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451418 Land Administration

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USA FGDC/NSDI 1990. Qatar NCGIS/NGIS 1990. Portugal CNIG/SNIG 1990 ... lack of data, standards, metadata, search engines, communication network/bandwidth ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 451418 Land Administration


1
451-418 Land Administration
451-607 Land Administration

Lecture 13

Spatial Data Infrastructure
SDI
Abbas Rajabifard
10 April 2000
2
Overview
  • Concept of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI)
  • Nature and the hierarchy of SDIs
  • Issues of SDI development
  • Current SDI development
  • Australian Perspective on SDIs
  • Regional Perspective (PCGIAP)
  • Asia-Pacific Regional SDI (APSDI)
  • Future directions for SDI developmet

3
Spatial Data
- spatial data/information is one of the most
critical elements underpinning decision making
for many disciplines,
- an estimated 90 of all information used by
government has geo-spatial characteristics or
attributes,
- 70-80 cost of any GIS project spend for data
collection, maintenance,...
- the same data sets will be collected by
different agencies again and again.
4
Maximise Benefits
SYNERGY
5
Getting a Rapid Return On All Your Information
Using New Technologies
Total Cost of Data and Information
Value of information
GPS
Knowl. economy
Internet
e-Government

e-Business
Cost
Value
Time
6
What is SDI?
  • A Definition
  • Also called
  • Geospatial Data Infrastructure,
  • Geographic Data Infrastructure, or even
  • Geospatial Information Environment
  • (in Victoria)

7
Components of a SDI
People
Fundamental Data Set
Policy
Standards
SDI
Access Network
...necessary for the effective collection,
management, access, delivery and utilisation of
spatial data in a specific community.

8
Nature of SDI Components
Dynamic
9
Significance of SDIs
  • support integrated decision making for
    substantial and sustainable development in both
    the developed and developing countries of the
    world,
  • reduce duplication-cost and efforts,
  • provide better data for decision making,
  • support new business processes/create new
    business opportunities in geospatial information
    industry.

10
Nature of SDI
11
Hierarchy of SDI
Less detailed data
Global SDI
Global Planning
Regional SDI
Regional Planning
National Planning
National SDI
State SDI
State Planning
Local Planning
Local SDI
Corporate SDI
More detailed Data
The success of developing any type of SDIs,
heavily depends to on dividuals realising the
need to cooperate with each other
12
Hierarchical Spatial Reasoning
Hierarchical structure and its tree structure
13
Hierarchical Spatial Reasoning
  • Properties
  • Particularity

14
Main Reseasons for applying an Hierarchy concept
to SDIs
All common properties and reasons for developing
an hierarchy structure, are also applicable to
the SDI concepts
The existence of hierarchy capability for SDIs
will enable utilisation of the advantages of this
concept.
15
SDI Hierarchy and its Particularity
  • an SDI at a National level has an important role
    in building the other levels of SDIs as well as
    more relationships with the other levels than any
    other level of SDI in the hierarchy.
  • the role of a National SDI in a SDI hierarchy
    displays a particularity of role not present in
    the other levels of the SDI hierarchy.

16
Relationships Among Different SDIs
Vertical Relationships
Global SDI
Regional SDIs
Horizontal relationships
National SDIs
State SDIs
Local SDIs
Corporate SDI
17
Relationships Among Different SDIs
18
HSR and an SDI Hierarchy
  • Horizontal relationships become more important
    when the respective jurisdictions are spatially
    adjacent and proximate.
  • SDIs belonging to adjacent jurisdictions play
    more important roles and have more influence and
    impact on each other than on SDIs of non-adjacent
    jurisdictions.

19
Horizontal Relationships a Regional Example
20
Different views of the Hierarchy of SDI
Building Block View
Umbrella View
21
Spatial Hierarchy of different Fundamental Data
Sets
22
A Continuum of SDI development
23
Current SDI Initiatives
Global Level Global Spatial Data Infrastructure
(GSDI), 1996
  • Regional Level
  • Asia-Pacific Spatial Data Infrastructure
    (APSDI), 1995
  • European Geospatial Information Infrastructure
    (EGII), 1995
  • Spatial Data Infrastructure for Americas, 1999
  • African SDI, 2000

24
Current SDI Initiatives
National Level
  • Indonesia Bakosurtanal/NGIS 1993
  • Iran NSDI/NGIS 1995
  • Malaysia NaLIS feasibility study 1994
  • Korea NGIS 1995
  • Japan NSDI 1995
  • Canada CGDI 1996
  • Britain NGDF 1996
  • Australia ASDI 1986
  • USA FGDC/NSDI 1990
  • Qatar NCGIS/NGIS 1990
  • Portugal CNIG/SNIG 1990
  • Netherlands Ravi/NGII 1992

State Level Victorias Geospatial Environment
25
Common Features of NSDIs
  • Explicitly national
  • Refer to geographic information, geospatial data
    or land information
  • Use terms such infrastructure, systems or
    framework

26
Issues of SDI development
  • Stakeholders
  • Major Challenges
  • balance the needs of the have and the have not
  • Obstacles
  • Organisational models
  • Envisioned Tasks of a SDI Coordinating Agency

27
Obstacles
  • Technical issues
  • lack of data, standards, metadata, search
    engines, communication network/bandwidth
  • Economic/financial issues
  • cost sharing
  • Social/institutional/organisational issues
  • awareness, education, pricing, security, freedom
    of access
  • Political/legal issues
  • sensitive data, intellectual property

28
Success Factors
  • Think Big, Start Small, Scale Fast, Deliver
    Value
  • Emphasise simplicity and completeness
  • Knowledge about the type, location, quality and
    ownership of data
  • Create meaningful public-private partnerships
    around standards
  • Share everything--data, content, infrastructure
  • Keep yourself visible.

