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Title: Energy%20Use%20and%20Clean%20Development%20Mechanism%20Opportunities%20in%20Asia


1
Energy Use and Clean Development Mechanism
Opportunities in Asia
Ram M. Shrestha Asian Institute of
Technology Thailand 25th March 2004
2
Presentation Outline
  • Economic Growth, Energy requirement and CO2
    emissions
  • Sectoral Energy Related CO2 Emission in Asia
  • Types of Energy Related CDM Projects
  • Potential CDM projects by sector
  • Marginal Abatement Costs of Some Cleaner Power
    Projects
  • Final Remarks

3
Economic Growth, Energy requirement and CO2
emissions
4
CO2 Emissions, Total Primary Energy Supply and
GDP in OECD and Developing Asia during1990 -1999
OECD
Developing Asia
Source IEA 2001
5
CO2 Emissions Share of Developing Asia, OECD and
other Regions
1981
1999
OECD
OECD
Asia
Asia
Source IEA 2001
6
Average Annual Growth Rates of GDP, Energy Supply
and CO2 Emission during 1990-2000
GDP (1995) TPES CO2
OECD 2.25 1.65 1.12
Japan 1.29 1.82 1.15
Developing Asia 6.68 4.30 3.23
China 9.84 3.60 2.80
India 5.45 4.69 4.57
Thailand 4.36 8.09 7.22
Malaysia 6.56 8.13 6.87
South Korea 6.45 8.02 6.65
  • TPES Total Primary Energy Supply
  • Growth of energy requirement and CO2 in Asia is
    way above that of OECD countries

Source IEA 2001
7
CO2 and Energy intensities and Fossil fuel
dependence (South Asia)
  • Energy and CO2 intensity in major countries
    much higher than OECD average

Data source EIA website, March 2004
8
CO2 and Energy intensities and Fossil fuel
dependence (South East Asia)
Energy Intensity and CO2 intensity are not only
higher but also increasing in most countries
Data source EIA website, March 2004
9
CO2 and Energy intensity and Fossil fuel
dependence (Other Asia)
Energy and CO2 intensity of China and Mongolia
are very high compared to OECD average, though
show a declining trend
Data source EIA website, March 2004
10
Projected CO2 emissions 2000-2025
Data source EIA website, March 2004
  • Without significant efforts in mitigation,
    Developing country contribution to total world
    emissions will be higher than Developed countries
    by 2020.

11
Climate change and Sustainability
  • Climate Change could adversely affect many
    developing countries in the long run
  • GHG Mitigation would enhance sustainable
    development

12
Cereal Production Impact of Climate
Change CGCM1, 2080s
Source http//www.gfse.at/publ/Powerpoint/1820Fe
bruar/18February_P2_01_IIASA_Shah.ppt
13
Fossil fuel consumption increase has both long
and short term implications
  • On Environment e.g., increased air pollution
  • On economy e.g., dependency on imports of energy

14
PM10 concentration (1999) in selected cities in
the world
Source World Development Indicators 2003
Out of 16 cities in the world with PM10
concentration gt 100 micrograms/m3, 15 cities are
in Asia and 14 of them are in China and India.
15
SO2 concentration (1990-98) in the selected
cities in the world
Source World Development Indicators 2003
Out of 30 cities exceeding WHO guideline in the
world, 23 cities are in Asia and 20 cities are
only in China.
16
Energy and Urban Air pollution
17
Implications of growth on DevelopmentEnergy
import dependency,
Import dependency is increasing Higher important
dependency can make economies vulnerable to
fluctuations in energy prices This introduces
long term growth uncertainties
Country/Region 1990 2000
China -3.4 5.9
India 16.1 27.1
Other South Asia 40.2 45.5
South East Asia -37.7 -4.0
Developing Asia 1.1 11.6
OECD 28.0 29.8

Data source
IEA (2002b)
18
Fuel Import Dependency of Thailandunder CO2
reduction targets
19
Primary Energy Mix under CO2 Emission Reduction
Targets (1)
  • Significant Biomass use at all ER target
    Coal use under ER15
  • Noticeable in Oil use under ER15.
  • Natural gas share

20
What does Renewable Energy imply for Sustainable
Development?
  • Biomass example of sustainable energy resource
  • Biomass resource development helps mitigate GHG
    emissions and provides sustainable development
    benefits through rural employment generation
  • RETs like wind, solar, hydro also improve the
    local environment
  • CDMSustainable Development?

