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Title: Human-computer Interaction


1
LECTURE 11.
Human-computer Interaction
2
  • Design of the user interface is one of the key
    design activities
  • Interface provides interaction between the user
    and computer system in form of a dialog
    (therefore dialog design).
  • I. The User Interface
  • Many people think of the user interface as a
    component added to the system near the end of the
    development process
  • This view is changing as user interfaces become
    more important and systems become more
    interactive
  • To the end user, the user interface is the
    system itself
  • The user interface is everything the end user
    comes into contact with while using the system
    physically, perceptually, and conceptually (see
    Figure 11-1)
  • Therefore, consideration of the user interface
    should come early in the development process
  • The term human-computer interaction (HCI) is
    used to refer to the study of end users and their
    interaction with computers
  • Physical Aspects of the User Interface
  • Physical aspects of the user interface include
    the devices the user actually touches, including
    the keyboard, mouse, touch screen, keypad

3
FIGURE 11-1 Physical, perceptual and conceptual
aspects of the user interface.
4
  • Other physical parts include reference manuals,
    printed documents, data-entry forms, etc. that
    the end user works with completing tasks at a
    computer
  • The desk space, the lighting, and the terminal
    hardware also make up the physical interface for
    the end user
  • Perceptual Aspects of the User Interface
  • Perceptual aspects of the user interface
    include everything the end user sees, hears, or
    touches (beyond the physical devices)
  • This includes
  • All the data and instructions displayed on the
    screen, including shapes, lines, numbers and
    words, sounds (like beeps etc.)
  • Recently, computer-generated speech is another
    aspect
  • The user touches objects such as menus, dialog
    boxes, and buttons on the screen using a mouse
  • The user touches objects such as documents,
    drawings, or records of transactions
  • Conceptual Aspects of the User Interface
  • Conceptual aspects of the user interface
    include everything the user knows about using the
    system including the problem domain things in
    the system the user is manipulating, the
    operations that can be performed and the
    procedures followed to carry out the operations

5
  • To use the system, the end user must know about
    all these details. This knowledge is referred to
    as the users model of the system
  • Designers model (of the system) is how the
    designer sees and understands the system
  • Problems with user interfaces can be considered
    as mismatches between the users model of the
    system and the designers model it can be a big
    gap!
  • Much of the users model is a logical model of
    the system
  • A logical model can be detailed so a user must
    know quite a few details to operate the system
  • A users knowledge of the requirements for the
    system becomes the determinant of what the system
    is, and if the users knowledge of the system is
    part of the interface, then the user interface
    must be much more than something added at the end
  • User-Centered Design
  • User-centered design is a collection of
    techniques that place the user interface at the
    center of the development process because they
    recognize the importance of the user interface to
    system developers and system users
  • Three important principles are involved
  • Focus early on the users and their work
  • Evaluate designs to ensure usability
  • Use iterative development

6
  • The early focus on users and their work is
    consistent with the approach to systems analysis
    which emphasizes the importance of understanding
    and identifying the system users and their
    requirements
  • In contrast, the traditional approach focuses
    more on the requirements from the business point
    of view what needs to be done from a processing
    perspective rather than a user perspective
  • The object-oriented approach focuses more on
    users and their work
  • By identifying use cases, actors, scenarios etc.
  • Tend to be more interactive systems
  • User-centered design goes much further in
    attempting to understand users
  • What do they know?
  • How do they prefer to work?
  • What motivates them?
  • Second principle of user-centered design is to
    evaluate designs to ensure usability
  • Usability refers to the degree to which a
    system is easy to learn and use
  • Ensuring usability is not easy
  • There are many different types of users with
    different preferences and skills to accommodate
    to
  • If the system is too flexible, some users may
    feel lost
  • If the system is too rigid some users will be
    frustrated

7
  • On the other hand, an interface which is easy
    to learn is not always easy to use (e.g.
    menu-based applications with multiple forms and
    dialog boxes and extensive prompts and
    instructions are easy to learn self-explanatory
    but if some operator uses the system all day, it
    is important to make the interface fast and
    flexible, with shortcuts, hot keys and
    information-intensive screens - may be harder to
    learn but easier to use once learned)
  • Developers use many techniques to evaluate
    interface design to ensure usability
  • User-centered design requires testing all
    aspects of the user interface Some methods are
  • Formal surveys
  • Focus group meetings
  • Design walkthroughs
  • Paper and pencil evaluations
  • Expert evaluations
  • Formal laboratory experiments
  • Informal observation
  • Some methods allow collection of objective data
    that can be analyzed statistically to compare
    designs

8
  • Third principle of user-centered design is
    using iterative development doing some
    analysis, then some design then some
    implementation (and repeat the process)
  • After each iteration the project team evaluates
    the work on the system and makes changes if
    needed
  • Iterative development keeps the focus on the user
    by continually returning to the user requirements
    and refining the system after each iteration
  • Human-Computer Interaction as a Field of Study
  • User-interface design techniques and HCI as a
    field of study evolved from studies of human
    interaction with machines in general human
    factors engineering or ergonomics
  • Formal study of human factors began in World
    War II, when aerospace engineers studied the
    effects of arranging controls in the cockpit on
    airplane pilots
  • The field of human factors was first associated
    with engineering, since engineers designed
    machines
  • But engineers often found human factors
    frustrating (different personality types)
  • Gradually specialists emerged who drew on many
    disciplines to understand people and their
    behavior. These disciplines include cognitive
    psychology, computer science, social psychology,
    linguistics, sociology, anthropology and others
    as shown in Figure 11-2

