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Near-Infrared Detector Arrays - The State of the Art -

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Title: Near-Infrared Detector Arrays - The State of the Art -


1
Near-Infrared Detector Arrays - The State of the
Art -
  • Klaus W. Hodapp
  • Institute for Astronomy
  • University of Hawaii

2
Historic Milestones
  • 1800 Infrared radiation discovered (Herschel
    with his thermometers)
  • 1960s and 70s Single detectors (PbS, InSb )
  • 1980s First infrared arrays (322, 58?62, 642,
    1282)
  • 1990 NICMOS-3 (2.5?m PACE-1 HgCdTe)
  • 1991 SBRC 2562 (InSb)
  • 1994 HAWAII-1 (2.5?m PACE-1 HgCdTe)
  • 1995 Aladdin (InSb)
  • 2000 HAWAII-2 (2.5?m PACE-1 HgCdTe)
  • 2002 HAWAII-1RG (5.0µm MBE HgCdTe)
  • 2002 HAWAII-2RG (5.0µm MBE HgCdTe)
  • 2002 RIO 2K2K NGST InSb
  • 2009 HAWAII-4RG NSF grant (last week)

3
Materials for Infrared Detectors
4
Temperature and Wavelengths of High Performance
Detector Materials
Approximate detector temperatures for dark
currents ltlt 1 e-/sec
5
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6
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7
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8
Collection of High-Performance CMOS Detectors
9
Hawaii-2RG Heritage
All Successfully Developed on 1st Design Pass
NICMOS
PICNIC
HAWAII
1987
1994
1990
1994
1998
2000
-2
-1
4.2 million pixels gt13 million FETs Expect CDS
lt10e-
-1R
65,536 pixels 250,000 FETs CDS lt30e-
16,384 pixels 70,000 FETs CDS lt50e-
65,536 pixels 250,000 FETs CDS lt20e-
1.05 million pixels gt3.4 million FETs CDS lt10e-
CDS ltTBD e-
HAWAII-2RG
Exploiting Many Lessons Learned to Minimize
Development Risk And Enable Next Generation
Performance
Transition to 0.25µm CMOS With Full Wafer
Stitching and Low-Power System-on-Chip ASIC
10
  • Infrared Arrays
  • Diode Array
  • Multiplexer
  • Readout Electronics

11
Electric Field in a CCD 1.
The n-type layer contains an excess of electrons
that diffuse into the p-layer. The p-layer
contains an excess of holes that diffuse into
the n-layer. This structure is identical to that
of a diode junction. The diffusion creates a
charge imbalance and induces an internal electric
field. The electric potential reaches a maximum
just inside the n-layer, and it is here that any
photo-generated electrons will collect. All
science CCDs have this junction structure, known
as a Buried Channel. It has the advantage of
keeping the photo-electrons confined away from
the surface of the CCD where they could become
trapped. It also reduces the amount of thermally
generated noise (dark current).
Electric potential
Electric potential
Potential along this line shown in graph above.
Cross section through the thickness of the CCD
12
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13
NIR Photodiode Array Technologies
  • Problems
  • Substrate availability
  • Thermal expansion match to Si
  • Lattice match to detector material
  • LPE HgCdTe on Sapphire (PACE-1) Rockwell, CdTe
    buffer
  • MBE HgCdTe on CdZnTe Rockwell, thin or substrate
    removed, AR coated
  • InSb (Raytheon) Bulk material, p-on-n, thinned,
    AR coated
  • LPE HgCdTe on CdZnTe Raytheon, thick
  • MBE HgCdTe on Si Raytheon, ZnTe and CdTe buffer,
    thick, thin in future

