Accessibility Policy making - An international perspective - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Accessibility Policy making - An international perspective PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 1594d2-ZDc1Z


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Accessibility Policy making - An international perspective


Unprecedented opportunities for persons with disabilities to participate in society ... Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) enacted in1992 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:24
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 19
Provided by: sucharitan
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Accessibility Policy making - An international perspective

  • Accessibility Policy making - An international
  • Nirmita Narasimhan
  • Centre for Internet and Society, India

  • The Information Age
  • Barriers
  • Accessibility policies around the world
  • Considerations for a Good policy

The Information Age
  • Unprecedented opportunities for persons with
    disabilities to participate in society
  • Access to knowledge, information and services
  • Possibility of ensuring equal opportunities for
  • Inclusion and participation in society
  • Involvement in social, cultural, business and
    administrative processes

  • Inaccessible and unaffordable technologies
  • Inaccessible web sites
  • Unsupportive laws
  • Lack of awareness
  • Lack of accountability on the internet

  • Recognises that accessibility to information and
    services is vital for persons with disabilities
    to enjoy a complete inclusive and participatory
    life in society
  • Recognises accessibility on the internet as a
    fundamental element for persons with disabilities
    to exercise their rights
  • Art 9 requires all information technologies to be
    accessible to persons with disabilities
  • Various countries have recognised the need for
    accessibility, even before the coming into force
    of the UNCRPD and formulated laws and policies to
    give effect to this.

Accessibility Policy Study
  • Key step in policy making
  • Researching available options in neighbouring
  • Learning from past mistakes and best practices
  • Cut your cloth to suit your needs

Accessibility policies around the world
  • We now examine the policies across seven
    countries to give us an idea of the
  • modalities involved in formulating a policy on
    internet accessibility
  • the implications and repercussions in different
  • effective implementation and monitoring models
  • possibilities for improvement
  • Countries examined Australia, Germany, India,
    Japan, Korea, UK, USA

Accessibility policies Australia
  • Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) enacted
  • DDA Advisory notes for web accessibility
    published in 2002 applicable to all service
  • Guide to minimum website standards in 2000 and
    revised in 2003
  • Guidelines compliant with WCAG 1.0
  • Advisory notes and guidelines not legally
    enforceable but DDA provisions are (case law
    Maguire vs. SOCOG, 2000)
  • Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission
    (HREOC) promotes DDA objectives and provides
    advice on implications and monitoring

Accessibility policies Germany
  • Act on Equal Opportunities for Disabled persons
  • Web Accessibility covered by Barrier free
    Information technology Ordinance (BiTV)
  • Federal BiTV based on WCAG 1.0 state level
    standards non uniform
  • Barrier free environment also includes
    communication, living environments etc.
  • Applicable to authorities, health insurances and
    other bodies, foundations and public institutions
  • Legally enforceable
  • Federal govt appoints a commissioner for the
    Interests of persons with disabilities
  • Ordinance effectiveness to be reviewed

Accessibility policies India
  • Generic legislation Persons with Disabilities
    (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights Full
    Participation) Act 1995
  • No accessibility specific legislation or policy
  • Policy is work in progress government working
    with NGOs and disability rights groups to frame
  • Signatory to both UNCRPD (2006) and Biwako
    Millennium framework towards an Inclusive,
    Barrier-free and Rights-based Society for PWDs in
    Asia and the Pacific (2002)
  • In absence of domestic law on accessibility,
    international conventions and norms are read into
    domestic law where they do not contradict enacted
    domestic law

Accessibility policies Japan
  • No overall legislation, web and electronic
    accessibility covered by Japanese Industrial
    Standards (JIS) X 8341
  • Not legally binding, open to substantial
  • Guidelines mandatory for government agencies,
    optional for others
  • Some guidelines borrowed from WCAG with
    compliance issues arising from nature of Japanese
    language and character set

Accessibility policies South Korea
  • Disability Discrimination Act (2007) provides
    rights, reasonable accommodations, agencies and
    defines web accessibility obligations
  • Informatization act (2009) covers ICT access and
    usage for PWDs and the elderly
  • Guidelines for improving accessibility (2002)
  • Guidelines based on WCAG 1.0 and 2.0
  • 5 policy groups - Developing and supplying
    assistive technologies for PWD, operating ICT
    accessibility programs, developing ICT
    accessibility standards, conducting research and
    increasing awareness

Accessibility policies UK
  • Generic legislation - Disability Discrimination
    Act (1995, amended 2005), no accessibility
    specific legislation
  • Code of Practice outlines duties under the DDA
    and provides best practice guidelines
  • PAS 78 (2006) guide to commissioning accessible
    websites, partial reference to WCAG
  • Applicable to any service provider both public
    and private

Accessibility policies USA
  • Generic legislation like Americans with
    Disabilities Act (ADA 1990), Rehabilitation
  • Sec 508 of Rehabilitation Act (1973 amended
    1998), covers web accessibility but is not
    compliant with WCAG
  • Sec 251 (a)(2) and 255 of Telecommunications Act
    (1996) require communications services and
    equipment to be accessible by PWDs
  • Sec 508 applicable to federal government websites
    and agencies receiving federal funding state
    government requirements and standards vary
  • Signed UNCRPD only in 2009

Accessibility Policies Summary
  • Chart depicting the position of countries with
    respect to the types of accessibility policies
    (legislation vs. policy) and scope of coverage
    (whether only generic or web or covering other
    aspects of accessibility as well). The countries
    best placed score high on both aspects.

Japan USA Germany Korea
India UK Australia
High (covers web other infrastructure)
Scope of Coverage
Low (only generic or web)
High (Legislation and guideline or policy)
Low (only guideline or policy)
Type of policy
Accessibility Policies Key Features
  • Coverage types of accessibility included e.g.
    web, electronic, other
  • Scope - legislation vs. policy
  • WCAG compliance
  • Applicability public sector only or private
    sector as well
  • Mechanisms for review, monitoring and compliance

Considerations for a Good Policy
  • Futuristic
  • Interoperable with other policies
  • Leave room for modification
  • Unambiguous and clear in its mandate
  • Determine accountability
  • Ensure a smooth and effective mechanism for
    implementation and evaluation
  • Involve both the public and private sector
  • Have a definite time frame for implementation
  • Involve persons with disabilities in every stage
    of the policy formulation and implementation

Thank You !