9
FIGURE 11-2 The field contributing to the study
of HCI.
10
  • Example Impact of HCI work from Xerox PARC on
    computers
  • In the 1970s an important contribution to the
    field of HCI began at Xerox Corporation
  • Xerox produced high-speed photocopy machines
    with ever increasing options
  • Recognized the importance of making these
    machines easy to use and learn
  • Xerox hired people with many backgrounds e.g.
    computers, psychology, anthropology etc.
  • Xerox started the Xerox Palo Alto Research
    Center (Xerox PARC) to study issues that affect
    how humans operate machines
  • Xerox began offering photocopy machines with
  • Touch screens
  • Menu-driven interfaces displaying icons like
    stacks of paper, staples etc.
  • Research at Xerox PARC also included work on
    computers
  • First object-oriented language, Smalltalk was
    developed by Alan Kay at PARC
  • First laser printer
  • Basis of portable computing worked out at PARC as
    well
  • Kay developed a portable personal computing
    platform (Dynabook)
  • Key aspects of GUI (graphical user interfaces)
    also worked out at Xerox PARC

11
  • Xerox began offering photocopy machines with
  • Touch screens
  • Menu-driven interfaces displaying icons like
    stacks of paper, staples etc.
  • Research at Xerox PARC also included work on
    computers
  • First object-oriented language, Smalltalk was
    developed by Alan Kay at PARC
  • First laser printer
  • Basis of portable computing worked out at PARC as
    well
  • Kay developed a portable personal computing
    platform (Dynabook)
  • Key aspects of GUI (graphical user interfaces)
    also worked out at Xerox PARC
  • In late 70s Xerox developed the first
    general-purpose personal computer with a
    graphical user interface the Xerox Star
  • Although it was ahead of its time and too
    expensive it is a landmark in computing
  • Key features of it were exploited in the early
    1980s by Apple Computers (which was located
    physically next to Xerox PARC in Silicon Valley)
  • The features from the Star became part of the
    Apple Lisa, which led to the Apple Macintosh
  • The story doesnt end there! the Microsoft
    Windows graphical user interface essentially
    evolved from the Apple Macintosh interface
    (initially was a legal battle between Apple and
    Microsoft over the rights)

12
  • Metaphors for Human-Computer Interaction
  • The term metaphor (or analogy) describes the
    overall concept you may use to organize all the
    objects and actions in an interface
  • Three major metaphors, or analogies in HCI
  • Direct manipulation metaphor
  • Desktop metaphor
  • Document metaphor
  • Direct manipulation metaphor is a metaphor of
    HCI in which the user interacts directly with
    objects on the display screen
  • Objects are made visible on the screen so the
    user can point at them and manipulate them with
    the mouse or arrow keys
  • Earliest direct manipulation interfaces in the
    early 1980s were word processors that let users
    type in words directly into a document in a
    spreadsheet (which on the screen was conceptually
    similar to a paper spreadsheet)
  • Early direct manipulation applications that run
    using MS DOS led to popularity of personal
    computers the user typed numbers, formulas or
    text directly into cell on a spreadsheet. It was
    easy to understand and natural to use
  • However, those DOS-based applications did not
    have graphical user interface

13
  • Smalltalk language developed at Xerox PARC
    extended direct manipulation to all objects on
    the screen
  • Buttons
  • Check boxes
  • Scroll bars
  • Slider controls
  • New icons appeared e.g. Trash cans, which
    allowed you to directly manipulate an object
    put it in the trash
  • Direct manipulation coupled with
    object-oriented programming eventually evolved
    into the desktop metaphor, in which the display
    screen includes an arrangement of common desktop
    objects
  • Notepad, a calendar, a calculator, file folders
    containing documents
  • Newer ones also include a telephone, an answering
    machine, a CD player
  • Interacting with these objects is similar to
    interacting with real-world objects they
    represent (see Figure 11-3)
  • Document Metaphor is another view of the
    interface, in which interaction with the computer
    involves browsing and entering data on electronic
    documents
  • These documents are much like printed
    documents, but because they are in electronic
    form, additional functionality is available to
    make them more interactive

14
FIGURE 11-3 The desktop metaphor based on direct
manipulation shown on a display screen.
15
  • Hypertext documents that allow the user to
    click on a link and jump to a different part of
    the document or to another document. Any document
    can contain words, numbers and graphics making
    documents collection of a sorts of interrelated
    media
  • Hypermedia is technology that extends the
    hypertext concepts to include multimedia content
    such as graphics, video and audio that can be
    linked together for navigation by the user in a
    document
  • World Wide Web is organized around document
    metaphor (see Figure 11-4)
  • Using HTML (hypertext markup language)
  • Based on document metaphor and browser interface
  • The dialog metaphor is a metaphor of HCI in
    which interacting with the computer is much like
    carrying on a conversation or dialog
  • User interface design is often referred to as
    dialog design
  • Carrying on a dialog means that each person is
    listening to and responding to questions and
    comments from the other, exchanging information
    in a sequence
  • The dialog metaphor is another way of thinking
    about HCI since the computer listens to and
    responds to questions or comments from the user,
    who listens to and responds to questions and
    comments from the computer
  • Like the direct manipulation metaphor, the dialog
    metaphor is based on object-oriented view of the
    system since communication involves messages from
    one object to another (Figure 11-5 shows the
    user-computer dialog)