14
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15
Open Shutter
Close Shutter
0.5 V
Reset
Reset
Diode Bias Voltage
kTC Noise
Reset-Read Sampling
Readout
0 V
Time
16
Recharge Noise in Capacitors Energy stored in a
capacitor E ½ Q²/C Noise Energy must be E_n
½kT Noise Charge ½ (Q_n)²/C ½kT (Q_n)²
kTC Q_n v kTC
17
Example Capacitance 50 fF, T37 K k 1.38 e-23
J/K Q_n v kTC Q_n 5 e-18 C With q_e 1.6
e-19 C Q_n 32 electrons rms
18
Open Shutter
Close Shutter
kTC noise
0.5 V
Reset
Reset
Readout
Diode Bias Voltage
CDS Signal
Double Correlated Sampling
Readout
0 V
Time
19
Open Shutter
Close Shutter
kTC noise
0.5 V
Reset
Reset
Readout
Diode Bias Voltage
MCS Signal
Fowler (multi) Sampling
Readout
0 V
Time
20
Open Shutter
Close Shutter
kTC noise
0.5 V
Reset
Reset
Diode Bias Voltage
MCS Signal
Up-the-ramp Readout
Up-the-Ramp Sampling
0 V
Time
21
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22
External JFETs optimized
23
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24
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25
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26
HAWAII-1 Rockwell Science Center
  • 1024?1024 2.5?m HgCdTe detector array
  • 4 Quadrant architecture
  • 4 Output amplifiers
  • 18.5 ?m pixels
  • LPE HgCdTe on sapphire (PACE-1)
  • Use of external JFETs possible
  • Available for purchase

27
HAWAII-1 Focal Plane Array
28
HAWAII-1
  • Quantum efficiency (50 - 60)
  • Dark current 0.01 e-/s (65K)
  • Read noise about 10 - 15 e- rms CDS
  • Residual image effect
  • Some multiplexer glow
  • Fringing

29
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30
3600 s 128 samp T 65K
31
Internal FETs
32
External JFETs optimized
33
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34
Fringing in PACE-1 material
35
1997
1998 Residual Images in PACE-1
HAWAII-1 Arrays
36
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37
Aladdin Raytheon Center for Infrared Excellence
  • 1024?1024 InSb detector array
  • 4 Quadrant architecture
  • 32 Output amplifiers
  • 27 ?m pixels
  • Thinned, AR coated InSb
  • Three generations of multiplexers
  • Foundry Run distribution mode

38
Aladdin
  • Quantum efficiency high (80 - 90)
  • Dark current 0.2 - 1.0 e-/s
  • Read noise about 40 e- rms CDS
  • Charge capacity 200,000 e-
  • Residual image effect
  • No amplifier glow

39
Aladdin frame taken with SPEX (J. Rayner)
40
NIRI Aladdin Image of AFGL2591
41
HAWAII-2 Rockwell Science Center
  • 2048?2048 2.5?m HgCdTe detector array
  • 4 Quadrant architecture
  • 32 Output amplifiers
  • 3 Output modes available
  • 18.0 ?m pixels
  • Use of external JFETs possible
  • Reference signal channel

42
Continuing to Aggressively Use CMOS
  • 5 Designs in 0.25µm
  • 3.3/1.8V 0.18µm CMOS underway for ProCam-2
  • Also migrating to 0.13µm on newest programs to
    boost performance via Cu and low-k interlayer
    dielectrics

After Isaac (1999)
43
HAWAII-2 Photolithographically Abut 4 CMOS
Reticles to Produce Each 20482 ROIC
Twelve 20482 ROICs per 8 Wafer
20482 Readout Provides Low Read Noise for Visible
and MWIR
44
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45
HAWAII-2 Reference Signal
46
New Developments
  • Multiplexers
  • HAWAII-1R
  • HAWAII-1RG
  • HAWAII-2RG
  • Abuttable 2K?2K
  • RIO developments
  • Detector Materials
  • MBE HgCdTe on CdZnTe
  • MBE HgCdTe on Si
  • Cutoff wavelength
  • Thinning
  • Substrate removal
  • AR coating

47
RSC Approach
  • H A W A I I - 2 R G

HgCdTe Astronomy Wide Area Infrared Imager with
2k2 Resolution, Reference pixels and Guide Mode
  • HgCdTe detector
  • substrate removed to achieve 0.6 µm sensitivity
  • Specifically designed multiplexer
  • highly flexible reset and readout options
  • optimized for low power and low glow operation
  • three-side close buttable
  • Two-chip imaging system MUX ASIC
  • convenient operation with small number of
    clocks/signals
  • lower power, less noise