21
NO2, SO2 Emissions in Thailand under CO2
Reduction Targets
Total NOx Emission
Total SO2 Emission
  • Total cumulative NO2 emission in ER15 8.6 less
    than in Base case during 2000-2030
  • Total cumulative SO2 emission in ER15 35.4 less
    than in Base case during 2000-2030
  • SO2 reduction higher than NO2

22
The Factors for high CO2 growth in developing
countries
  • High growth in GDP
  • High dependence on fossil fuel
  • Inefficient use of energy resources
  • What prospects for CDM?

23
Sectoral Energy Related CO2 Emission in Asian
Countries
24
Sectoral contribution to National CO2 eq.
emissionsWhat are the sources of GHG emissions?
And how big?
AZERBAIJAN BANGLA-DESH BHUTAN CAMBO-DIA INDO-NESIA PAK-ISTAN
Total Emissions and Removals (Gg) 59886 76419 632 59445 883198 155287
Energy () 87.91 25.93 15.00 2.99 20.10 53.50
Fugitive emissions ( of energy emissions) 17.68 0.74 0.00 0.00 10.77 7.01
Industrial Process () 2.41 1.95 21.16 0.08 0.00 7.26
Manure Management () 1.05 2.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.59
Forest and Grassland conversion (Gg) -5.86 2.32 0.00 76.06 34.33 0.00
Solid Waste () 2.24 1.21 0.00 0.01 0.00 1.24
Wastewater treatment 1.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13
GHG emissions from National Communications ( year
1994)
25
Contribution to country CO2 eq emissions
MALAY-SIA PHILI-PPINES SRI LANKA SOUTH KOREA THAILAND VIETNAM
Total Emissions and Removals (Gg) 144193 154812 56696 285115 307621 29185
Energy () 58.54 31.86 43.97 85.77 42.13 85.96
Fugitive emissions ( of energy) 14.76 0.46 0.01 2.11 3.14 3.91
Industrial Process () 3.45 6.84 0.53 6.18 5.19 13.04
Manure Management () 1.09 0.00 1.74 0.03 0.95 0.01
Forest and Grassland conversion (Gg) 5.30 42.34 6.61 0.00 19.72 0.19
Solid Waste () 15.19 2.75 17.41 0.00 0.13 4.77
Wastewater treatment 3.20 1.22 0.02 2.17 0.11 0.13
26
Sectoral Share in CO2 emissions in Selected
countries in 2000
Source World energy Council
  • Electricity, Manufacturing Industry and
    Transport are the main source of energy related
    emissions
  • In Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, China and
    Thailand electricity sector contributes 30-50 of
    energy related CO2 emissions

27
Sectoral Share in CO2 emissions in Selected
countries in 2000
Transport sector contributes around 30 in
Srilanka, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and
Vietnam Manufacturing accounts for over 30 in
China, Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam
28
Types of Energy Related CDM projects
  • Energy efficiency improvement projects
  • Fuel switching to cleaner fossil fuels
  • Renewables projects
  • Cogeneration
  • Other projects

29
What are the prospects for energy efficiency
related CDM projects?
  • Gaps in energy efficiency can provide the answer

30
Efficiency gaps in Power sector (1)
  • Supply Side
  • Generation efficiency gap
  • T D efficiency gap
  • Demand side
  • End use energy efficiency gap