16
FIGURE 11-4 The document metaphor shown as
hypermedia in a web browser.
17
FIGURE 11-5 The dialog metaphor expresses that
the user and computer interact by sending
messages.
18
  • Example of a dialog between a manager and an
    assistant
  • Manager Did I get any messages while I was out?
  • Assistant Yes, you have three messages from
    Bob, Mary and Lim
  • Manager What did Lim have to say?
  • Assistant Lim left a message at 815 pm last
    night regarding the meeting next Monday about the
    inventory management system.
  • Manager I better respond. Say that the change
    is not a problem
  • Assistant Okay, Ill leave him that message. Do
    you want the next message?
  • The dialog involves
  • A question
  • A response
  • Another questions
  • A response that might include a request for
    clarification, etc
  • Not unlike a dialog you carry out with a
    computer
  • The assistant in the example could have been
    computer application running an intelligent
    assistant
  • The basic dialog is also the same for a typical
    e-mail application
  • The user selects a menu item (e.g. read new mail)
  • The computer lists the new mail messages
  • If the user selects one, the computer displays it

19
  • The user and the computer both send messages
  • But each is forced to use a different language
  • The user cannot understand cryptic binary codes,
    nor plug in directly to the computer to interpret
    the electrical impulses the computer uses to
    represent the binary codes
  • The computer has to adapt to the user and provide
    its messages in a form that is natural to the
    user (text and graphics)
  • Similarly the computer cannot understand complex
    voice messages (although research in speech
    recognition is progressing)
  • Computer advances are improving things but the
    typical user interfaces today still rely on mouse
    and keyboard
  • Figure 11-6 shows the dialog between manager
    and assistant transformed into the languages used
    by the user and the computer
  • Interface designers use a variety of informal
    diagrams and written narratives to model
    human-computer interaction this figure is one
    way the dialog design can be modeled

20
FIGURE 11-6 The users language and the
computers language used to implement an e-mail
application based on the natural dialog between
manager and assistant.
21
  • II. Interface Design Guidelines
  • Many interface design guidelines have been
    published to help system developers. They range
    from general principles to very specific rules
  • Interface design standards are general
    principles and rules that must be followed for
    the interface of any system developed by the
    organization
  • Following the standards helps to ensure that
    all user interfaces are usable and all systems
    developed by the organization have a similar look
    and feel
  • Visibility and Affordance
  • Are two key principles to ensure good
    human-computer interaction (proposed by Donald
    Norman)
  • Visibility is a key principle of HCI that
    states all controls should be visible (so users
    know it is available) and provide immediate
    feedback to indicate the control is responding to
    the users actions
  • E.g. a button that can be clicked should be
    visible, and when it is clicked should look like
    it has been pressed to indicate it is responding
    (sometimes, buttons make a clicking sound to
    provide feedback)
  • Affordance is a key principle of HCI that
    states that the appearance of any control should
    suggest its functionality, i.e. the purpose for
    which the control is used
  • e.g. a button affords clicking, a scroll bar
    affords scrolling, an item in a list affords
    selecting etc.

22
Normans principles apply to any objects on the
desktop (such as those shown in Figures 11-3 and
11-4) Implications for designers If designers
make all controls visible and clear more likely
the interface will be usable Most users are now
familiar with Windows user interface and common
Windows controls These principles should also
be applied very carefully to design of web pages,
where there are new types of controls and
possible designs of interfaces (not standardized)
more objects are clickable, but it is nor
always clear what is cleakable and what the click
will accomplish Eight Golden Rules Ben
Shneiderman proposes eight underlying principles
applicable to most interactive systems (and key
to usability) Although they are general
guidelines rather than specific rules, he named
them golden rules They are as follows
23
  • Strive for consistency
  • Enable frequent users to use short cuts
  • Offer informative feedback
  • Design dialogs to yield closure
  • Offer simple error handling
  • Permit easy reversal of actions
  • Support internal locus of control
  • Reduce short-term memory load
  • Strive for Consistency
  • Consistent interface is one of the most
    important design goals. Information
  • arrangement on forms, the names and arrangement
    of menu items, the size and shape of
  • icons etc. should be consistent throughout the
    system
  • By force of habit, it allows for many actions
    to become automatic otherwise if a new
  • application comes along with a different way of
    functioning, people should have to
  • relearn all the basic operations
  • Apple Macintosh was first to emphasize the
    benefits of consistency in 1980s. Mac
  • applications were consistent and a standards
    document was created for people writing
  • Mac applications (so if you knew one, you could
    figure out other applications easily
  • since they were consistent)

