
Architecture
10
Advantages
  • The traffic load is distributed to each mobility
    agent
  • The system robust is enhanced
  • Each MN has its own optimized system
    configuration FROM TIME TO TIME

11
Protocol for MNs
  • Each MN keeps a buffer for storing IP addresses
    of mobility agents.
  • An MN records the address of the GFA into its
    buffer when it enters a new regional network and
    then performs a home registration
  • After the home registration, the optimal number
    of FAs for a regional network is computed based
    on the up-to-date parameters of the MN

12
Comparison
  • Distributed system architecture and dynamic
    regional network are independent. So, there are
    four possible combinations
  • Centralized system architecture and fixed
    regional network,
  • Distributed system architecture and fixed
    regional network,
  • Distributed system architecture and dynamic
    regional network, and
  • Centralized system architecture and dynamic
    regional network

13
Comparison (contd)
14
Signaling Cost
  • Location Update Cost - CLU
  • Home registration cost
  • Regional registration cost
  • Packet Delivery Cost CPU
  • The transmission cost
  • Processing cost to route a tunneled packet from
    the HA to the serving FA of an MN
  • Total Signaling Cost - CTOT
  • CTOT CLU CPU

15
Home registration cost
16
Regional registration cost
17
Location Update Cost
18
Location Update Cost
  • The cost model of Centralized Scheme
  • The cost model of distributed fixed scheme and
    distributed dynamic scheme
  • M m-th movement (the action an MN moves out of
    a subnet)
  • Tf the average time an MN stays in each subnet
  • EM the expectation of M, which is a function
    of k
  • k the number of FAs beneath a GFA, the size of a
    subnet

19
Packet Delivery Cost
20
Packet Delivery Cost (contd)
  • The total packet delivery cost per unit time
  • Centralized Scheme
  • distributed fixed scheme distributed dynamic
    scheme

21
Optimal Regional Network Size
  • The optimal number of FAs beneath a GFA (kopt) is
    defined as the value of k that minimizes the
    cost function
  • The iterative algorithm is used to calculate the
    kopt
  • Because k can only be an integer, the cost
    function is not a continuous function of k.
    Therefore, it is not appropriate to take
    derivative with respect to k of the cost function
    to get the minimum.

22
Analysis Results
  • Centralized Fixed Scheme vs Distributed Fixed
    Scheme
  • even under non-optimal regional network size, the
    distributed scheme always performs better than
    the centralized IETF Mobile IP regional
    registration scheme
  • the distributed scheme with optimal regional
    network size can further improve the performance.

23
Distributed Fixed Scheme vs Distributed Dynamic
Scheme
  • the signaling cost of the distributed dynamic
    scheme is less than that of both the distributed
    fixed scheme using fixed optimal regional network
    size and using user-variant optimal size.

24
Distributed Fixed Scheme vs Distributed Dynamic
Scheme
  • the distributed fixed system always pays higher
    cost than the distributed dynamic system
  • The Distributed Dynamic regional location
    management is the better choice

25
Conclusion
  • Introduced a Distributed Dynamic regional
    location management for Mobile IP
  • A distributed GFA system architecture where each
    FA can function either as an FA or a GFA.
  • may allocate signaling burden more evenly.
  • A dynamic scheme to dynamically optimize the
    regional network size of each MN according to its
    current traffic load and mobility
  • Analytical results demonstrated that the
    signaling bandwidth is significantly reduced
    through the distributed system architecture
    compared with the IETF Mobile IP regional
    registration scheme.

26
Thanks
  • Question ?

27
Parameters(1)
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