31
Potential CDM projects in Power sector
(2)Efficiency Gaps in Power Sector
Generation Efficiency Gaps
  • Large gap in generation efficiency of coal fired
    plants between most Asian countries and the best
    practice country (BPC) in the world. Coal fired
    power generation in Asia are approximately 9
    less efficient as compared to that in OECD.
  • The efficiency gaps are obviously much larger
    when they are measured with reference to the
    efficiency of the best available technology
    (BAT).
  • There exists a large potential for the reduction
    of coal consumption and CO2 emission if the
    electricity generation is based on BAT or best
    practiced technology (BPT) instead of the
    existing inefficient technologies.

32
Electricity Generation Efficiency Gaps Coal
Best Practice efficiency
Eff. gap
Data source IEA, 2002
Efficiency gain by 1 in China and India would
reduce CO2 by 24 and 11.6 million tonne
respectively in 2000
33
Electricity Generation Efficiency Gaps - Gas
Best Practice efficiency
Eff. gap
Data source IEA, 2002
34
Electricity Transmission and Distribution Losses
  • Large transmission and distribution efficiency
    gaps

Percent ()
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
OECD
China
Thailand
Malaysia
World
Indonesia
Asia
Vietnam
Phillipines
Sri Lanka
Pakistan
India
Cambodia
Myanmar
35
Potential CDM projects in Power sector
(5)Electricity Transmission and Distribution
Losses (contd..)
  • TD losses as a percentage of total generation
    in some Asian countries range from 14 in
    Vietnam to as high as 32 in Myanmar.
  • TD losses in a well designed system can normally
    be within 10, reducing technical losses appears
    to be a promising option for reducing the
    generation requirements as well as reductions CO2
    emissions.
  • 1 of TD loss reduction in Pakistan from 1995 to
    2018 would result in cumulative CO2 emission
    reductions of 24 to 26 million tons.
  • Gross savings per kW of power demand avoided due
    to TD loss reduction could be in the range of
    1372 to 1770, which are significantly higher than
    the new TD capacity cost per kW. (Shrestha and
    Azhar, 1998)

36
End-use Device Efficiency Gaps
  • Lamps Lighting accounts for a large share in
    residential sectoral electricity consumption
    (e.g., 28 in India, 32.8 in Pakistan, 32 in
    Sri Lanka). Incandescent lamps, which use 3 to 4
    times more electrical energy than compact
    fluorescent lamps (CFLs) are most widely used in
    many Asian developing countries, e. g. India,
    Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Nepal.
  • Air conditioners (ACs) Air conditioning accounts
    for a major share of electricity consumption in
    the commercial sector. Its share varies from 20
    in Pakistan to 70 in Thailand. However, the
    widely used ACs in Thailand till few years ago
    used about 45 more electrical power than the
    efficient ones.
  • Electric motors Mostly, standard motors are used
    as industrial drives in India, Thailand,
    Pakistan, Vietnam, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. They
    are also used for agricultural water pumping in
    India. The efficiency of these motors is, however
    3 to 7 less than that of energy efficient
    motors.

37
What environmental Benefits from improved energy
efficiency in the power sector?
Country Planning Period CO2 (106 tons) Emission reduction CO2 (106 tons) Emission reduction SO2 (103 tons) Emission reduction SO2 (103 tons) Emission reduction NOx (103 tons) Emission reduction NOx (103 tons) Emission reduction
NREB, India 2003-17 538 1,744 965
Pakistan 2000-14 92 206. 313
Sri Lanka 2000-17 22 48 32
Thailand 2003-17 62 651 134
Vietnam 2003-17 115 123 391
Source Shrestha and Bhattacharya (1998) and
Shrestha and Bhattacharya (2002)
38
Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) of Selected
Cleaner Thermal CDM Projects in Selected Asian
Countries
Source ARRPEEC (2003)
  • Wide variations in MAC for CTTs
  • IGCC 12 /tonne (Thailand) to 83 /tonne
    of CO2(Sri Lanka)
  • PFBC 100 /tonne (Thailand) to 115 /tonne
    CO2 (Sri Lanka)
  • CC-LNG 31 /tonne CO2 (Sri Lanka)

