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Sustainable Laboratory

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Title: Sustainable Laboratory


1
Sustainable Laboratory Design in the UK
Pioneering Examples and a Direction for the
Future
Mike Dockery
22nd September 2006
2
Why should you listen to MIKE DOCKERY ?
A bald bloke with a short beard and a strange
whining accent, but also
  • Chairman of the BSI Lab Technical Committee
  • LBI/18, nominated by the IMechE.
  • Invited expert to the CEN TC332 WG4 Group
  • for the new European fume cupboard standard.
  • Lead of the UK RD Facilities Consortium
  • team investigating new lab design concepts.
  • Contributor to the US Green Building Councils
  • LABS21 initiative looking at sustainable labs.

3
Why should you listen to MIKE DOCKERY ?
A bald bloke with a short beard and a strange
whining accent, but also
P 3276/13
  • Chairman of the BSI Lab Technical Committee
  • LBI/18, nominated by the IMechE.
  • Invited expert to the CEN TC332 WG4 Group
  • for the new European fume cupboard standard.
  • Lead of the UK RD Facilities Consortium
  • team investigating new lab design concepts.
  • Contributor to the US Green Building Councils
  • LABS21 initiative looking at sustainable labs.

4
Sustainable Lab Design an Achievable
Challenge or Mutual Exclusivity?
5
Companies are learning that, as markets have
gone global, so, too, must the concept and
practice of corporate social responsibility. And
they are discovering that doing the right
thing, at the end of the day, is actually good
for business.
United Nations Environment Programme
Kofi Annan, UN Secretary-General
6
  • Emerging scientific techniques
  • Regulatory requirements
  • Competition for the best academics
  • Cost metrics/benchmarks
  • Research efficiency/productivity
  • Environmental matters

S I T U A T I O N S U M M A R Y
The Drivers
  • Adaptability
  • Flexibility
  • Extendability
  • Modularity
  • Sustainability
  • Rationality

The Enablers
  • Capital costs
  • Maintainability
  • Cultural disruption
  • Buildability
  • Available expertise
  • Corporate image

The Impacts
7
"Faster-Better-Cheaper"
8
"Faster-Better-Cheaper-Greener"
9
  • Sustainable Development Standards
  • being trialled in the UK
  • AA1000
  • (Institute for Social and Ethical
    Accountability)
  • ISO 14000 Family
  • (International Standards Organisation
  • BS 7750 acted as the
  • core document for ISO 14001)
  • Project Sigma
  • Sustainability Integrated Guidelines for
    Management
  • (BSI, Forum for the Future)

10
THE BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENTS ENERGY
ASSESSMENT METHOD (BREEAM) Having been routinely
applied to office buildings, a small number of
labs have now been studied, although no
standardised and readily-available lab version
has yet emerged as a result of these exercises.
11
Sustainable Lab Design is Not Solely about Energy
Efficiency! (although it is extremely important)
12
THE NATURAL STEP (TNS)
SYSTEM CONDITION 1 Substances extracted from
the Earths Crust must not systematically
increase in nature. SYSTEM CONDITION 2
Substances produced by society must not
systematically increase in nature. SYSTEM
CONDITION 3 The physical basis for
the productivity and the diversity of nature must
not be systematically diminished we must not
harvest more from nature than can be
recreated. SYSTEM CONDITION 4 We must be fair
and efficient in meeting basic human needs with
the most resource-efficient methods possible.
13
  • SOME OF THE CENTRAL CHALLENGES
  • Laboratories have been inherently and
  • traditonally energy-intensive.
  • Bespoke/customised designs are not
  • readily re-used.
  • Recycling of potentially contaminated
  • material is not easy.
  • Scientific needs restrict the use of many
  • renewable resource materials.

