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BUSINESS PRACTICES

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Title: BUSINESS PRACTICES


1
BUSINESS PRACTICES
2
MANAGEMENT
  • Management in business and human organization
    activity is simply the act of getting people
    together to accomplish desired goals. Management
    comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading
    or directing, and controlling an organization (a
    group of one or more people or entities) or
    effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal.
    Resourcing encompasses the deployment and
    manipulation of human resources, financial
    resources, technological resources, and natural
    resources.

3
FEATURES OF MANAGEMENT
  • Universal Process
  • An integrative process
  • Dynamic function
  • Social Process
  • Management makes things happen
  • Management is a multi-faceted discipline
  • Management is a science and an art
  • Intangible force

4
NATURE OF MANAGEMENT
  • In general sense, management is the art of
    handling the different aspects of the
    organization. And it is also a type of science
    like the mathematics is a formal science then
    management is also came in the category of the
    formal science. But if take a look keenly then,
    management is totally an art. This is an art that
    how we communicate with the general people, which
    came in the management. It is the ability and art
    of a manager that handles the organization in
    well manner and keeps growing the organization
    level because of using his abilities

5
  • Let us suppose that a person came to a manager in
    very angry mode, and after taking to the manager,
    he is convinced according to the manager point of
    view, then it was the art of a manager that he
    has handled the customer in a friendly
    way. Management is not totally depend upon the
    manager's ability, it also the team work of the
    other organization members, who contribute there
    effort for the organization. Again it is an art
    that a group of people work together for so long
    time and reach to some high level, because of
    there managerial skills and abilities.

6
LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT
  • It is carried on at different levels of the
    organizational structure. The stage in the
    organization where a particular type of function
    starts is called a level of management. Thus the
    term Level of Management refers to a line of
    demarcation between various managerial positions
    in an organization.

7
  • MANAGEMENT

MIDDLE MANAGEMENT
TOP MANAGEMENT
LOWER MANAGEMENT
  • Chairman
  • Managing Director
  • Secretaries
  • Treasurers
  • Board of Directors
  • General Manager
  • Foreman
  • Supervisors
  • Finance Officers
  • Account Officers
  • Heads of Department
  • Superintendents
  • Branch Managers

8
Management Functions
  • Planning is the ongoing process of developing the
    business' mission and objectives and determining
    how they will be accomplished. Planning includes
    both the broadest view of the organization, e.g.,
    its mission, and the narrowest, e.g., a tactic
    for accomplishing a specific goal.
  • Organizing is establishing the internal
    organizational structure of the organization. The
    focus is on division, coordination, and control
    of tasks and the flow of information within the
    organization. It is in this function that
    managers distribute authority to job holders.
  • Staffing is filling and keeping filled with
    qualified people all positions in the business.
    Recruiting, hiring, training, evaluating and
    compensating are the specific activities included
    in the function. In the family business, staffing
    includes all paid and unpaid positions held by
    family members including the owner/operators.

9
  • Directing is influencing people's behavior
    through motivation, communication, group
    dynamics, leadership and discipline. The purpose
    of directing is to channel the behavior of all
    personnel to accomplish the organization's
    mission and objectives while simultaneously
    helping them accomplish their own career
    objectives.
  • Controlling is a four-step process of
    establishing performance standards based on the
    firm's objectives, measuring and reporting actual
    performance, comparing the two, and taking
    corrective or preventive action as necessary.

10
PLANNING
  • Planning is a fundamental managerial function.
    In simple words, planning is deciding in advance
    what is to be done, when, how and by whom it is
    to be done. Thus, a plan is a determined course
    of action. It is an attempt on the part of a
    manager to anticipate the future in order to
    achieve better performance.

11
ELEMENTS OF PLANNING
  • The essence of planning is looking ahead.
  • It involves a pre-determined course of action.
  • This action course is determined after a careful
    study of alternative courses.
  • It is continuous and integrated process.
  • It has always a dimension of time.
  • Its main objects is to achieve better results.