39
Incremental cost of CO2 Abatement (/ton CO2) in
Thailand during 2000 2030
  • The average incremental cost of CO2 abatement
    (IAC) would increase from 28 per ton of CO2 in
    ER5 case to 111 per ton of CO2 in ER15 case.
  • At IAC of 28 /tCO2, about 142 million tons of
    CO2 could be mitigated (cumulative) during
    2010-2030.
  • At IAC of 46/ tCO2 and 111/tCO2, 468 and 978
    million tons of CO2 (cumulative) could be reduced
    respectively.

40
Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) of Selected
Renewable CDM Projects in Selected Asian
Countries
  • In a study of selected RETs based CDM projects in
    Yunnan- China, NREB-India, Sri Lanka, Thailand
    and Viet nam by ARRPEEC (2003) wide variations in
    MAC are observed
  • Solar PV 12 /tonne to 364 /tonne of CO2
  • Wind11 /tonne to 36 /tonne of CO2
  • Geothermal 5 /tonne to 73 /tonne of CO2
  • BIGCC 3 /tonne to 94 /tonne of CO2
  • Mini-Hydro 2.2 /tonne of CO2 (Thailand)
  • Limited prospect under presently relatively low
    CER price.

41
Energy efficiency gap in steel making
Bars for each country / region refers to years
1980, 1990, and 2000 in that order Source
www.worldenergy.org/ date 20th March 2004
Efficiency gap between Asian developing countries
and Japan 0.4 toe/ton
42
Energy efficiency gap in cement production
Source http//eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ies/iespubs/45292.p
df
  • Emissions reduction of 29.7 Million tonne of CO2
    in India and 260 million tonne of CO2 in China
    if both countries can achieve best practice
    efficiency

43
Potential for Cogeneration in ASEAN
Source www.cogen2.net Date 16th March 2004
44
Sugar industries Fuel availability and
cogeneration potential
Country Sugar cane production (1,000 tonnes) Bagasse production (1,000 tonnes) Max. Power Generation Potential (GWh/year)
Indonesia 31,000 8,990 2,997
Philippines 21,000 6,090 2,030
Thailand 54,000 15,660 5,220
Vietnam 12,000 3,480 1,160
Total 118,000 34,220 11,407
Bagasse Sugar cane 0.29 1 kWh 3 kg of
bagasse (including steam for process)
Source www.cogen3.net (Date 16th March 2004)
45
Palm oil industries Fuel availability and
cogeneration potential
Country FFB production (1,000 tonnes) Residue production (1,000 tonnes) Max.Power Generation Potential (GWh/year)
Indonesia 25,000 10,500 4,200
Malaysia 42,000 17,640 7,056
Philippines 300 126 50
Thailand 2,300 966 386
Total 69,600 29,232 11,693
Residue Fresh Fruit Bunch 0.42 1 kWh 2.5
kg of residues (including steam for process)
Source www.cogen3.net Date 16th March 2004
46
Rice industries Fuel availability and
cogeneration potential
Country Paddy production (1,000 tonnes) Rice husk production (1,000 tonnes) Max. Power Generation Potential (GWh/year)
Indonesia 51,000 11,220 7,480
Malaysia 2,000 440 293
Philippines 11,000 2,420 1,613
Thailand 22,000 4,840 3,227
Vietnam 28,000 6,160 4,107
Total 114,000 25,080 16,720
Rice husk Paddy 0.22 1 kWh 1.5 kg of rice
husk (including steam for process)
Source www.cogen3.net Date 16th March 2004
47
Final Remarks
  • Energy efficiency gaps and high dependence on
    fossil fuel present challenges as well as
    opportunity CDM as vehicle for Sustainable
    Development
  • Not all energy efficient and renewable
    technologies necessarily meet the economic
    criterion for CDM projects.
  • Economic viability also depends upon the market
    for Certified Emission Reductions (CERs).
    Presently, demand for CER is low hence the low
    price for CER (2 to 3 /t CO2).
  • Several energy efficient technologies (EET) and
    RET projects may appear economically unattractive
    as CDM projects at present due to low market
    demand and price for CER.
  • However if countries like U.S. and Russia are to
    ratify the Kyoto protocol, market for CDM will
    grow significantly, resulting in higher CER
    prices and more CDM projects would than be
    economically attractive.

