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The Roman Republic

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What were the keys to the Roman defeat of Carthage during the Punic Wars? ... Terence (185 159 B.C.) Latin Prose. Influence of Hellenistic Art. Values and Attitudes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Roman Republic


1
Chapter 5
  • The Roman Republic

2
Discussion Questions
  • Why were the Romans able to defeat or subdue all
    their enemies in the Italian peninsula?
  • What were the keys to the Roman defeat of
    Carthage during the Punic Wars?
  • What influence did Greece and other Italian
    peoples have on the Romans?
  • What was the nature of Roman Imperialism?
  • Did slavery have a positive or negative effect on
    the Roman Republic?
  • What factors brought about the downfall of the
    Roman Republic?

3
Timeline
4
Story of Rome
  • Authentic Roman history begins 305 B.C.
  • History written by
  • Livy
  • Virgil
  • Eutropus

5
  • Sturdy Farmers
  • Faith in their Dods
  • Obedience to Elders
  • Honest
  • Brave daring Soldiers

6
  • We study Roman History furnished basis for
  • modern law
  • Government
  • Language
  • Literature
  • Practicall lessons

7
Livy
  • Antiquissimus temporibus Saturnus in Italiam
    venissse dicitur
  • Saturn mythical King expelled from Olympus went
    to Latium during reign of Janus

8
Virgil
  • In the Aneid tells of Aeneas the afertermathof
    the Trojan War

9
Livy
  • Ilia gives birthto twin sons fathered by Mars
    (God of War)
  • Romulus
  • Remus
  • Both adopted by a she-wolf

10
  • Legends came to have power all their own gave
    Romans common pride in divine origin
  • Common desire to emulate Romulus gifts as
    statesman
  • Foundation for civic religion
  • She-wolfs cave
  • Fig tree

11
The Emergence of Rome
  • Geography of Italy
  • 750 miles long 120 miles across
  • Mountains and Plains
  • Islands
  • Rome
  • Tiber River
  • Mediterranean Sea

12
Map 5.1 Ancient Italy
13
Indo European Invasion
  • Circa 2000-1000 B.C.
  • Waves of Indo European settlers
  • Herdsmen
  • Farmers
  • Horse
  • Wheeled cart
  • Bronze metallurgy
  • 900 B.C. Iron working

14
The Greeks, Etruscans, and Early Rome
  • The Greeks
  • Arrived between 750 550 B.C.
  • Settled primarily along southern and southwestern
    coast of Italy and on Sicily.
  • Greek culture influenced Roman cultural
    developments including religion

15
The Greeks, Etruscans, and Early Rome
  • The Etruscans
  • Origins No satisfactory explanation not of
    Indo-European origin
  • Likely from Asia Minor
  • Urbanization
  • 6th century B.C. established confederation of
    cities
  • Northern and central Italy
  • Writing based on Greek Alphabet
  • Metallurgy
  • Traders
  • Gods in Human Form

16
The Greeks, Etruscans, and Early Rome
  • Land owning aristocracy
  • Unpopular with native populations
  • Gave Romans knowledge of Arch
  • Fortune telling
  • Respect for women
  • Some decent reckoned through maternal line

17
The Greeks, Etruscans, and Early Rome
  • Early Rome
  • Romulus and Remus (753 B.C.) Legendary Founding
  • Monarchy
  • Etruscan rule 625 B.C.
  • Rome prosperous
  • Temples
  • Homes

18
  • Founding of the Republic (c. 509 B.C.)
  • Tarquin expelled from Rome
  • Roman Republic established
  • Conquered Etruscan territory
  • Conquered Greek cities on Italian mainland
  • Impact of long series of military conflicts
  • Social
  • Economic
  • Cultural

19
  • Adverse affect on Poor
  • Concentrated more land in the handsof wealthy
    proprietors
  • Long service forced ordinary farmers to neglect
    cultivation of land
  • Debt
  • Lost farms

20
  • Displaced farmers fled to cities
  • Some later resettled on great estates in
    conquered territories
  • Repeated acquisition of land made possible the
    absorption of greater part of population in
    agricultural pursuits

21
The Roman State
  • Political Institutions
  • Consuls and Praetors
  • Imperium
  • Specialized Officials
  • Quaestors, Aediles, Censors
  • Roman Senate
  • 300 Men served for life
  • Centuriate Assembly
  • Social Organization
  • Paterfamilias
  • Clientage
  • Patricians and Plebeians

22
The Struggle of the Orders
  • Political Inequality
  • Plebeians withdraw from the state (494 B.C.)
  • Tribunes of the Plebs
  • Council of the Plebs
  • Plebiscita
  • The Twelve Tables of Law (450 B.C.)
  • Hortensian Law (287 B.C.)
  • Consequences of the struggle between the orders

23
The Roman Conquest of Italy
  • Livy
  • Conquest of the Samnites (beginning c. 340 B.C.)
  • Roman Confederation
  • Citizenship
  • Opportunistic Expansion
  • Roads
  • Obligatory Military Service