12
Importance of PLANNING
  • Planning offsets future uncertainty and change
  • Planning helps in management by objectives
  • It helps in co-ordination
  • Economy in operation
  • Helps in control
  • Helps in executive development

13
Types of Planning
  • Strategic Planning Strategic planning is an
    organization's process of defining its strategy,
    or direction, and making decisions on allocating
    its resources to pursue this strategy, including
    its capital and people. Various business analysis
    techniques can be used in strategic planning,
    including SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses,
    Opportunities, and Threats ) and PEST analysis
    (Political, Economic, Social, and Technological
    analysis) or involving Socio-cultural,
    Technological, Economic, Ecological, and
    Regulatory factors and EPISTEL (Environment,
    Political, Informatics, Social, Technological,
    Economic and Legal)
  • Strategic planning is the formal consideration of
    an organization's future course. All strategic
    planning deals with at least one of three key
    questions
  • "What do we do?"
  • "For whom do we do it?"
  • "How do we excel?"

14
  • Operational Planning It is a subset of strategic
    work plan. It describes short-term ways of
    achieving milestones and explains how, or what
    portion of, a strategic plan will be put into
    operation during a given operational period, in
    the case of commercial application, a fiscal year
    or another given budgetary term. An operational
    plan draws directly from agency and program
    strategic plans to describe agency and program
    missions and goals, program objectives, and
    program activities. Like a strategic plan, an
    operational plan addresses four questions
  • Where are we now?
  • Where do we want to be?
  • How do we get there?
  • How do we measure our progress?

15
  • Tactical Planning It is the process of taking
    the strategic plan and breaking it down into
    specific, short term actions and plans. The
    relative length of the planning horizon will vary
    from one market to another but typically the
    strategic plan will cover a period greater than
    three years while the tactical plan covers the
    period from today through to the end of year
    three.

16
PROCESS OF PLANNING
(Forecasting demand competition, government
policy, etc.)
Establishment of Objectives
Planning Premises
Developing Alternatives
Appraisal of Plans
Selection of Best Alternative
Evaluation of Alternatives
Formulation of Derivative Plans (Objectives,
Policies, Procedures, Methods, Rules, etc.)
17
Requirements of Effective Plan
  • The plan should be specific
  • The plan should be logical
  • The plan should be flexible
  • The plan should be capable of being controlled

18
Types of Plan
  • Purpose or mission
  • Objectives
  • Strategies
  • Policies major or minor
  • Procedures
  • Rules
  • Programs major or minor and supporting
  • Budgets numberized or dollarized programs

19
  • PURPOSE the basic function or task of an
    enterprise.
  • OBJECTIVES the end towards which activity is
    aimed-they are the results to be achieved.
  • STRATEGIES General programs of action and
    deployment of resources to attain comprehensive
    objectives.
  • POLICIES Basic guidelines.
  • PROCEDURES required methods of handling future
    activities.
  • RULES Specific required actions or non-actions,
    allowing no discretion.
  • PROGRAMS A complex of goals, policies,
    procedures, rules, task assignments, steps to be
    taken, resources to be employed and other
    necessary to carry out a given course of action.
  • BUDGETS Statement of expected results expressed
    in numerical terms. It may be expressed either in
    financial terms or in terms of labor- hours,
    units of product, machine-hours etc.

20
ORGANIZING
  • The organizing function of management is
    concerned with developing a framework where the
    total work is dividend into manageable components
    in order to facilitate the accomplishments of
    objectives. The organizations can be defined as
    two or more people working together in a
    coordinated manner to achieve the common goals.
    The organization has set objectives, the relative
    arrangements of people and physical resources, a
    set of rules regulations and a hierarchical
    structure of authority with formal lines of
    communication.

21
STEPS IN ORGANIZATION
  • Determination, identification and enumeration of
    activities.
  • Grouping and assigning of activities
  • Delegation of authority

22
BENEFITS OF A GOOD ORGANIZATION
  • A good organization facilities attainment of
    objectives through proper coordination of all
    activities.
  • In a good organization, the conflicts between
    individuals over jurisdiction are kept to
    minimum.
  • It eliminates overlapping and duplication of work
  • It decreases likelihood of run-arounds
  • It facilities promotions
  • It aids in wage and salary administration
  • Communication is easier at all levels of the
    organizational hierarchy
  • Increased cooperation and a sense of pride

23
AUTHORITY
  • In government, authority is often used
    interchangeably with the term "power". However,
    their meanings differ while "power" refers to
    the ability to achieve certain ends, "authority"
    refers to a claim of legitimacy, the
    justification and right to exercise that power.
  • Authority has been a subject of research in a
    variety of empirical settings the family
    (parental authority), small groups (informal
    authority of leadership), intermediate
    organizations, such as schools, churches, armies,
    industries and bureaucracies (organizational and
    bureaucratic authorities) and society-wide or
    inclusive organizations, ranging from the most
    primitive tribal society to the modern
    nation-state and intermediate organization
    (political authority).