14
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
The compilation and evaluation of the
inputs, outputs, and the potential environmental
impacts of a product system throughout its life
cycle. ISO 14040 1997 Environmental
Management, Life Cycle Assessment, Principles
and Framework
15
Green Definitions
ECO-EFFICIENCY Making more (product) with less
(materials energy), better and (to last)
longer. ECO-DESIGN The removal or reduction of
any environmental impacts associated with a
product or service at the design stage e.g. by
using less materials and energy substituting
non-toxic materials for toxic materials designing
a product so that it can be disassembled at the
end of its useful life and the components re-used
or recycled.
16
Green Definitions and the Flexilab Concept
ECO-EFFICIENCY Making more (product) with less
(materials energy), better and (to last)
longer. ECO-DESIGN The removal or reduction of
any environmental impacts associated with a
product or service at the design stage e.g. by
using less materials and energy substituting
non-toxic materials for toxic materials designing
a product so that it can be disassembled at the
end of its useful life and the components re-used
or recycled.
17
Flexibility and Adaptability
designing a product (a lab) so that it can
be disassembled at the end of its useful life
and the components re-used or recycled.
18
PLUG-IN MODULARITY
There is a movement towards the evolution of lab
furniture and fume hoods which match the
established plug-in adaptability of
Microbiological Safety Cabinets. This challenges
the traditional approach of labs as being an
assembly of built-in, immovable components. This
also imposes additional requirements on the
robustness of containment performance.
It is, however, fully consistent with the concept
of the Green or Sustainable Lab.
19
The GSK Flexilab
In the UK we had spent a lot of time
talking about flexibility and adaptability, yet
the major step towards reality in terms of
engineering and architecture always seemed to be
the next project. GSK at Stevenage
eventually stepped up to the plate and, through
their own engineers, converted some relatively
new traditional labs. In taking this step they
brought the concept into the real world and
coined the term Flexilab.
20
The GSK Flexilab
The Flexilab is an innovatory renovation
of existing traditional lab modules by
  • Combining 2 existing modules into 1.
  • Using an open-plan office.
  • Making full use of plug-in furniture/enclosures
    .
  • Providing a services grid/matrix.
  • Having a moveable lab/write-up boundary.
  • Increasing 2x6 person occupancy to 20.

21
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22
TRADITIONAL CHEMISTRY LAB
23
TRADITIONAL CHEMISTRY LAB
24
FREE-FORM FLEXILAB-STYLE LAYOUT
25
FREE-FORM FLEXILAB-STYLE LAYOUT
26
COST BENEFITS OF FLEXILAB-THINKING
At the 2nd AURO RPA workshop, held at Stevenage
UK, Alan Muir of GSK explained the Flexilab
rationale
For future general labs, open plan and
flexibility are the keys to reducing costs and
enabling quick and efficient change of use. A lab
can be changed dramatically without any
structural operations. The internal fit-out
Costs of the Flexilab are less than half of the
traditional Stevenage model.
It is suggested that applying these principles to
general labs may produce construction cost
savings (all effects) of some 10-15.
27
PLUG-IN MODULAR FUME CUPBOARDS
28
PRODUCTION LINE CHEMISTRY LABS
29
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30
ARRANGED FOR PRODUCTION LINE CHEMISTRY
31
MODULAR ROBOTICSENCLOSURES
32
Mobile, Modular LEVs for Analytical and
Automation Equipment
33
BS EN 14175 Definition Fume Cupboard
Protective device with an enclosure located in a
work place limiting the spread of airborne
contaminants to operators and other personnel
outside the fume cupboard... It is ventilated by
an induced flow of air through an adjustable
working opening and provides for the controlled
release of safe discharge of airborne
contaminants.
34
The used of IVCs can cut the air change rate of
a holding room by over 50 (when compared with
open cage racks).
  • Lower capital costs
  • Lower energy costs
  • Less maintenance
  • Sustainable design

35
Containment and Testing
36
Fume Cupboard PerformanceTest Method Standards
British Standard BS 7258
This standard is being superseded by
European (CEN) Standard EN 14175
37
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38
The Robustness of Containment Test
Original jury-rigged version of moving plate
test in HSL lab
39
The Robustness of Containment Test
Carrying case for prototype of portable moving
plate test
40
The Robustness of Containment Test
Guide track
41
The Robustness of Containment Test
Powered trolley
42
The Robustness of Containment Test
First section of plate (made from
aluminium honeycomb for light weight/strength)
43
The Robustness of Containment Test
Complete plate
44
The Robustness of Containment Test
Control gear (speed, distance, dwell, and
periodicity of movement can be modified)
45
The Robustness of Containment Test
By off-setting the plate on the trolley fume
hoods next to walls can be tested
46
The Robustness of Containment Test
The equipment runs automatically when the
sequence is started
47
The Robustness of Containment Test
M A X P L A N K
The moving plate has recently gained an
appropriate nickname
48
Can we prevent HVAC systems from killing lab
sustainability stone dead?
  • Naturally-ventilated labs are not generally
    feasible
  • write-ups/academic spaces may be.
  • Mechanistic application of (historically)
    empirical
  • ventilation rates must be challenged.
  • Diversity in main heating/cooling plant should
    be
  • more regularly considered.
  • Why do engineers allow for lighting heat gain
    when
  • sizing chillers, but ignore it when specifying
    boilers?
  • And so on, and so on..reject design by rote!