24
E.g. original standards required to include
menus on the menu bar for File, Edit and Format
in every application (all document-oriented
applications, such as word processing, really
need those menus. But many business system dont
have file, edit or format functions other
standards should be applied!) Research has also
shown that inconsistent interface sometimes are
beneficial. E.g. if the user interact with
multiple applications, a different visual
appearance may help to differentiate them and
memorize which application is which 2. Enable
Frequent Users to Use Short Cuts Users who work
with one application all the time are willing to
invest time to learn short cuts They begin to
lose patience with long menu sequences when they
know exactly what they want to do Short-cut
keys can reduce the number of interactions for a
given task Designers should provide macro
facilities for users to create their own short
cuts E.g. mail-order-entry clerks at RMO who
enter orders into the system all day long from
paper forms, wouldnt want long dialogs, multiple
menus to slow them down, but instead simple, fast
and accurate interface (short-cuts) would make
them more productive
25
3. Offer Informative Feedback Every action a
user takes should result in some type of feedback
from the computer so the user knows the action
was recognized (e.g. if the user clicks a button
it should visually change and perhaps make a
sound to indicate it has responded) Feedback of
information to the user is also important (e.g.
if a mail-order clerk enters a customer ID number
in the screen, the computer should display the
name and address for confirmation or if the clerk
enters a product ID for the order, the system
should display a description of the product) 4.
Design Dialogs to Yield Closure Each dialog
with the system should be organized with a clear
sequence (with a beginning, middle and an end)
If the system requirements are defined as events
to which the system responds, each event leads to
processing of one specific, well-defined
activity With the traditional approach , each
activity is defined by data flow diagrams and
structured English With the object-oriented
approach, each activity (a use case) might be
further defined as multiple scenarios, each with
a flow of events Each scenario is a
well-defined interaction therefore, event
decomposition sets the stage for dialog with
closure in both approaches
26
  • 5. Offer Simple Error Handling
  • Errors can be costly so designers must try to
    prevent users from making errors
  • Chief way is by limiting available options and
    allowing user to choose from valid options at any
    point in the dialog
  • Adequate feedback also reduces errors
  • When errors occur, the system needs ways to
    handle them
  • Error messages should state specifically what is
    wrong and explain how to correct it
  • Avoid message that scare or blame the user e.g.
    FATAL ERROR 2001
  • Also provide information that makes it easy to
    correct the error e.g. The date of birth
    entered is not valid. Check to be sure only
    numeric characters in appropriate ranges are
    entered in the date of birth fields
  • The input form should be redisplayed with all
    fields still filled in and the cursor should be
    at the field with invalid data, ready for the
    user to edit it
  • 6. Permit Easy Reversal of Actions
  • Users need to feel that they can explore
    options and take actions that can be canceled or
    reversed easily
  • Allows users to learn about the system by
    exploring
  • If they make a mistake, they can cancel the
    action
  • All dialog boxes should include cancel buttons
    to go back one step at any time
  • Also if user is going to delete something
    substantial (e.g. a file, a record or a
    transaction) the system should ask the user to
    confirm the action

27
7. Support Internal Locus of Control
Experienced users want to feel they are in charge
of the system and the system responds to their
commands They should not be forced to do
anything or made to feel as the system is
controlling them quite the contrary, they should
feel that they are deciding what to do Much of
this comfort and control can be provided by the
wording of prompts and messages Writing out a
dialog (like example we saw) can help to lead to
such a design 8. Reduce Short-Term Memory Load
People have short-term memory limitations (people
can remember only about seven chunks of
information at a time) Interface designer
cannot assume the user will remember anything
from form to form, or from dialog box to dialog
box during an interaction with the system If
user has to stop and ask Now what was the
filename? The customer ID? - it is a bad design
solution to place a burden on the users memory
28
  • III. Documenting Dialog Designs
  • There are many techniques to help design
    dialogs. The dialog are based on the inputs and
    outputs requiring user interaction
  • These are used to create a menu hierarchy that
    allows the user to navigate to each dialog
  • Storyboards, prototypes and UML diagrams can be
    used to complete the design
  • Events, Subsystems and Menu Hierarchy
  • In chapter 11 we saw how inputs and outputs are
    obtained from data-flow diagrams (traditional
    approach) and from sequence diagrams (OO
    approach)
  • Generally, each input obtained interactively
    from a user requires a dialog design each output
    produced at the request of a user also requires a
    dialog design
  • The events documented early in analysis are the
    key to listing needed dialogs (external events
    are triggered by inputs and temporal events
    produce outputs)
  • Dialog design must be done simultaneously with
    other design activities
  • Traditional approach
  • Structure charts for each subsystem (transaction
    analysis) includes details about menu structure
    of the interactive parts
  • Structure chart for each event (transform
    analysis of each DFD fragment) also includes
    details about the dialog

29
  • OO approach
  • Sequence diagrams and collaboration diagrams
    contain details about the dialog
  • Menu Hierarchy
  • From the standpoint of the user, the overall
    system structure is reflected in the menus
    available
  • Each menu contains a hierarchy of options, and
    they are arranged by sub-system or by actions on
    objects
  • RMO example includes
  • Order entry subsystem
  • Order fulfillment subsystem
  • Customer maintenance subsystem
  • Catalog maintenance subsystem
  • Reporting subsystem
  • Alternatively, menus could be arranged based
    not on subsystems but on objects
  • Customers
  • Orders
  • inventory, and shipments
  • Within each menu, there might be duplicated
    functions (e.g. Look up past orders, under
    customers and under inventory)

30
  • Sometimes several versions of the menus are
    needed based on type of user
  • E.g. mail-order clerks at RMO do not need to know
    many of the options available since they only
    process new orders
  • Menus should also include options that are not
    in the event list (e.g. options related to
    controls (see Chapter 11). These include
  • Backup and recovery of databases
  • User account maintenance
  • User preferences are usually provided to allow
    the user to tailor the interface
  • Finally, menus should always include help
    facilities
  • See Figure 11-8 for the menu hierarchy for RMO
    customer support system (all events are listed
    and grouped by subsystems)
  • A dialog design is created for each menu option
    (e.g. for each menu option on previous slide)
  • After completing the dialog design for all
    options, the designer can define the structure of
    the menus for different types of users
  • Menu hierarchies can be rearranged easily as
    the design evolves