24
Types of Authority
  • Legal authoritylegal authority (also known as
    rational authority, legal authority, rational
    domination, legal domination, or bureaucratic
    authority) is a form of leadership in which the
    authority of an organization or a ruling regime
    is largely tied to legal rationality, legal
    legitimacy and bureaucracy.
  • Traditional authorityTraditional authority (also
    known as traditional domination) is a form of
    leadership in which the authority of an
    organization or a ruling regime is largely tied
    to tradition or custom. The main reason for the
    given state of affairs is that it 'has always
    been that way'.

25
  • Charismatic authority as "resting on devotion to
    the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary
    character of an individual person, and of the
    normative patterns or order revealed or ordained
    by him." Charismatic authority is one of three
    forms of authority laid out in Weber's tripartite
    classification of authority, the other two being
    traditional authority and rational-legal
    authority.
  • Acceptance theory of AuthorityThe authority of
    the superior has no meaning unless it has been
    accepted by subordinates and is enforceable.The
    acceptance theory, though supporting the
    behavioral approach to management, presents may
    logistic problems.

26
  • Competency theory of authority It is also know
    as technical authority and is implicit in a
    persons special knowledge or skill.This
    authority is not based upon position or title.

27
RESPONSIBILITY
  • It is considered to be the duty to perform
    certain assigned tasks in a satisfactory manner.
    It is the obligation of an individual to perform
    certain activities which are assigned to him, the
    source of responsibility lies within the
    individual.It is an obligation that a person
    accepts, it cannot be delegated to the
    subordinate even if the activity is performed by
    the subordinate. Responsibility in a sense is
    accountability for authority.

28
Four areas to determine the degree of
Responsibility
  • Samuel C.Certo has listed four areas which can be
    analysed to determine the degree of
    responsibility a manager possesses.
  • Behavior with subordinates
  • Attitudes towards upper management
  • Behavior with other groups
  • Personal attitudes and values

29
Delegation of Authority
  • Delegation is the assignment of authority and
    responsibility to others in order to carry out
    certain assignments.Delegation (also called
    deputation) is the assignment of authority and
    responsibility to another person (normally from a
    manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific
    activities. However the person who delegated the
    work remains accountable for the outcome of the
    delegate work. It allows a subordinate to make
    decisions, i.e. it is a shift of decision-making
    authority from one organizational level to a
    lower one.

30
Principles of Delegation
  • Functional clarity
  • Matching authority with responsibility
  • Unity of command
  • Principle of communication
  • The principle of management by exception

31
Process of Delegation
  • Allocation of work duties to subordinates
  • Delegation of authority and extent of delegation
  • Creation of obligation

32
Advantages of Delegation
  • It results in quick decisions
  • Delegation gives executives more time for
    strategic planning and policy making
  • Delegation is a motivational factor
  • Delegation can be training ground for executive
    ability

33
Barriers to Delegation
  • An executive may believe that he can do his work
    better than his subordinates
  • Some managers lack the ability to direct their
    subordinates
  • Sense of insecurity
  • A manager may fear being known as lazy if he
    delegates most of his tasks
  • An executive may be reluctant to delegate…..

34
Overcoming the Obstacles
  • Delegation must be complete and clearly
    understood
  • Proper selection and training
  • Motivate subordinates
  • Tolerance with subordinates mistakes
  • Establish adequate controls

35
Span of Management
  • Span of control refers to the number of
    subordinates a supervisor has.
  • The current shift to self-directed
    cross-functional teams and other forms of
    non-hierarchical structures, have made the
    concept of span of control less salient.

36
Communication Skills
  • What is there for the day…
  • Well share knowledge
  • Well have Fun
  • Well Play Roles
  • Well learn

37
  • LETS DISCOVER
  • THE POWER OF COMMUNICATION…

38
  • WHAT DO WE
  • UNDERSTAND BY
  • A SKILL?