48
THANK YOU
49
Final Remarks (2)
  • Incremental CO2 abatement cost for a CDM project
    can vary across countries.
  • Regional level energy development may offer
    larger potential for CDM projects in South Asia.
  • Careful cost benefit analysis of potential
    projects necessary
  • Capacity building is essential for CDM project
    preparation and implementation in the South Asian
    countries.

50
Specific energy consumption of various types of
brick Kilns (tonnes of coal equivalent per 100,
000 bricks)
Clamp Kiln 30-48 Bulls Trench Kiln 20-24 Fixed
Chimney 16-20 Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln 10-13
51
Potential and installed capacity of selected RETs
in selected Asian Countries
Source www. teriin.org RETs Asia, 2003 Wind
Energy Monthly
52
Marginal Abatement Costs in the Power sector
/tonne of CO2 at 1998 prices
Country/Regions
CO
emission reduction targets
2
5
10
15
20
30
Yunnan-China
1.0
4.3
7.3
7.9
10.6
NREB-India
1.8
3.4
5.4
-
-
Source ARRPEEC (2003)
  • MAC Ranges from
  • 1.0 to 2.5 /tonne of CO2 at 5 reduction target
  • 2.8 to 12.5 /tonne of CO2 at 10 reduction
    target
  • 3.1 to 7.3 /tonne of CO2 at 15 reduction target

53
Average unit consumation of energy for cement
production
54
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55
Potential CO2 emission from Cement
  • Project by Cement plant in India increasing
    flyash content in cement from 10 to 13 -
    results in emission reduction from 0.813 tCO2/t
    cement (process emission thermal energy
    emission electricity energy emission) for a
    annual production of 1.83 million ton production
    emission reduction is 22467 tCO2

56
(No Transcript)
57
Energy related CO2 emission by region
Developing countries CO2 emission to exceed that
of industrialized countries by 2025. Presents
challenges and opportunities for mitigation.
58
Implications of growth on Development
  • Increased urban pollution developing country
    cities are the most polluted cities today

59
Major sources of emission
  • Energy consumption is the major source of GHG
    emissions
  • In some countries Fugitive emissions (Azerbaijan,
    Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan) fugitive emissions
    from gas production are significant
  • Industrial process emissions for almost all some
    countries are significant cement sector
    primarily
  • Solid waste and industrial waste related
    emissions for Malaysia, Sri lanka, Kyrgyzstan are
    significant
  • Forest and Grassland conversions represent
    deforestation related emissions countries like
    Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia have very high
    emissions from this category

60
Sustainable development
  • Issues in growth in energy requirement
  • Huge investment outlay to meet the growth
  • Energy production infrastructure ( USD 1000
    billion in next 10 years for India to meet just
    the electricity generation infrastructure)
  • Energy distribution infrastructure
  • Import dependency can seriously affect economic
    stability
  • Environmental implications
  • Urban air pollution due to increased fuel use in
    transportation
  • Waste generation and disposal (e.g., coal ash)
  • Indoor health issues in rural areas
  • Acid rains SO2 emissions in South Asia and
    South East Asia are expected to grow 150 and
    200 over 2002 by 2030 under certain growth
    scenarios