31
FIGURE 11-8 An overall menu hierarchy design for
the RMO CSS (not all users will have all of those
available).
32
  • Dialogs and Storyboards
  • Dialog designs can be documented in many ways
  • Often evolve from descriptions of scenarios
  • One approach is to list the key steps followed
    for the dialog with a written descriptions of
    what the user and the computer are to do at each
    step (i.e. scenarios)
  • The format of these steps may have already been
    obtained during analysis when we described the
    flow of events model for scenarios (also called
    in use case scenarios)
  • See next slide for example of such written
    descriptions of use scenarios (this example was
    given in chpt. 7 on OO analysis, when we
    documented use cases)
  • Design can go from the use scenarios, like one
    on last slide and break it down further into a
    sequence of user actions, e.g.
  • Customer calls RMO and talks to order clerk
  • Order clerk verifies the customer information
  • If this is a new customer, a new customer record
    is created
  • Other ways of describing dialogs include
  • Writing out a dialog in tabular form as shown in
    Figure 11-6
  • Designers can go from written description of
    user interactions to sketching out various series
    of screens that the make the design more visible

33
FIGURE 7-3 Two scenarios for Create new order.
34
  • Storyboarding
  • Storyboarding is a technique used to document
    dialog design by showing a sequence of sketches
    of the display screen. The sketches do not have
    to be very detailed to show basic design concept
  • These sketches can be made using a prototyping
    tool (like Visual Basic) or can even just be
    drawn out on paper (each page showing one screen
    of the dialog)
  • It is possible to make the screen drawings
    based on steps from the written scenarios (or
    written versions of dialogs)
  • See next 2 slides for an example of a written
    description of the dialog representing the event
    Customer rents videos (a written scenario)
  • See Figure 11-9 for the corresponding
    storyboard showing drawings of potential screens
    for each step (note - screen numbers in written
    description refer to screens in this slide)
  • The system has a menu hierarchy based on the
    event list plus needed controls, preferences and
    help
  • The dialog uses one form and a few dialog boxes
  • Note that in Figure 11-9, the questions the
    computer asks are shown in the prompt area at the
    bottom of the form (matching almost identically
    the phrases in the written dialog)
  • The user would have the option of either scanning
    or typing the few IDs that must be entered
  • Information provided to the user is shown in
    labels on the form

35
System What Downtown Videos option do you want?
(screen 1) User I need to rent some
videos System Okay, what is the customers ID
number for this rental? (screen 2) User
It is 201564 System Fine, your customer is
Nancy Wells as 1122 Silicon Avenue. Note that
she has two kids, Bob and Sally, who can only
rent PG-13 videos. Correct? (screen 3)
36
User Yes. System Whats the ID number of the
first video she wants to rent? (screen
4) User It is 5312. (screen 5) System Fine,
that Titanic (the 1953 with Barbara Stanwyck)
with a rental charge of 1.00 for three days,
rated PG. Whats the ID number of the next
video or is that it? User It is 8645. (screen
6) System Fine, that is Titanic (the 1998
version) with a rental charge of 3.00 for
three days ..
37
FIGURE 11-9 Storyboard for the DownTown Videos
rent.
38
  • The user is allowed to confirm the identity of
    the customer, see any restrictions that might
    apply and pass on information about cost and
    return dates to the customer
  • This approach to dialog design provides only a
    framework to work from. As working prototypes are
    produced, many further details may still need to
    be worked out
  • Evaluating storyboards and emerging design
  • As the design progresses, reviewing the golden
    rules and other guidelines will keep focus on
    usability
  • Note you can even do usability testing with
    screen mockups of interface/system (from our
    storyboard) but can even still do using paper
    screens
  • Give user a task and ask to think aloud or
    comment on the screens and their sequencing
  • Can video tape users doing this (ie. work with
    the prototype)
  • Can analyze and use this information to feedback
    iteratively into screen design and redesign
  • As design progresses you will end up doing this
    usability testing on the actual working computer
    prototype of the system, or early on can even
    make and show a video dramatization of what the
    system will look like)

39
  • Dialog Documentation with UML Diagrams
  • OO approach provides specific UML diagrams
    useful for modeling user-computer dialogs
  • Objects send messages back and forth listening to
    and responding to each other in sequence
  • People also send messages to objects and receive
    messages back from objects
  • The sequence diagram shows a user (actor) sending
    messages to objects
  • OO approach involves adding interface objects
    to class diagrams (see chapter 9)
  • They show more detail about dialog between user
    and computer
  • OO Approach to Dialog Documentation
  • Determine what forms are required for the dialog
    based on the techniques described above
  • The sequence diagram for the scenario is expanded
    to show the user (an actor) interacting with the
    forms
  • The user-interface classes that make up the forms
    can be modeled using a class diagram
  • Finally, the sequence diagram is further expanded
    to show the user interacting with specific
    objects that make up the form
  • 5. A collaboration diagram can also show
    another view of the dialog design