39
At the end of the workshop we will learn…
  • what is Good and what is Bad Communication
  • some basic skills to become a Good Communicator

40
… and also
  • to recognize overcome barriers
  • advantages of listening
  • to speak confidently
  • to communicate effectively

41
  • Research shows, communication is…

42
  • Why Communication…
  • to express our emotions
  • achieve joint understanding
  • to get things done
  • pass on and obtain information
  • reach decisions
  • develop relationships

43
  • Home Truths about Communication…
  • Good Communication cant exist without honest
    listening
  • We do not try HARD to get our message across
  • We do not take advantage of various media
    available to us
  • We all could improve our communication skills
  • It cannot be perfected

44
  • What is Communication…
  • art of getting your message across effectively
    through
  • Spoken words first simplest way
  • Body Language can make or mar
  • Written words reflects importance
  • Visuals leaves greatest impact

45
  • Types Methods

Letters, Memos, Reports…
Written
Conversations, Interviews, Phone Calls, Requests…
Spoken
Facial expressions, Actions, Voice Tone, Silence,
Stance…
Gestures
Photographs, Paintings, Videos, Film…
Visuals
Television, Newspaper, Magazines, Internet…
Multimedia
46
  • Communication The Flow

Receiver
Sender
47
Effective Communication…
  • Is scarcer than quality water
  • Is measured by results or actions
  • Does not need to be very complex
  • Is aimed at informing others
  • Is complete and clear

48
  • Barriers to Effective Communication…
  • Personal Barriers
  • Your style and character (rude, polite, shy,
    outspoken)
  • Preparation presentation
  • Lack of clarity (pronunciation, pitch, etc.)
  • Lack of credibility
  • Timing

49
  • Barriers to Effective Communication…
  • Proper Pronunciation
  • Communication Help Pen
  • Buffalo Career Guest
  • Colonel Buffet Bouquet
  • Rendezvous Bulb Fax
  • Prakash Pradeep Chandrajeet

50
  • Barriers to Effective Communication…
  • Organizational Barriers
  • Culture
  • Environment
  • Size structure
  • Pace of activity

51
  • Barriers to Effective Communication…
  • Process Barriers
  • Channel/Medium
  • Irrelevant Information loading
  • Lack of Response or Feedback
  • Inappropriate Questions

52
  • Overcoming the Barriers…
  • Say to yourself, I will get Response
  • Come up with a topic for discussion everyday
  • Start improving upon pronunciation
  • Develop habit of reading start with the English
    newspaper / Comics
  • Understand first, then communicate
  • Dont be afraid of asking questions

53
Body Language…
  • Facial Expressions
  • Gestures
  • Posture

54
  • Body Language…

Clearing throat, "whew" sound, Whistling,
smoking, pinching flesh covering mouth, jiggling
money or keys, tugging ears, wringing hands.
Nervousness
Short breaths, "tsk" sound, tightly clenched
hands, wringing hands, Fist like gestures
pointing index finger rubbing hand through hair
rubbing back of neck.
Frustration
55
  • Body Language…

Open hands, unbuttoned coat
Openness
Arms crossed, sideways glance, touching-rubbing
nose, rubbing eyes, buttoned coat, drawing away
Defensiveness
Pinching flesh, chewing pen, thumb over thumb,
biting fingernail
Insecurity
56
  • Body Language…

Upper body in sprinter's position, open hands,
sitting on edge of chair, hand to face gestures,
unbuttoning coat.
Cooperation
Steepled hands, hands behind back, back
stiffened, hands in coat pockets with thumb out,
hands on tapels of coat
Confidence
57
  • Body Language…

Look out for some more clues on Body Language in
the given handout…
58
  • SPEAKING SKILLS

59
  • Speaking…
  • A wise man reflects before be
    speaks a fool speaks,
    and then reflects on what
    he has uttered.
  • - French Proverb.

60
While Speaking…
  • Take initiative
  • Be polite
  • Be pleasant (smile, jokes)
  • Be clear and concise (tone, accent, emphasis,
    pronunciation)
  • Cite negative opinions honestly, but in a
    positive manner
  • Seek Feedback

61
While Speaking over phone…
  • Write down in advance what you want to say and in
    what order
  • Smile
  • Speak slowly
  • Always be polite and friendly
  • For long messages, follow a script
  • Get confirmation
  • Monitor your time

62
  • WRITING SKILLS

63
  • Clarity in Writing…
  • Rs 1000000000
  • Rs. 10,00,00,000/-
  • Rs. 10 Crore

64
While Writing…
  • Plan what you want to say in your letter/ report
  • Reread the letter when you have finished
  • Check spelling punctuation, then send
  • Use simple language avoid ambiguous words

65
  • While Writing…
  • KISS (Edit the letter by cutting
    ruthlessly).
  • Be kind to others eyes (font size, clarity)
  • Be creative (use tables, graphs)
  • Use the language YOU are better at

66
Keep in mind while writing
  • Visualize the reader when you are writing
  • Dont write unbroken paragraphs
  • Use numbered paragraphs to make cross-referencing
    easier
  • Punctuation plays the role of body language in
    writing

67
Keep in mind while writing …
  • Use headings and subheadings.
  • Use ruled sheets instead of plain ones.
  • Dont print without thoroughly checking your
    sources.