24
Roman Roads in Italy, c. 100 B.C.
25
Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (264 133
B.C.)
  • The Struggle with Carthage
  • First Punic War (264 241 B.C.)
  • Roman conquest of Sicily
  • Second Punic War (218 205 B.C.)
  • Hannibal
  • Invasion of Italy
  • Battle of Cannae (216 B.C.)
  • Battle of Zama
  • Roman conquest of Spain
  • Third Punic War (149 146 B.C.)
  • Cato
  • Carthage destroyed

26
Map 5.2 Roman Conquests in the Mediterranean,
264-133 B.C.
27
The Eastern Mediterranean Roman Imperialism
  • The Eastern Mediterranean
  • Greek support for Carthage
  • Macedonia made Roman province (148 B.C.)
  • Corinth destroyed (146 B.C.)
  • Acquisition of Pergamum (133 B.C.)
  • The Nature of Roman Imperialism
  • Opportunistic expansion
  • Willful expansion

28
Roman Religion
  • Religion and the State
  • Adoption of New Deities
  • Greco-Roman Religion
  • Rituals
  • Omens
  • Household Cults
  • Religious Festivals

29
The Temple of Diana Nimes, Southern France
30
Education The Importance of Rhetoric
  • Rome had no public education
  • Greek Studies
  • Rhetoric and philosophy
  • Schools

31
Schoolmaster and Pupils
32
Roman Family, Roman Law
  • The Roman Family
  • Paterfamilias
  • Authority
  • Arranged marriages
  • Divorce
  • Education of daughters
  • The Evolution of Roman Law
  • The Twelve Tables (450 B.C.)
  • Praetors civil law
  • Law of Nations law of peoples
  • Law of Nature natural law

33
A Roman Lady
34
The Development of Literature and Art
  • Literature
  • Plautus (c. 254 184 B.C.)
  • Terence (185 159 B.C.)
  • Latin Prose
  • Influence of Hellenistic Art
  • Values and Attitudes
  • Cato the Elder (234 149 B.C.)
  • Scipio Aemilianus (185 129 B.C.)

35
The Growth of Slavery
  • Slaves from conquests
  • Slave Occupations
  • Latifundia
  • Treatment of Slaves
  • Slave Laws
  • Slave Revolts
  • Revolt in Sicily
  • 135-132 B.C (Eunus eastern section of Sicily )
  • (Kleon western part of
    Sicily)
  • 104 101 B.C. (Salvius)
  • Revolt by Spartacus (73 B.C.)

36
The Pont du Gard Roman Aqueduct Provence, France
37
Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic (133 31
B.C.)
  • Power of the Senate
  • Control of the Nobiles (Governing Class)
  • Optimates (Sulla)
  • Populares (Gracchi)
  • Rule of the Equestrians
  • The Land Problem
  • Latifundias
  • Tiberius Gracchus (163 133 B.C.)
  • Gaius Gracchus (153 121 B.C.)

38
A New Role for the Roman Army Marius and Sulla
  • Marius (consul 107, 104 100 B.C.)
  • Military reforms
  • Lucius Cornelius Sulla (dictator 82 79 B.C.)
  • Seizes power using the army
  • Reign of terror against opponents

39
The Death of the Republic
  • The Rise of Pompey
  • Role of Marcus Tullius Cicero ( 106 43 B.C.)
  • First Triumvirate 60 B.C. (Crassus, Pompey and
    Caesar)
  • Julius Caesar (100 44 B.C.)
  • 59 B.C. elected Consul
  • 58 B.C. Pro Consul of France
  • Conquest of Gaul (Modern France)
  • Crassus killed in Parthian War 53 B.C.
  • Crosses the Rubicon River (49 B.C.) alia iact est
  • Defeats Pompey
  • Dictator in 47 B.C. Dictator for Life in 44 B.C.
  • Reconstitutes Senate
  • Assassinated (44 B.C.)

40
2nd Triumvirate
  • Octavian, Marc Anthony, Lepidus
  • Philipi 42 B.C.
  • Cleopatra Queen of Egypt
  • Battle of Actium (31 B.C.)
  • Marc Anthony and Cleopatra commit suicide
  • Augustus

41
Map 5.3 Roman Dominions in the Late Republic, 31
B.C.
42
Literature in the Late Republic
  • Catullus (born c. 82 B.C.)
  • Lucretius (c. 94 55 B.C.)
  • Cicero (106 43 B.C.)
  • Sallust (86 35 B.C.)
  • Caesar (100 44 B.C.) Comentari di Bello Galico

43
Web Links
  • The Mysterious Etruscans
  • Internet Ancient History Sourcebook - Rome
  • Encyclopedia Mythica Roman Mythology
  • Rome Exposed
  • Hannibal Barca and the Punic Wars
  • Resisting Slavery in Ancient Rome
  • The Glory that was Rome
  • Julius Caesar The Last Dictator
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