40
  • Example
  • Figure 7-12 shows the sequence diagram for the
    RMO use case Look up item availability
  • Figure 11-10 shows the expanded version of the
    sequence diagram that includes a form object (or
    window) with which the user interacts
  • The form has been inserted between the actor and
    problem domain objects
  • The actor interacts with the interface objects on
    the form to talk to the problem domain objects,
    which reply through the interface objects on the
    form
  • Note that the analysis model of the interaction
    just shows the messages between the actor and the
    problem domain objects
  • Note that the design model inserts the interface
    to create a physical model of how the interaction
    is implemented
  • Figure 11-11 shows a class diagram with the
    interface classes used to make up the form. The
    Frame class represents the basic structure that
    contains other interface objects (using
    whole-part or aggregation relationships)
  • A menu bar is attached to the Frame
  • The menu bar contains Menus
  • A menu contains Menu Items etc.
  • List, Button and Label are also parts of the
    frame
  • The associations between these classes are
    aggregations shown with the diamond symbol on the
    class diagram

41
FIGURE 7-12 A sequence diagram for the RMO Look
up item availability
42
FIGURE 11-10 A sequence diagram for the RMO Look
up item availability with an item search form
added.
43
FIGURE 11-11 A class diagram showing interface
classes making up the item search form.
44
  • This example is based on Java and enables the
    frame to listen for events that occur to
    interface objects, e.g. clicking a menu or
    choosing a button
  • The frames actionListner() method is invoked
    when the frame hears that an event has occurred
  • Expanding the Sequence Diagram to include
    interface design
  • A sequence diagram can be used to model the
    messages between the user and the specific
    objects making up the forms, including the
    messages the interface objects send each other
  • We can make an expanded sequence diagram that
    emphasizes the details of the forms design (so
    problem domain details can be omitted)
  • Figure 11-12 for Look up item availability
  • Nothing has changed in part of sequence diagram
    where problem domain objects interact with
    themselves
  • The interface objects have simply been plugged in
    between them and the actor
  • The user interacting with the Look up item
    availability form, selects an item to look up in
    the list and then clicks the search button
  • The frame hears the click , asks the list for
    the selected item, and uses the selected item in
    the message to query the catalog object, which
    then interacts with the other domain objects

45
FIGURE 11-12 A sequence diagram showing specific
interface objects for the Look up item
availability dialog (not all problem domain
objects are shown).
46
  • When the catalog object returns the
    information, the frame tells the label to display
    the information to the user
  • Figure 11-13 shows a collaboration diagram
    containing the same information as the sequence
    diagram
  • The collaboration diagram with numbered messages
    emphasizes the messages between objects but it
    still shows sequence
  • Notes on OO approach
  • System analyst needs to think through the
    natural sequence of interaction early in the
    development process to create a sequence diagram
    for each scenario of each use case
  • The basic dialog is then extended to include
    user-interface objects for the user and computer
    when they interact
  • Since the same diagrams are used during
    analysis and design (with design adding more
    detail) the object-oriented approach lends itself
    to iterative development
  • IV. Guidelines for Designing Windows Forms
  • Each dialog might require several windows forms
  • Each form must be carefully tested for usability

47
FIGURE 11-13 A collaboration diagram for the
Look up item availability dialog.
48
  • Most business systems today are developed for
    Microsoft Windows, X-Windows (UNIX) or Macintosh
    environment
  • Form design principles are similar for these
    three environment
  • We should distinguish between standard input
    forms and browser input forms
  • Standard input forms vs. Browser forms
  • Standard input forms
  • Programmed in a programming language like Visual
    Basic or Java
  • Extremely flexible and can access data directly
    on a workstation
  • Browser forms
  • Programmed in HTML and XML and follow Internet
    conventions
  • Browser forms can be displayed using a markup
    language browser (e.g. Netscape or Explorer)
  • Currently they do not permit the same level of
    design flexibility as standard input forms but
    next generation markup languages may support all
    the desired features
  • Advantage the same forms can be used for
    internal staff as well as on the Internet
  • E-commerce is growing so rapidly that some
    companies are designing their user interfaces on
    all new systems based on HTML or XML formats

49
Use of Prototyping Tools After identifying the
objective of the input form and its associated
data fields, the system developer can develop the
form using prototyping tools Earlier,
developers used to spend tremendous amount of
time laying out the form on paper diagrams before
beginning programming Today, it is more
efficient to use a prototyping tool Developers
can design the look and feel of the form at the
same time This approach permits the user to be
heavily involved in development (provides a
strong sense of ownership and acceptance) Types
of Forms Input forms are used to record a
transaction or enter data some portion of the
form may contain information for the user (like
the example of forms we saw in Figure 11-9 for
the DownTown Videos storyboard example)
Input/Output forms are generally used to update
existing data they display information about a
single entity (e.g. a customer) and allow to user
to update the existing information by typing over
displayed data Output forms are used primarily
for displaying data their design is based on
same principles as report design
50
  • Every form should include a careful analysis of
    the integrity controls
  • There are four major issues to be considered in
    the design of these forms
  • - Form layout and formatting
  • - Data keying and entry
  • - Navigation and support controls
  • - Help support
  • Form Layout and Formatting
  • Form layout and formatting are concerned with
    the general look and feel of the form
  • One method to ensure that forms are well laid
    out is to prototype various alternatives and let
    the user test them
  • In designing input forms you should consider
  • Consistency
  • Headings, labels and logos
  • Distribution and order of data-entry fields and
    buttons
  • Font sizes, highlighting and colors
  • Some systems require large teams of programmers
    and all forms within a system need to have the
    same look and feel
  • Consistent use of function keys, short cuts,
    control buttons and even color and layout makes a
    system much more useful professionally looking

