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CrossCultural WorkFamily Interfaces: Dual Career Couples


Japanese Dual Career Households. Comparison ... Women expatriates still aren't taken seriously ... Rapid elimination of the wage gap between men and women. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CrossCultural WorkFamily Interfaces: Dual Career Couples

Cross-Cultural Work-Family Interfaces Dual
Career Couples
  • Jaymee Froyalde
  • Sam Lam
  • Hisayo Murayoshi
  • Steve Nguyen
  • Kenneth Trinh

Countries of Comparison
USA Japan
  • USA Dual Careers Households
  • US Expatriates
  • Japanese Dual Career Households
  • Comparison
  • Implications on International Human Resource

  • Dual Career Households a household in which the
    couple each has a career path of their very own.

USA Topics of Discussion
  • Overview of USA
  • Overview of Dual Career Couples in the USA
  • Current USA Expatriate System and Trends

USA Overview
  • Land Mass 9,161,923 sq km
  • Government Constitution-based federal republic,
    strong democratic tradition
  • Population 293,027,571
  • Diversity white 77.1, black 12.9, Asian 4.2,
    Amerindian and Alaska native 1.5, native
    Hawaiian and other Pacific islander 0.3, other
    4 (2000)

USA Economy
  • GDP 10.99 trillion
  • most technologically powerful economy
  • Labor Force 146.5 million
  • per capita GDP 37,800

US Dual Career Statistics
  • Represents 54 of married couples in the USA
  • Represents 45 of US labor force

Benefits of Dual Career
  • Extra Income
  • Flexibility of Leaving, Transition Through, or
    Re-Entering Labor Force
  • More Equality
  • Happier Spouses

Disadvantages of Dual Career Households
  • Reduction of Job Mobility for Spouses
  • Work-Family Conflicts
  • Household Responsibilities/Allocation

Issues in Perspective
  • Working and Well-Being
  • Working-Family Conflict
  • Work-Family Spillover and Cross Over
  • Division of Labor
  • Prioritizing Careers

Spillover Effects
US Dual Career Expatriates
  • Definition an employee, with a spouse who has a
    career of their own, that is sent to another
    country for an assignment abroad.

US Dual Career Expatriate Data
  • 70 of expatriates has a partner/spouse that has
    a career of his/her own.
  • 91 of married female expatriates are in category
    of dual-career couples vs. only 50 of males

Current Trends of US based Companies
  • More females are considered for oversees
    assignments (80 of women dont turn down
  • Short-term expatriate assignments are on the rise
  • Companies are still slow to address dual-career
    couple issues

Problems with Current System
  • Concerns about spousal/dual career issues - 1
    reason for rejecting assignment
  • Pay systems arent dual-career oriented
  • Women expatriates still arent taken seriously
    despite what research shows that they possess
    valuable talent in IAs

Overview of Japan
  • Location Eastern Asia, island chain between the
    North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan,
  • east of the Korean Peninsula
  • Population127,330,002
  • (July, 2004)
  • GDP 3.582 trillion (2003 est.)

Time Use of Workers by Working Hours
  • Men Women
  • Housework 0.37 3.57
  • Child Care 0.03 0.18
  • Work 6.85 4.20
  • Tertiary Activities 6.15 5.42
  • Primary Activities 10.60 10.62
  • Total 24.00 24.00

Gender impact of work-family measures
  • Reduction of working hours
  • Non-core tracks in corporations
  • The child-care leave system

Financial compensation
  • The child allowance
  • Deduction for dependents
  • Child rearing allowance

Recommendations the Japanese government policy
  • Increased efforts towards further reduction of
    working hours.
  • Rapid elimination of the wage gap between men and
  • Quick resolution of various issues concerning
    part-time workers.
  • Efforts to heighten public awareness of
    work-family policies.
  • Comprehensive measures to assist economically
    disadvantaged families.
  • Spurring on economic growth with a view to
    lowering the unemployment rate.

Japan Vs. United States Dual Career Couples
  • Housework Allocation
  • Childcare
  • Family Support Policies
  • Japan
  • United States

Housework Allocation
  • Determinants of the amount of housework
  • Earnings
  • Hours worked
  • Children

Child Care
  • Who takes care of the children?
  • Childrens education

Family Support Policies in Japan
  • Child Care Leave
  • Family Care Leave
  • Night Work
  • Overtime
  • Part-Time Work Law

Family Support Policies in United States
  • Family and Medical Act Leave
  • Individual employers offer family policies to
    support dual earner couples

What This Means
  • US lacks family support policies therefore, IHRM
    must take the initiative
  • There is a certain need for family support policy
    to dual career Japanese expatriates

Summary-United States
  • We all have our assumptions on the cultural
    differences between Japan and America but the
    truth is that both are similar in many cultural
    aspects of societal roles between men and women.
  • Regardless of the changing societal norms, the
    process of expatriations brings forth a universal
    challenge of co-existence of ethnic values and
    beliefs for Americans who settle in an Eastern
  • Several factors can lead to an array of
    conclusions on Japanese and American culture but
    more importantly, the social skill of
    communication is the very reason in which a
    transition from a comfortable place to a foreign
    place is successful for a dual career family.
    American companies need to emphasize more on the
    linguistic part of the expatriation process

  • In many instances the value of compensation plays
    a big role in regards to the welfare of the
    family for them to consider the move to a new
  • And for others, its all about the support for
    their family and extended family that will help
    them make that leap of faith towards
  • Thus, the support has to be consistent and
    reliable enough where the simplest issues like
    schools, malls, and leisure is simplified enough
    for them to take the job.
  • The government also needs to play a bigger role
    in changing its view of women in the workforce
    and the way they are compensated.