49
Greener Labs through Simple Challenges to
Traditional Engineering Design Standards
By using a combination of simple changes to lab
design norms we can make them more ergonomic,
safer, greener places to work. However, rigorous
testing will be needed to ensure safe working
conditions in the labs.
50
CONVENTIONAL 500mm SASH STOP The obstruction to
the sightline will often result in the
scientist tripping the stop, moving the sash
higher, viewing below the handle, and destroying
containment, projectile protection, and energy
efficiency.
51
SCANDANAVIAN 400mm SASH STOP For the 85
percentile, a 400mm sash opening will enable
most operations to be carried out by working
below, and looking above, the sash handle.
52
Radical Energy Reductions through a
Combination of Simple Changes
  • SITUATION 1
  • A 2m VERTICAL SASH FUME CUPBOARD
  • 0.5m/s FACE VELOCITY (Anecdotal Tradition)
  • 0.5m SASH OPENING
  • 2 X 0.5 X 0.5 0.50 m3/s EXTRACT VOLUME
  • SITUATION 2
  • A 2m COMBINATION SASH FUME CUPBOARD (2x1m Panes)
  • 0.3m/s FACE VELOCITY (Robust Containment
    Achievable)
  • 0.4m SASH OPENING (Scandanavian Approach)
  • 1 X 0.3 X 0.4 0.12 m3/s EXTRACT VOLUME

53
  • I am not suggesting that labs can be designed
  • with only 25 of a traditional vent approach.
  • My proposed route to a target would be
  • Size the ventilation systems by means of the
  • accepted norms.
  • Set an objective of 60 of the result from (1).
  • Apply challenges to device types, face
    velocities,
  • volume flow rates, sash configurations, and
  • control strategies in order to meet the new
    goal.
  • The results can, should, will be
  • Safer, more ergonomic operator conditions.
  • Reduced capital costs.
  • Improvements in energy efficiency.

54
Traditional Design 60 of Trad. Design
Ductwork ? 75 Cost, i.e., 25 Saving
100 Airflow
60 Airflow
Ductwork ? 100 Cost
Boilers, Chillers, Other Central Plant 100
Rating, ? 100 Cost
Boilers, Chillers, Other Central Plant 60
Rating, ? 65-70 Cost (not a direct
proportionality)
Plant Rooms, Service Risers 100 Rating, ? 100
Cost
Plant Rooms, Service Risers Some space
savings (not a direct proportionality)
55
Modularity Prefabrication
Putting 3D CAD Design to a Value-driven
Engineering Use
But what has this got to do with sustainability?
56
3D Engineering Layouts yeah, OK, everyone does
these, but what use can they be in the real
world?
3D CAD
57
Modular and prefabricated services modules
going directly from 3D design to manufacture and
installation (cutting out several middle men!).
58
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59
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60
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61
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66
Assembly of modules in the fabrication shop
Cheaper, much quicker, and a quantum leap in
quality control
67
Not quite a production line, but, so much more
effective than site-based fabrication and assembly
68
The MEP modules are delivered to site ready for
erection
69
MEP modules installed in a corridor
70
A complex area with junctions and connections
71
Junction of two module routes
72
The Lab Facility Profile Model benchmarking
How good is my lab?
A method of measuring and comparing
sustainability.
73
FACILITY PROFILE
74
  • FLEXIBILITY
  • ADAPTABILITY
  • EXTENDABILITY
  • MODULARITY
  • COMPLIANCE
  • INTERACTION
  • AMBIENCE/FEEL
  • SOCIAL
  • CAPITAL COST
  • REVENUE COST
  • REUSABILITY
  • ENVIRONMENTAL