51
  • The headings, labels and logos of the form
    convey the purpose of the form. A clear
    descriptive title at the top of the form helps to
    minimize confusion about the use of the form
    labels should also be easily identified and easy
    to read
  • The designer should also carefully place data
    entry fields around the form
  • Related fields should be placed near each other
    and even isolated within a box
  • If input is from a paper form, the tab order
    should follow the reading of the paper
  • Use blank space where needed to distinguish the
    fields
  • De facto traditions for placement of buttons
    should be considered (they are developed based on
    standards of the large firms such as Apple,
    Microsoft, Sun, Oracle)
  • Font size, highlighting and color can be used
    to make the form easy to read
  • Careful mix of large and small fonts, bold and
    normal, different color fonts or background is
    useful
  • Too much variation can cause the form to be
    cluttered and difficult to use
  • Column headings and totals should be larger or
    boldfaced
  • Figure 11-14 is an example of form design for
    RMO CSS. This form is used to look up information
    about a product and to add it to an order
  • The title and labels make it easy to read
  • Natural flow of the form is top to bottom
  • Related fields are placed together
  • Navigation and close buttons are easily found

52
FIGURE 11-14 The RMO Product Detail form used to
look up information about a product, select size
and color and then add in to an order.
53
  • Data Keying and Entry for Standard Windows
  • The heart of any input form is the entry of new
    data. There are several types of data-entry
    controls widely used in windows systems
  • Text box is an input control that accepts
    keyboard data entry
  • A text box consists of a rectangular box that
    accepts keyboard data
  • It is a good idea to add a descriptive label to
    identify what should be typed in
  • Can be designed to limit the entry to a specific
    length on a single line or permit scrolling with
    multiple lines
  • List box is an input control that contains a
    list of acceptable entries the user can select
  • Usually consists of a list of predefined list of
    data values and user can select one from the list
  • The list can be presented either within the box
    or as a drop-down list
  • Spin box is a variation of the list box that
    presents multiple entries in the text box itself
    from which the user can select
  • Two spinner arrows let the user scroll through
    all values
  • Combo box is another variation of the list box
    that permits the user to enter a new value when
    the list does not contain the required value

54
  • Two types of input controls are used in groups
    radio buttons and check boxes
  • Radio buttons ( or option buttons) are input
    controls that enable the user to select one
    option from a group.
  • The system automatically turns off all the other
    buttons in the group when one is selected
  • Check boxes are input controls that enable the
    user to select more than one option from a group
  • Figure 11-15 shows a form with data-entry
    controls
  • Navigation and Support Controls
  • Standard Windows interfaces provide several
    controls for navigation and window manipulation
  • For Microsoft applications these controls are
  • Minimize, Maximize and Close buttons on top-right
    corner
  • Horizontal and vertical scroll bars
  • The selection bar
  • Good idea to utilize these navigation controls
    to maintain consistency across the system
  • However, you should place buttons on the screen
    that allow users to move to other relevant
    screens, to search and find data and to close the
    open window

55
FIGURE 11-15 Examples of data-entry controls on
an input form.
56
  • Data Keying and Entry for the Browser Interface
  • Browser interfaces (e.g. Netscape, Explorer)
    are dependent on the capabilities available in
    the markup languages such as HTML and XML
  • The major difference between a standard windows
    input form and browser input form is that the
    windows form can easily perform edits field by
    field as the data are entered while in a browser
    input form, the edits are not performed until the
    entire form is transmitted to the server computer
  • However with increase in use of Web, future
    development will lead to browser forms and input
    forms that have similar capabilities
  • Help Support
  • Three types of help are available in current
    systems
  • A tutorial that walks you through the use of the
    form
  • Can be organized by task, which generally
    includes one dialog with a set of related forms
  • An indexed list of help topics
  • The list can be invoked through a keyword search
    or help wizard (a program that does an automatic
    keyword search based on words found in a question
    or sentence will return several alternative
    topics based on results of the keyword search
  • Context-sensitive help automatically displays the
    appropriate help topic based on what the user is
    doing (i.e. on the location of cursor)

57
  • V. Dialog Design for Rocky Mountain
    Outfitters RMO customer support system includes
    support for the phone-order sales representative
    processing an order for a customer
  • The dialog corresponds to the event Customer
    places an order and specifically to the scenario
    Phone-order representative creates new order
  • As we saw, the designer starts by looking at the
    data-flow diagram fragment and detailed DFD for
    the activity (if traditional approach)
  • If OO analysis was done, start by looking at the
    sequence diagram
  • Steps for scenario Phone-order representative
    creates new order are as follows
  • Record customer information
  • Create a new order
  • Record transaction details
  • Produce order confirmation
  • In Figure 7-17 is the original sequence diagram
    from analysis phase, which could be updated to
    include forms the user will need for interaction
  • Figure 11-16 that is a partial sequence diagram
    showing
  • A main menu form
  • A customer form
  • An order form
  • added to the sequence diagram

58
FIGURE 7-17 A sequence diagram for the
telephone-order scenario of the Create new order
use case.
59
FIGURE 11-16 Partial sequence diagram for Create
new order dialog, adding the main menu, the
customer form and the order form.
60
  • The actor (user) clicks a menu item on the main
    menu form that sends a display message to the
    customer form
  • The actor supplies customer information and a
    new customer object is created or the status is
    checked if it is an existing customer
  • The customer form sends a display message to
    the order form
  • Based on this sequence of processing, a basic
    dialog can be written to show flow from the
    users perspective see next slides
  • While working on this dialog, the designer can
    begin to define the forms that will be needed
  • Main menu form
  • Customer form
  • Item search form
  • Product detail form
  • Order summary form
  • Shipping and payment options form
  • Order confirmation form
  • The designer can then use the forms to define a
    design concept for the flow of interaction from
    form to form
  • One approach is to show potential forms in
    sequence see Figure 11-17