61
Sustainable development
  • Waste management
  • MSW in South Asia and South East Asia 150 and
    100 (200 million ton and 100 million ton
    respectively) by 2030
  • Air and water pollution from disposal of solid
    waste in urban areas
  • Water pollution from industrial waste
  • Opportunity cost of Land for disposal of waste is
    high a serious problem
  • Agriculture residue and animal waste in rural
    area - air pollution as well as loss of resource
  • Forests
  • Ecological impacts of forest degradation and
    deforestation
  • Loss of livelihoods for population dependent on
    forest in developing countries
  • Climatic impacts on forest will be enhanced

62
Types of CDM projects SD
  • Energy sector key to sustainable economic
    development
  • Reducing costs of energy infrastructure
  • Efficiency in supply (better technologies
    cogeneration)
  • Efficiency in use (steel, cement, waste heat
    recovery, residential, etc. )
  • Environmental benefits
  • Fuel options (coal to oil/gas oil to gas fossil
    fuel to renewable energy)
  • Use of agri waste and renewable to meet rural
    energy demand

63
Types of CDM projects SD
  • Waste management
  • Urban solid waste methane capture and use
  • Reduce air pollution
  • Reduce water pollution
  • Reduce requirement for land
  • Provides alternative energy resources lower
    dependence on fossil fuel
  • Agriculture residue and animal waste
  • Indoor health using biogas
  • Rural electricity residential and for economic
    growth
  • Forests ecological protection

64
Submitted W-t-E projects
Project Title Waste handled per day (tonne) Annual Electricity produced (MWh) Emission reduction (methane capture) (T CO2 eq) Emission reduction (fossil fuel displaced) (T CO2 eq Other benefits
Salvador Landfill capture 3150 315000 904942 157500
Biomethanation, Lucknow 300 40000 101848 30000 75 tpd of organic manure
Landfill gas capture, Brazil 2000 288 51000
Durban landfill 67800 384512 56960
65
CDM SD in developing countries
Development
Climate
CDM and SD space Energy (supply and demand) Waste
management (urban and agriculture) Forestry
Environment
66
Share of Energy Sector GHG Emissions
  • IEA estimates that at the global level, carbon
    emissions from energy related activities
    represent about 70 of all GHG emissions.
    Non-carbon energy-related emissions represent
    another 10-15.
  • Source World Energy Council
    (http//www.worldenergy.org/ accessed on 3 March
    2004 )
  • The U.S. energy sector CO2 emission in 1997
    accounted for 86 of total GHG emissions of the
    country (Toman, 2001).

67
Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in South
Asian Countries, 2000
1
Commercial Energy Consumption


Carbon
Dioxide
3
Emissions

Total

(Mil
lion
(Quadrillion
Natural
metric tons
Btu)

Petroleum

Gas

Coal

Nuclear

Hydroelectric

Other

of carbon)