68
  • LISTENING SKILLS

69
  • Listening why is it important?

Listening
45
Speaking
30
Order in which we are taught
Order in which we learn
Reading
16
9
Writing
70
Objective of Listening is…
  • to receive information
  • to understand effectively
  • to enhance clarity
  • to empathize

71
So, while Listening…
  • Avoid distractions
  • Do not interrupt unnecessarily
  • Be active (show interest)
  • Paraphrase what youve heard
  • Throw an echo

72
What Listening Looks like...
  • The Listener keeps looking at the speaker
  • The Listeners body is in open position
  • The listener is smiling with a pleasant
  • encouraging expression
  • Listener looks relaxed but alert, neither tense
  • nor slouching
  • Listener utters humming sounds

73
PRESENTATION SKILLS
74
While Presenting…
  • Research (find out facts figures)
  • Prepare (Introduce, Discuss, Conclude)
  • Rehearse
  • Be confident
  • Present
  • Use proper media

75
  • 5 styles of communicating to manage conflicts

You win and other person loses
You feel confident but uncooperative
Go for it
You dont feel confident or cooperative
Run Away
You lose
You let the other person win
You feel cooperative but unconfident
Yes, Boss
Lets Trade
You both win a bit and lose a bit
You feel partly cooperative confident
Lets both win
You help one another to win
Mutual Cooperation Confidence
76
  • I HEAR, I forget
  • I SEE, I remember
  • I DO, I understand

77
FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
78
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79
THE DEFINITION
Human Resource Management is to "ensure that at
all times the business is correctly staffed by
the right number of people with the skills
relevant to the business needs"
80
IN ABSENCE OF GOOD HRM, PEOPLE ARE-
  • under valued
  • under trained
  • under utilized
  • poorly motivated
  • perform well below their true
    capability

81
IMPORTANT HR FUNCTIONS
  • HR PLANNING
  • RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
  • TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
  • MOTIVATION FUNCTION
  • COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS
  • CAREER AND SUCCESSION PLANNING
  • PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
  • REWARD AND RECOGNITION
  • QUALITY MANAGEMENT
  • HR AUDIT

82
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
FUTURE WORK FORCE
CURRENT WORKFORCE
GAP
The process to determine how organization should
move from current manpower to desired manpower
position
83
Human Resource Planning Steps
1)Estimate future organizational structure
and manpower requirements 2)Auditing
Human resources 3)Planning job requirements and
job descriptions 4)Developing a human resource
plan
84
JOB ANALYSIS
JOB DESCRIPTION
JOB SPECIFICATION
JOB EVALUATION
85
JOB ANALYSIS
Analysis of job in detail and includes job
description and job specification
  • IT PROVIDES INFORMATION ON
  • Educational qualifications, training, experience,
    skills, traits, attitudes required to perform a
    job.
  • Structure and design of the job
  • Plans for future human resource requirement and
    career planning
  • Placement of the right person on the right job to
    utilize skills optimally
  • Setting up performance standards