29
Success Factors
  • Integrate public and private spatial services
  • Share everything- data, content, infrastructure
  • Create meaningful public-private partnerships
    around standards
  • The successful widespread use of the data sets.

30
Some Examples
31
Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure ASDI
Australia New Zealand Land Information Council
Inter-governmental Committee on Surveying
Mapping
Public Sector Mapping Agencies
32
Australian SDI
  • Coordinated by ANZLIC (Australia New Zealand Land
    Information Council)
  • Objectives
  • To provide fundamental land and geographic
    information infrastructure needed to support
    economic growth
  • To provide national standards and guidelines on
    the use of geographic data
  • To maximise community access to spatial
    information
  • To support development of the Australian and New
    Zealand spatial information industry
  • To strengthen the spatial information
    organisational framework

33
Public Sector Mapping Agencies Australia
34
Strategic Overview
  • PSMA Success Factors 1993 - 1997
  • Integrated national data set
  • Provides access to 9 Agencies data
  • Minimal bureaucracy - low overheads
  • Enthusiastic executive, board, jurisdictions,
    staff
  • Strong communication - regular board meetings
  • High quality spatial data
  • Defined data access and pricing policy
  • Innovation and responsiveness
  • Directed to get on with the job
  • Era of greater spatial awareness and GIS
  • Strong technical support from the LIC

35
US-NSDI
Initial thought..
National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) means
the technology, policies, standards, and human
resources necessary to acquire, process, store,
distribute, and improve utilisation of geospatial
data. Executive Order of US President, April 1994
36
Current Stage
Design Communication Channel
Initial aim
Process-Based Model
Product Based
More Coordination
States databases
37
Current Position Chaordic (chaos order)
Organisation
GeoData Organisational Initiative This is a
current strategy to create a self-governing
entity to distribute authority and responsibility
among a growing network of organisations with an
interest in the creation, distribution and use of
geospatial data and information.
VISA International
- Three alternative approaches The standard
two-year process a phased approach a one year
process.
a one year process
38
Asia-Pacific Spatial Data Infrastructure (APSDI)
The PCGIAP's vision for the APSDI is of a
network of databases, located throughout the
region, that together provide the fundamental
data needed to achieve the regions economic,
social, human resources development and
environmental objectives.
39
A Model for the APSDI The PCGIAP has developed
a spatial data infrastructure model that
comprises four core components - Institutional
framework, - Technical standards, - Fundamental
data sets, and - Access networks
40
EUROPEAN SDI
EGII is the European policy framework creating
the necessary conditions for achieving the
objectives of EU. It encompasses all policies,
regulations, incentives and structures set up by
the EU Institutions and the Member States in this
pursuit. European Commission 1995
41
EGII and GI2000
European respose to
US Executive Order
GI2000
Creation of
Main recommendations
HLWP
and
identification, collection and wide dissemination
of pan-European base data (topographic).
42
Management Pyramid in Europe
Management
Functional
Operational
43
Future Direction of SDI
  • Product-Based Model (linked) database(s)
  • Process-Based Model strategy required to manage
    information assets

44
Product-Based Model
...the main aim of an SDI initiative being to
link existing and upcoming databases of the
respective political/administrative levels of the
community.
45
Process-Based Model
..or the objectives behind the design of an SDI
are to provide better communication channels for
for sharing and using data assets.
...the main aim of an SDI initiative as defining
a framework to facilitate the management of
information assets.
46
US-NSDI
Initial thought..
National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) means
the technology, policies, standards, and human
resources necessary to acquire, process, store,
distribute, and improve utilisation of geospatial
data. Executive Order of US President, April 1994
a Product-Based Model (linked databases)
47
EUROPEAN SDI
EGII is the European policy framework creating
the necessary conditions for achieving the
objectives of EU. It encompasses all policies,
regulations, incentives and structures set up by
the EU Institutions and the Member States in this
pursuit. European Commission 1995
a Process-Based
48
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49
Organisational Perspective on SDI Hierarchy
Strategic Management
Functional
Operational
50
International Symposium on SDI 19-20
November, 2001 University of Melbourne,
Australia
The Department of Geomatics, University of
Melbourne, invites individuals from the
geospatial and related industries to join leading
specialists, to participate in an International
Symposium on Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI),
coordinated by members from The University of
Melbourne SDI research group.
51
  • Symposium Purpose and Scope
  • To provide an overview of SDI policies,
    concepts, standards and practices associated with
    the implementation and operation of a Spatial
    Data Infrastructure, including technical aspects
    such as metadata and clearinghouse concepts.
  • To provide an understanding of the similarities
    and differences of SDIs operating within and
    between different jurisdictions, with case
    studies provided from local/state, national,
    regional (Asia-Pacific and European) and global
    SDI initiatives.

52
  • Symposium Purpose and Scope ..
  • To explore the institutional and technical
    issues influencing the development of SDIs.
  • To examine and debate the directions of
    development of SDIs in the future.

53
International Symposium on SDI Program
In addition to Keynote presentations from leading
international spatial data industry and academic
representatives, we invite contributions from
leading practitioners who are willing to share
their vision, knowledge and experiences in the
development of SDI initiatives.
54
International Symposium on SDI IMPORTANT
DATES Submission of Abstracts April 30,
2001 Notification of Acceptance May 31,
2001 Submission of Papers Sept. 30,
2001 Registration Oct. 31, 2001
55
International Symposium on SDI
Web-site http//www.sli.unimelb.edu.au/SDI Email s
di_at_sunrise.sli.unimelb.edu.au
56
Thank you
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