48
HAWAII-2RG UMC 0.25µm CMOS
  • 3.3/2.5V Process on Epi Wafers
  • 1 Poly/4- or 5-Metal
  • 65/33Å Oxide
  • Low, Normal and High Threshold Voltage Options
  • MIM (Analog) Capacitor
  • 22 mm by 22 mm Stepper Field
  • Full Intra-Reticle Stitching
  • One Mask Set Comprising Modular Blocks to
    Photocompose Each CMOS Multiplexer on 200 mm
    Wafers

49
NGST Multiplexer Overview
  • 2048 x 2048 resolution with 18 µm square pixels
  • True stitched design (electrical connections
    across stitching lines)
  • Close buttable die - 2.5 mm mux overlap on
    top (pad) side -
    1 mm mux overlap on each side ? gap ? 2 mm)
  • 1, 4, or 32 output mode selectable
  • Slow mode (100 kHz) and fast mode (5 MHz with
    additional column buffers) selectable, both
    usable with internal and external buffers

NGST
50
3-D Barrier to Prevent Glow from Reaching the
Detector
51
Prototype 22 Mosaic for NGST
52
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53
Ground-Based Camera Projects 2K2K IR Arrays
  • IfA ULB
  • UKIRT WFC
  • CFHT WIRCAM
  • Gemini GSAOI
  • ESO VISTA
  • Keck KIRMOS

54
Detailed HAWAII-2RG Descriptions
55
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56
Block Diagram
  • All pads located on one side (top)
  • Approx. 110 doubled I/O pads (probing and
    bonding)
  • Three-side close buttable
  • 18 µm pixels
  • Total dimensions 39 x 40.5 mm²

57
Doubled Bus Structure
  • Old HAWAII-1/2 architecture
  • Discharge of the column bus results in a
    significant drop of the output signal when
    switching from one pixel to the next.
    ? longer settling time

    ? higher power
    consumption due to the charging of the external
    load

58
Output Options
59
Output Options (2)
60
Support of Full Field and Guide Mode with Low
Risk
  • Guide mode (tracking of a guide star) is required
    to keep the orientation of the telescope constant
    with respect to the observed object.
  • Guide mode requires the readout of a small
    subarray (variable size, arbitrarily located) at
    a high frame rate
  • It is highly desirable not to lose the rest of
    the guide FPA for full field integration

61
Guide Mode Shift Register (Window Mode)
Stop Address
Start Address
  • Additional MUX and AND - gate in each register
    cell
  • Decoder for selection of start and stop position

Qpre
Start

n-1
Q
D
MUX
Row n
FF
C
n
start decoder
  • Set start address to n1

n
Selection of row n1
D
Q
MUX
FF
Row n1
C
stop decoder
n1

n1
Selection of row n2
Q
D
MUX
FF
Row n2
C
n2
Qout
Clk
62
Interleaved readout of full field and guide window
FPA
  • Switching between full field and guide window is
    possible at any time
  • ? any desired interleaved readout
  • pattern can be realized
  • Three examples for interleaved readout

Full field
1. Read guide window after reading part of
the full field row
2. Read guide window after reading one
full field row
Guide window
3. Read guide window after reading two or
more full field rows
63
Reset Schemes
64
Serial Interface
  • Three-wire serial interface allows to program the
    multiplexer
  • choose start/stop addresses for guide window
  • select different operation and test modes
  • Interface lines can be shared with shift register
    clock lines

CS
SCLK
Bit 12
SDATA
Bit 15
Bit 14
Bit 13
Bit 0
65
Major FPA Components
Items in Blue are provided by Arizona Sensor
chip assemblies are provided by RSC. Longwave
architecture similar but simpler (only one SCA).
Shortwave Focal Plane Array
66
FPA Housings in NIRCam
LW FPAs and Housings
Module A
Module B
SW FPAs and Housings
OBA Struts and Brackets not shown
67
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68
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