86
Applications of job analysis
1)Preperation of job descriptions 2)Preperation
of job specifications 3)Development of Key Result
Areas (KRAs) which state clear goals and targets
for the job holder 4)Design of training
programmes based on the knowledge and skills
required 5)Development of compensation
Structure 6)Strategic Planning
87
JOB DESCRIPTION
It is job objective and the principal activities
required to perform the job. This data is useful
for the new entrant as well as for drafting an
advertisement for recruitment to the position.
JOB SPECIFICATION
It provides information on the educational
qualifications, experience, critical skills,
special knowledge, abilities and aptitudes
required to perform the job.
88
JOB EVALUATION
It is process to determine in a systematic manner
the comparative worth of job in an organization.
Job evaluation is a practical technique, designed
to enable trained and experienced staff to judge
the size of one job relative to others. It does
not directly determine pay levels, but will
establish the basis for an internal ranking of
jobs It aims at equal pay for equal work
89
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90
RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
Recruitment deals with finding the applicants,
communicating opportunities and information and
generating interest
Selection is a systematic process of choosing
among the pool of candidates the best qualified
potential candidate who is most likely to perform
the job successfully.
91
RECRUITMENT PROCESS
MANPOWER PLANNING
JOB ANALYSIS
JOB DESCRIPTION
JOB SPECIFICATION
PERSONAL SPECIFICATION
92
IDENTIFICATION OF VACANCIES
PREPERATION OF BUDGET
PREPERATION AND PUBLICATION OF INFORMATION
RECEIPT OF APPLICATION FORM
DECIDING METHOD/S OF RECRUITMENT
93
METHODS AND SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
INTERNAL SOURCES
EXTERNAL SOURCES
INTERNAL JOB PROMOTIONS
ADVERTISING
EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES
JOB TRANSFERS
CAMPUS RECRUITMENT
EMPLOYEE SUGGESTION
94
WALK-IN-INTERVIEWS
EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES
EXTERNAL SOURCES
HEAD HUNTERS
INTERNET
95
ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT
OVERTIME
OUTSOURCING
TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT
96
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97
THE SELECTION PROCESS
  • Narrowing down the applications
  • Interviewing the remaining applicants
  • Narrowing the applicants further
  • Checking references
  • Performing a background check
  • Testing
  • Making a job offer
  • Negotiating compensation.

98
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99
TRAININING AND DEVELOPMENT
Training is provided to update knowledge, sharpen
the skills and creating awareness of the latest
developments and changes
Development is aimed not only to improve the
existing job performance but also bring about
personality growth and equip person for
promotions and hold positions of greater
responsibilities
100
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
101
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102
EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
MOTIVATION IS THE KEY TO PERFORMANCE
IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE IS CONSIDERED TO BE THE
FUNCTION OF ABILITY AND MOTIVATION Job
Performancef (ability) (motivation) Why do we
need motivated employees? The answer is survival
(Smith, 1994). Motivated employees are needed in
our rapidly changing workplaces. Motivated
employees help organizations survive. Motivated
employees are more productive. To be effective,
managers need to understand what motivates
employees within the context of the roles they
perform.
103
HUMAN NATURE CAN BE VERY SIMPLE,YET VERY COMPLEX
TOO. AN UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF THIS
IS PREREQUISITE TO EFFECTIVE EMPLOYEE
MOTIVATION AND ALSO EFFECTIVE MANGEMENT AND
LEADERSHIP
104
ABRAHAM MASLOWS STUDY OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
105
Compensation and Benefits
  • Concerned with paying the employees
  • Based on skills, job responsibility, effort and
    accountability
  • Includes pay for performances and targets
  • Also includes incentives, perks, bonuses

106
Career and Succession planning
Succession planning is a process whereby an
organization ensures that employees are recruited
and developed to fill each key role within the
company. Succession planning ensures you can fill
key roles from within your organization.
Career planning involves efforts on the part of
the organization to provide avenues for growth to
employees to clearly think through and decide
areas in which they would like to make career.
107
Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal, also known as employee
appraisal, is a method by which the of an
employee is evaluated (generally in terms of
quality, quantity, cost and time). Performance
appraisal is a part of career development.
108
  • Performance Appraisal offers several advantages
    at the level of the
  • Individual
  • Recognition of past effort
  • Developmental requirements can be uncovered
  • Team
  • Alignment of effort with objectives
  • Motivation of team members
  • Organization
  • Development of staff
  • Achievement of key objectives
  • Best  and focused utilization of human resources

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360 DEGREE APPRAISAL
Modern thinking is that individual appraisals
should involve feedback from more than just the
line manager 360-degree feedback, also known as
'multi-rater feedback', 'is employee development
feedback that comes from all around the employee.
The feedback would come from subordinates, peers,
and managers in the organizational hierarchy, as
well as self-assessment, and in some cases
external sources such as customers and suppliers
or other interested stakeholders.
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Reward and Recognition" essentially implies
providing incentives to recognition of
employees, individually and as members of groups,
for their performance and acknowledging their
contributions to the growth of the Company.
Recognition ensures a positive, productive and
innovative organizational climate encourages
more action. Recognition programs have become a
part of a healthy culture , which values
colleagues for the results accomplished and the
ways we effectively work together
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QUALITY MANAGEMENT
  • TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IS CONFORMANCE TO THE
    REQUIREMENTS THAT CUSTOMER EXPECTS.
  • IMPORTANCE OF TQM
  • Improving Customer Satisfaction
  • Enhancing Quality
  • Reduction in wastage
  • Improving productivity
  • Enhances competitiveness