61
Computer What customer support system option do
you want? User I need to create a new
order. Computer Okay, is it a new or existing
customer? User Its a new customer. Computer Fi
ne, give me the customers name,
address, phone, and so on. User The customer
is Ginny Decker, 11980 Visual Blvd. Computer Okay
, what is the first item she wants to
order? User Boots, Womens, Hiking Supreme Line
in the Spring Fling catalog. Computer They
come in these sizes and colors, and we have
all in stock, except size 9.
62
Computer That comes to 65.50 plus tax,
shipping, and handling. Anything
else? User Yes, Raincoat, Womans, On the Run
Line in the Spring Fling catalog. Computer The
y come in these sizes and colors, and we have
all in stock except medium and large
blue User Okay, one coat size small in
brown Computer That comes to 87.95 plus tax,
shipping, and handling. Anything
else? User Thats it. Computer How does the
customer want the order shipped? User UPS
two-day air. Computer Does the customer want to
use a credit card, or is there another payment
approach for this order? User Use the
Mastercard number 674-22-3888
63
FIGURE 11-17 A design concept for the sequential
approach to the Create new order dialog
64
  • After the main menu form, the customer form
    appears first (which the user fills in or
    updates) and then the search form displays to let
    the user search for an item
  • Product details are shown for the item, and
    then the search form is shown again
  • When all the items are selected, the order
    summary form is shown
  • After considering what information to put on
    each form, the designer can create a more
    detailed storyboard, or implement prototype forms
    (using a tool such as Visual Basic)
  • Comments on the initial design concept
  • It is very sequential but reasonable for a
    first iteration
  • Phone sales representatives at RMO evaluated
    the storyboard and found the sequence too rigid
  • It assumes the dialog always follows the same
    sequence
  • However, because the phone-order representatives
    are on the phone with customers, they have to
    follow the customers lead
  • E.g. sometimes the customer may not want to give
    the information about themselves until the order
    is processed and confirmed. But the sequential
    design assumes the customer information always
    comes first
  • Although the sequential approach might work well
    for mail-order clerks, more flexibility is
    required for phone-order representatives

65
  • To address the flexibility and information
    needs, the project team developed a second design
    concept (Figure 11-18)
  • Makes the order form the center of the dialog,
    with options to switch to other forms at will
  • After each action, the order form is redisplayed
    to the phone-order representative with the
    current order details
  • Allows the same sequence to be followed as the
    basic dialog, but also allows flexibility when
    needed
  • Also shows more information throughout the dialog
    in case the information is needed
  • After adopting the order-centered concept, the
    project team designed the detailed forms (see
    figure 11-19)
  • After the user selects Place an order from the
    main menu (a), the system displays the order
    summary form with a new order number assigned to
    it (b)
  • The user can then add the customer information
    immediately
  • The user can then search for a requested item
    and look up more details about the item on the
    product detail form (c)
  • If the customer wants to order the item, the
    user adds it to the order and the order summary
    form redisplays (d)
  • The user can add another item to the order,
    make changes to the first item or select shipping
    options corresponding form appears (e)

66
FIGURE 11-18 A design concept for an
order-centered approach to the Create new order
dialog
67
FIGURE 11-19 Prototype forms for an
order-centered approach to the dialog, (a) The
main menu
68
(b) The order summary form beginning a new order
69
(c) The product detail form after the user
selects the Add Product item.
70
(d) The order summary form after the user adds
several products
71
(e) The shipping option form for a completed order
72
  • Now we got what the phone-order representatives
    wanted
  • This design took a number of iterations and
    user evaluations
  • To achieve the best design
  • VI. Dialog Design for Web Sites
  • RMO customer support system event Customer
    places order requires several different dialog
    designs (one for each scenario)
  • Another key system objective allow customers
    to interact with the system using the WWW
  • Basic dialog (between user and computer) for
    this will be similar to that for the phone-order
    representative, but the web site will provide
    more information, be more flexible and be easier
    to use
  • Customers may want
  • To browse through all possible information about
    a product
  • More pictures (in color showing patterns of items
    etc.)
  • Will want information organized to make it easy
    to locate details the first time they use the
    system
  • The phone-order representative needs
  • More information on screen to be able to answer
    customers questions

73
  • The system should be flexible very important
    since customers will have different perspectives
    for interacting with the system
  • -Some customers may want to browse first, and
    enter information about themselves later
  • -Options like reviewing past orders, shipping and
    payment will also be required
  • The system must be easy to learn and use
    initial dialog options must be very clear and
    self-explanatory (customers should not be
    expected to have training sessions, like you
    could for the clerks)
  • Guidelines for Design of Web sites
  • There are many different specific guidelines
  • As mentioned before regarding visibility and
    affordance
  • controls used on a web page should be clear in
    what they do and how they are used
  • The 8 golden rules described before also
    apply
  • Most users are concerned with speed rather than
    fancy (slow to download) graphics
  • Novice designers often go overboard on graphics
    and animation at the expense of speed
  • Since the site reflects the company, it is
    important to have graphic designers and public
    relations professionals involved
  • Focus groups and other feedback methods should
    be used to refine the design

74
  • Example RMOs home page
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