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U'S' Government

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the U.S. Government Interagency model used internally to develop and implement ... developed by Interagency based on a DoD concept in reaction to Rwanda genocide. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U'S' Government


1
U.S. Government Education and Training Policy
Formulation and Program Execution Case Study
ACRI/ACOTA and EIPC Models Presented by John
Christiansen
2
DISCLAIMER
  • THE VIEWS AND OPINIONS EXPRESSED BY THE PRESENTOR
    AND THOSE CONTAINED WITHIN THIS DOCUMENT DO NOT
    REPRESENT OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POSITIONS

3
Todays Presentation Will Cover Two Important,
Intertwined Topics
  • the U.S. Government Interagency model used
    internally to develop and implement peace
    operations capacity enhancement programs
  • a look at two different programmatic outputs of
    that process ACRI/ACOTA and EIPC.
  • Does the Interagency process work and should
    others use it, and are the two programs effective
    models for others to follow?

4
Some General Terms
  • Stabilization Operations (e.g., peace operations,
    humanitarian interventions)
  • Reconstruction (e.g., post-conflict relief,
    humanitarian assistance, rebuilding,
    institutional development)
  • Disaster Response (e.g., emergency lifesaving
    response, recovery, reconstruction)

5
Backdrop Facing Todays International
Challenges
  • A new dynamic has been evolving in international
    stability and reconstruction operations.
  • Systemic improvements urgently needed to address
    increasing, and evolving, challenges to
    international operations.
  • Capacity enhancement efforts now needed more
    urgently than ever before, especially in light of
    the new dynamic at work.

6
Facing Todays International Challenges...continue
d
  • Concerned countries and international, regional
    and sub-regional organizations need to assume
    responsibility for these efforts.
  • The Challenge to collectively resolve hot spots
    of instability around the world.
  • An Effective Solution build international
    capacity to perform collective stabilization
    operations and reconstruction.

7
Institutional Assumptions
  • Institutions are alive.
  • Institutions have cultural attributes.
  • Institutions possess biases.
  • Institutional inertia and biases must be overcome
    to effectively formulate and implement national
    policies.

8
In Search of Solutions The U.S. Interagency
Process Formulates National Policies
  • The President of the United States insists that a
    cooperative and collaborative process of policy
    formulation and implementation be undertaken
    within the Executive Branch of the USG.
  • Why?
  • -- to eliminate gaps in capabilities, wasteful
    overlap of efforts, structural inefficiencies,
    and institutional inertia
  • -- to create consensus building, collective
    buy-in, effective decision making and
  • -- helps to effectively manage scarce resources.

9
Teamwork, Teamwork, Teamwork
  • USG Interagency process exists to collectively
    develop policies to either solve problems or
    explore new opportunities.
  • The Institutional Players
  • - White House/National Security Council
  • - State Department and its Embassies
  • - Defense Department and its Combatant
  • Commanders

10
Needed An Honest Broker And A Transparent
Process The NSC and Its Coordinating Role
  • We are dealing with bureaucracies each
    department has an institutional bias.
  • Policy formulation and program execution is most
    efficiently done in a transparent system.
  • The USG model is an NSC-led process of
    collaborative coordination and development.
  • Synergy a desired attribute of the
  • of the interagency process

11
U.S. Interagency Model Forces Collaboration
  • The NSC forms Interagency Working Groups (IWGs)
    between Departments at the Assistant
    Secretary/Deputy Assistant Secretary levels.
  • IWGs -- basic working bodies -- formulate courses
    of action and recommend options.
  • Deputies Committee -- standing body of each
    departments 2 decision maker.
  • When necessary, Deputies forward issues to the
    Principals Committee for decision -- Principals
    Committee heads of each affected department.

12
The U.S. Interagency Process Recognizes That ...
  • Several models of capacity enhancement can be
    used, to varying degrees of effectiveness.
  • Two standing models
  • -- target tailored education, training, and
    equipping programs to specific needs when time
    sensitive, emergent crises dictate
  • -- more broadly applied regional and
    sub-regional institutional development and
    capacity enhancement programs, usually in
    anticipation of future requirements.

13
EIPC Building Capacity On A Global Basis
  • Throughout 1996, the Interagency process debated
    ways to build peace operations capacities in
    selected countries around the world with
    demonstrated intent and a minimal level of
    capability to join coalition and UN operations.
  • DoD developed EIPC concept and convinced other
    members of the Interagency to support the
    concept.
  • Joint State-DoD program developed.

14
EIPC And The Interagency
  • Joint DoD-State chaired IWG (unusual).
  • Highly structured USG policy formulation, program
    development, and execution review process led by
    an interagency IWG since inception in 1996.
  • Excellent example of close coordination between
    State and Defense Departments on capacity
    enhancement.

15
EIPC A Model of, And For, Sustained Cooperation
  • Joint State-DoD IWG to oversee program.
  • State-DoD co-chairs (unusual).
  • State-funded, DoD executed.
  • Advantage speaking to Congress w/one unified
    voice.
  • Helped protect program funding w/in
    Administration and Congress.
  • Focus on high-level institutional development,
    generally Chapter 6 flavored.

16
EIPC Gradual Evolution
  • At inception, twin thrust of training and
    equipping -- international participants receive
    EIPC well.
  • During first years, a somewhat strong emphasis on
    provision of computer related equipment to enable
    networking.
  • In reaction to the need for institution building,
    a minor course correction was taken in 2000 when
    a greater emphasis was placed on education with
    designation of CCMR, Monterey, as Lead Agent for
    EIPC education.

17
African Crisis Response InitiativeBuilding a
Standing Force In Africa
  • Program developed by Interagency based on a DoD
    concept in reaction to Rwanda genocide.
  • At inception, polar opposite from EIPC strong
    emphasis on Chapter 7 and equipping and training
    battalions.
  • Large budget given large goals (20 mil/per year
    over 5 years).

18
ACRI In The Interagency
  • No joint State-DoD co-chaired IWG as with EIPC.
  • Strong State control DoD perceived being left
    out of the process.
  • Stronger top-level support from White House and
    NSC ACRI viewed as Presidential Program.
  • EIPC a lower profile program.

19
ACRI Stumbles, Recovers
  • Birthing Pains
  • -- standing force an issue with European and
    African partners alike.
  • -- strong unilateral U.S. push to get Europeans
    into equipping process failed.
  • Interagency reassessment of program direction 6
    months after launch.

20
ACRI and EIPC 8 Years Later
  • ACRI trained battalions deploy, but not as often
    as initially hoped
  • ACRI program emphasis abruptly shifted in 2003
    to focus more on institutional development.
  • EIPC underwent gradual evolution and program is
    meeting its goals.

21
Conclusions
  • Education and training aimed at institutional
    development does more to enhance capacity than
    programs focused on equipping and training of
    units.
  • Most countries appear more interested in
    participating in Chapter 6 style UN peacekeeping
    operations assistance efforts should be
    tailored to suit the requirements
  • Still a role for specialized pre-deployment
    training, and equipping, to meet situational
    needs, even in a peace enforcement environment.

22
Conclusionscontinued
  • A collaborative system of coordination and
    communications between departments or ministries,
    at all levels, enforced by the top decision
    makers, is the most effective way to develop and
    implement policy and programs.

23
  • BACKUP SLIDES

24
Strategic Architecture
National aims, e.g., international stability
Survival, Vital, Peripheral
National interests
Threats to national interests
Foreign and Domestic
National Objectives
National Strategy
if ... then
political, economic, military, environmental,
socio-cultural
Design
Implementation
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