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PRINCIPLES OF GOOD HRD SYSTEM
  • Enhance enabling capabilities of people
  • Integrate the development of the people with that
    of the organization
  • Decentralize through delegation and shared
    responsibility
  • Encourage participate decision making
  • Balance adaptability to change and changing the
    organizational culture
  • Ensure continuous reviews and renewal

113
Organizational Behavior
  • Definition of OB
  • Management Roles
  • Management Skills
  • Generalization about behavior
  • Theoretical Frameworks
  • Challenges opportunities for OB
  • Models of OB

114
  • OB is a discipline that deals with the study
    application of knowledge about how people as
    individuals as groups act within organizations.
  • Fred Luthans- the understanding, prediction
    management of human behavior in organizations.
  • OB is developing as a scientific discipline due
    to continuous knowledge base development of new
    concepts.
  • OB Systematic study application of human
    aspects in mgmt of an org.

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  • Management Roles- multifarious roles- duties.
  • Henry Mintzberg 3 Categories - depending 1.
    interpersonal relationships
  • 2. Transfer of information
  • 3. Decision-making
  • Interpersonal Roles
  • Informational Roles
  • Decision Roles

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  • Interpersonal Roles
  • Figurehead- managers perform certain symbolic
    ceremonial duties as a head of a group.
  • Leadership- roles includes hiring, training,
    motivating, disciplining employees
  • Liaison Roles- the manger interacts with
    individuals or groups, inside or outside the
    organization.

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  • Informational Roles
  • Monitor Role- information ma pertain to the
    prevailing terms conditions of employment,
    technological developments, tastes, preferences-
    by interacting with field executives, customers.
  • Disseminator- transmitting information to other
    members in org
  • Spokesperson- when they represent their
    organization during their interactions.

118
  • Decision Roles
  • Entrepreneur- seek to improve an organizations
    performance by initiating new projects
    monitoring their progress
  • Disturbance Handler- mgrs required to respond to
    unforeseen problems.
  • Resource Allocators- responsible for allocating
    human, physical capital resources
  • Negotiator- discuss issues bargain with
    employees for the benefit of entire organization

119
  • Management Skills
  • Technical
  • Human
  • Conceptual

120
  • Technical Skills- ability to apply specialized
    knowledge . Ex skills in the area of
    accountancy, operations, personnel mgmt
  • Human Skills-Should be able to work with a good
    understanding of people coupled with the art of
    motivating them
  • Conceptual Skills-ability to analyze complex
    situations, rationally process interpret
    available information.

121
  • Generalization about Behavior
  • Helpful in explaining predicting what others do
    and will do
  • By observing, sensing, asking, listening
    reading.
  • Following statements
  • Happy workers are productive workers
  • People are more concerned about their own
    salaries than f others

122
  • Theoretical Frameworks- OB- complex discipline
    in mgmt involves inputs dimensions.
  • Cognitive Framework-
  • Behaviorist Framework
  • Social Learning Framework

123
  • Cognitive Framework- based on expectancy, demand,
    incentive concepts.
  • Cognition- psychological process of recollecting
    information past experiences.
  • Mr.Tolman concluded learning consists of the
    Expectancy that a particular event would lead to
    a particular consequence..
  • Expectancy suggested that every organism thinks
    of, and is conscious or aware of te goal.
  • Social Cognition- to understand the behavior of
    people in the society and find rationale behind
    it.

124
  • Behaviorist Framework- Ivan Pavlov
    John.B.Watson pioneers of Behaviorist theory.
  • Explained human behavior with the help of
    stimulus-response experiments.
  • Stimulus brings- response in an individual
    results in learning
  • Explains physical reflexes in human beings.
  • Based on environment.

125
  • Social Learning Framework- integrated the
    contributions of cognitive Behaviorist theory
  • Influence of behavioral approach is higher than
    cognitive approach on the social learning
    approach
  • Behavior unit of analysis.
  • Albert Bandura- explained behavior continuous
    reciprocal interaction among cognitive,
    behavioral environmental determinants.