Bangladesh

0.50

30

68

1

0

1

0

7.7

Bhutan

0.01

24

0

21

0

55

0

0.1

India

12.67

32

7

53

1

6

0.2

253.3

Maldives

0.004

100

0

0


0

0

0

0.1

Nepal

0.06

57

0

14

0

24

5

0.8

Pakistan

1.91

41

42

5

0

12

0

29.5

Sri Lanka

0.18

78

0

0

0

22

0

2.6

Total

15.28

34

13

44

1

7

0.2

294.1


Source Energy Information Administration,
International Energy Database, May 2002
Share of fossil fuels ranges from 45 (Bhutan) to
99 (Bangladesh). Coal share highest in India
(53).
68
Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in
South-east Asian Countries, 2000
Total (Quad BTU) Petroleum Natural Gas Coal Hydro Nuclear Geothermal etc. CO2
Cambodia 0.01 94.63 0.00 0.00 5.37 0.00 0.00 0.15
China 39.67 25.77 3.13 63.95 6.91 0.43 0.03 831.74
Indonesia 4.63 46.94 27.84 19.59 2.26 0.00 1.11 87.13
Korea, North 2.84 6.16 0.00 86.04 7.80 0.00 0.00 67.19
Korea, South 8.06 55.06 10.24 21.04 0.30 13.28 0.06 120.80
Laos 0.01 36.73 0.00 0.18 91.15 0.00 0.00 0.10
Malaysia 2.27 42.06 42.12 3.62 3.27 0.00 0.00 36.15
Mongolia 0.07 26.53 0.00 71.52 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.59
Philippines 1.25 56.74 0.55 16.32 6.55 0.00 20.36 18.62
Thailand 2.90 55.78 28.17 12.68 2.22 0.00 0.83 48.49
Vietnam 0.76 50.54 6.26 20.26 22.94 0.00 0.00 12.56
CO2emission are in million metric ton of CO2
equivalent Energy consumption by fuel source is
in age
69
Technical Potential for Primary Energy Savings in
Steel making in 1995
If India reduces energy intensity of steel
production by 10 (3.7 GJ/tonne) total energy
saved will be 88 million GJ (4.6 million tonnes
of Coal equivalent) per year in 1995
70
Potential CDM projects in industrial sector
  • Iron and Steel industry
  • Cement industry
  • Co-generation Co - generation efficiency upto
    90
  • Conventional power efficiency about 35
  • Sugar Industry
  • Pulp and Paper Industry
  • Efficient brick kilns
  • Electricity DSM programs in industry

71
CO2 and Energy intensities and Fossil fuel
dependence
  • Higher growth rates of non-OECD energy and CO2
    emissions due to
  • Significantly higher energy and CO2 emission
    intensities
  • Higher dependence on fossil fuels
  • Higher GDP growth rates

Data source EIA website, March 2004
72
Natural Gas Reserves in Selected Asian Countries
73
CDM projects through regional energy
trade/development in South Asia
  • Hydropower development (e.g. in Nepal and Bhutan)
  • Displacement of thermal in India and other
    countries
  • Natural gas based electricity generation
  • - Exploration and regional development of gas
    pipeline in Pakistan, India and Bangladesh
  • Fuel switching
  • oil to gas in transport sector
  • coal/oil to gas in industrial boilers
  • coal/oil to gas for cooking

74
Potential CDM projects in Transport sector
  • Electric vehicles (with Non thermal power supply)
  • Electric rope - ways (with Non thermal power
    supply)
  • Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) (with Non thermal power
    supply)
  • Use of Bio-diesel/ethanol/methanol etc.

75
Potential CDM projects in Residential sector
  • Cooking
  • Use of biogas as a cooking fuel
  • Improved cook stoves
  • Biomass plantation for fuelwood
  • Lighting
  • CFL, Slim tubes, electronic ballast
  • Water heating
  • Solar Water heater

76
Potential CDM projects in Commercial sector
  • DSM programs
  • Efficient A/Cs, Refrigerators, Lamps

77
Types of steel projects
  • pulverized coal injection up to 40 in the blast
    furnace (primary steel)
  • Heat recovery from sinter plants and coke ovens
    (primary steel)
  • Recovery of process gas from coke ovens, blast
    furnaces and basic oxygen furnaces
  • Steel plant in India, producing 1.6 million ton
    steel has submitted CDM project for recovery of
    BOF gas (80 NM3 per ton of steel with calorific
    value 2000 kcal/NM3) will result in 94.84 GWh
    of electricity and resultant emission reduction
    of 87895 tCO2.(15 MWh coal power plant)
  • Power recovery from blast furnace offgases
    (primary steel)

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Types of steel projects
  • Replacement of open-hearth furnaces by basic
    oxygen furnaces (primary steel)
  • Application of continuous casting and thin slab
    casting
  • Scrap preheating in electric arc furnaces
  • (secondary steel)
  • Oxygen and fuel injection in electric arc
    furnaces (secondary steel)
  • Efficient ladle preheating
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