THE 12 TICK BOX METRICS TO CHARACTERISE A LAB
75
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76
SCORE 1BAD, 5GOOD
12 TICK-BOX METRICS
77
POSSIBLE PROFILE RESULT NOTE The scores
are unlikely to be round units, since they
will each be the average of responses to five or
more tick-box questions.
78
10. REVENUE COST
79
11. REUSABILITY
80
Q Has fume dispersal from the lab been
modelled? A No / Assume BS OK / ASHRAE type
calculation / Wind tunnel and smoke / Wind tunnel
and tracer gas (No1, Wind tunnelgas5)
Q How is waste disposal dealt with? A Bulk
disposal/General separation of waste streams/Dry
categorised separation/ Wet dry categorised
separation/Continuously-monitored wet dry
categorised sepn. (Bulk disp.1,C-m wd cat.
sep.5)
12.ENVIRONMENTAL
81
FLEXIBILITY ADAPTABILITY EXTENDABILITY
MODULARITY COMPLIANCE INTERACTION
AMBIENCE/FEEL SOCIAL CAPITAL COST REVENUE
COST REUSABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL
Company A Traditional modern lab building 6
years old
SCORE 1BAD, 5GOOD
12 TICK-BOX METRICS
82
FLEXIBILITY ADAPTABILITY EXTENDABILITY
MODULARITY COMPLIANCE INTERACTION
AMBIENCE/FEEL SOCIAL CAPITAL COST REVENUE
COST REUSABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL
Company A Traditional modern lab building 6
years old
SCORE 1BAD, 5GOOD
12 TICK-BOX METRICS
83
FLEXIBILITY ADAPTABILITY EXTENDABILITY
MODULARITY COMPLIANCE INTERACTION
AMBIENCE/FEEL SOCIAL CAPITAL COST REVENUE
COST REUSABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL
Company A High through-put sciences building 1
year old
SCORE 1BAD, 5GOOD
12 TICK-BOX METRICS
84
FLEXIBILITY ADAPTABILITY EXTENDABILITY
MODULARITY COMPLIANCE INTERACTION
AMBIENCE/FEEL SOCIAL CAPITAL COST REVENUE
COST REUSABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL
Company A High through-put sciences building 1
year old
SCORE 1BAD, 5GOOD
12 TICK-BOX METRICS
85
FLEXIBILITY ADAPTABILITY EXTENDABILITY
MODULARITY COMPLIANCE INTERACTION
AMBIENCE/FEEL SOCIAL CAPITAL COST REVENUE
COST REUSABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL
Company B Traditional modern lab building
SCORE 1BAD, 5GOOD
12 TICK-BOX METRICS
86
FLEXIBILITY ADAPTABILITY EXTENDABILITY
MODULARITY COMPLIANCE INTERACTION
AMBIENCE/FEEL SOCIAL CAPITAL COST REVENUE
COST REUSABILITY ENVIRONMENTAL
Company A Trad Lab superimposed on Company B
Trad Lab profile
SCORE 1BAD, 5GOOD
12 TICK-BOX METRICS
87
OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT
  • To engage with key client groups/individuals
  • (the stakeholders) and to effectively communicate
  • the basis of decisions.
  • To ensure that HVAC systems are designed with
  • cognisance of the Sustainability Agenda, and are
  • not simply a formulaic reiteration of the
    BSI/DIN/..
  • ..ASHRAE/CIBSE/AFNOR standard solutions.
  • To recognise that the very nature of
    laboratories
  • (needing future adaptability) lends itself to a
  • productive application of one of the central
    tenets
  • of Sustainability that of re-use rather than
    replace.

88
SUMMARY
This is not an issue handed down from the
knit your own wallpaper brigade, to which we
can afford to pay mere lip service. The
rational and measured application of the
principles can pay dividends in scientific and
business efficiencies, and we should take the
opportunities that Sustainability offers (before,
perhaps, they are imposed on us by legislation).
It will also help demonstrate that our various
corporate commitments to the community and the
environment do mean something.
89
THE END (Please wake the person sitting next to
you)
If you need any further information, get in touch
with Mike Dockery MIKEDOCKERY_at_suigeneris.fsbusin
ess.co.uk
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