126
  • Challenges Opportunities for Organizational
    Behavior
  • Creation of a Global Village
  • Adapting to different people
  • Improving Quality Productivity
  • Improving People Skills
  • Mgmt control to empowerment
  • Improving Ethical Behavior

127
  • Models of OB
  • Dominates affect the decisions of mgmt in every
    organization.
  • Models are frameworks of descriptions of how
    things work and are also known as Paradigms
  • 4 Models-
  • Autocratic Model
  • Custodial Model
  • Supportive Model
  • Collegial Model

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  • Autocratic Model- person who hold power have the
    authority to demand work from employees
  • Work can only be extracted by means of pushing,
    directing persuading the employees.
  • Employees put in only minimum performance in the
    job since their only purpose of doing job is to
    serve the basic needs of their families
  • In such environment only a few employees are
    motivated to exhibit higher productivity

129
  • Custodial Model- process in which employers take
    acre of employees welfare- paternalism.
  • To improve job security of employees reduced
    their dependence on their immediate supervisors
  • Custodial approach- employees cease depend on the
    mangers but their dependence on the org increases.

130
  • Supportive Model- based on the principle of
    supportive relationships the leadership
    other processes of the organization must be such
    as to ensure a maximum probability that in all
    interactions all relationships with the org.
  • Based on leadership rather than money or power.
  • Managers believe that an inadequately supportive
    work climate leads to resistance among the
    employees.
  • Employees work hard strive to enhance their
    performance , motivated by the support extended
    by mgmt.

131
  • Collegial Model- an extension of the supportive
    model
  • Collegial refers to a group of persons working
    for a common purpose.
  • It is a group oriented generally conducive for
    research lab
  • THANKS…….

132
PERT
  • The Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review
    Technique, commonly abbreviated PERT, is a model
    for project management designed to analyze and
    represent the tasks involved in completing a
    given project.

133
PERT
134
  • PERT is a method to analyze the involved tasks in
    completing a given project, especially the time
    needed to complete each task, and identifying the
    minimum time needed to complete the total
    project.
  • PERT was developed primarily to simplify the
    planning and scheduling of large and complex
    projects. It was able to incorporate uncertainty
    by making it possible to schedule a project while
    not knowing precisely the details and durations
    of all the activities. It is more of an
    event-oriented technique rather than start- and
    completion-oriented, and is used more in projects
    where time, rather than cost, is the major
    factor. It is applied to very large-scale,
    one-time, complex, non-routine infrastructure and
    Research and Development projects.

135
  • This project model was the first of its kind, a
    revival for scientific management, founded by
    Frederick Taylor "Taylorism" and later refined by
    Henry Ford "Fordism". Dupont corporation's
    critical path method was invented at roughly the
    same time as PERT.
  • A PERT event is a point that marks the start or
    completion of one or more tasks. It consumes no
    time, and uses no resources. It marks the
    completion of one or more tasks, and is not
    reached until all of the activities leading to
    that event have been completed.

136
CPM
  • The Critical Path Method, abbreviated CPM, or
    Critical Path Analysis, is a mathematically based
    algorithm for scheduling a set of project
    activities. It is an important tool for effective
    project management.
  • It was developed in the 1950s by the US Navy when
    trying to better organize the building of
    submarines and later, especially, when building
    nuclear submarines. Today, it is commonly used
    with all forms of projects, including
    construction, software development, research
    projects, product development, engineering, and
    plant maintenance, among others. Any project with
    interdependent activities can apply this method
    of scheduling.

137
  • The essential technique for using CPM is to
    construct a model of the project that includes
    the following
  • A list of all activities required to complete the
    project (also known as Work breakdown structure),
  • The time (duration) that each activity will take
    to completion, and
  • The dependencies between the activities.

138
  • Using these values, CPM calculates the longest
    path of planned activities to the end of the
    project, and the earliest and latest that each
    activity can start and finish without making the
    project longer. This process determines which
    activities are "critical" (i.e., on the longest
    path) and which have "total float" (i.e., can be
    delayed without making the project longer). In
    project management, a critical path is the
    sequence of project network activities which add
    up to the longest overall duration. This
    determines the shortest time possible to complete
    the project. Any delay of an activity on the
    critical path directly impacts the planned
    project completion date (i.e. there is no float
    on the critical path). A project can have
    several, parallel, near critical paths. An
    additional parallel path through the network with
    the total durations shorter than the critical
    path is called a sub-critical or non-critical
    path.

139
  • These results allow managers to prioritize
    activities for the effective management of
    project completion, and to shorten the planned
    critical path of a project by pruning critical
    path activities, by "fast tracking" (i.e.,
    performing more activities in parallel), and/or
    by "crashing the critical path" (i.e., shortening
    the durations of critical path activities by
    adding resources).
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