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Ant 293: Lecture One A: Introduction to Archaeology


describes the culture, technology, and economics of living and extinct societies; ... the study of ancient wrecks in the Mediterranean, around Florida and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ant 293: Lecture One A: Introduction to Archaeology

Ant 293 Lecture One A Introduction to
  • Archaeology
  • modern archaeology is the systematic study of
    humanity in the past, including
  • ancient technology
  • human behaviour
  • social organization
  • religious beliefs
  • every aspect of human culture

  • Archaeology is also a facet of anthropology
  • Physical anthropology
  • studies human evolution and the variations
    between different living populations

  • Cultural anthropology
  • deals with the analysis of human social life,
    both past and present

  • Ethnography
  • describes the culture, technology, and
    economics of living and extinct societies

  • ethnology
  • engages in comparative studies of societies, a
    process that involves attempts to reconstruct
    general principles of human behaviour

  • linguistic anthropology
  • studies human languages

  • archaeology
  • special type shares many common objectives with
    cultural anthropology
  • the major difference is that archaeologists study
    ancient societies, but they do so using many
    theoretical frameworks to link their excavated
    data to actual human behavior

  • archaeologists both build theories and apply
    scientific techniques and theoretical concepts in
    studying the material remains of culture
  • they cover all of human history from the time of
    the earliest human beings up to the present

  • it is a very applied science that requires a
    knowledge about
  • soils
  • geology
  • plants
  • animals
  • human skeletal anatomy
  • physics
  • trade and economics
  • pottery

  • flint knapping
  • stones
  • architecture
  • art
  • religion
  • camping
  • surveying
  • equipment repair
  • use of computers
  • statistics

  • Seven types of archaeological pursuit

  • Prehistoric Archaeology
  • History
  • 5000 ya in Egypt and Near East
  • 700 BCE in Mediterranean
  • 55 BCE in Britain
  • 16th C CE in New World
  • 19thC in Africa

  • prehistory
  • that portion of human history that extends back
    from before the time of written documents and
  • prehistoric archaeologists deal with an enormous
    time scale of human cultural evolution, dating
    back 2.5 million years
  • prehistoric archaeology is the primary source of
    information on 99 percent of human history

  • prehistoric archaeologists investigate how
  • early human societies all over the world came
    into being
  • they differed from one another
  • they changed through time

  • biblical archaeology
  • requires the archaeologist be an expert on a
    variety of ethnic groups living in what is now
    Israel, Lebanon, and Syria
  • it attempts to link accounts in biblical and
    Canaanite literature with archaeological data.

  • historical archaeology
  • the study sites of recent history
  • scholars at these sites frequently specialize in
    such objects as pottery imported from England,
    Italy, and China, Spanish-style architecture and
    uniform buttons
  • for these, the archaeologist supplies details
    lacking in historical records

  • underwater archaeology
  • the study of ancient wrecks in the Mediterranean,
    around Florida and elsewhere
  • techniques
  • special recording techniques have been devised
    to recover the smallest details of shipwrecks and
    the cargoes in their holds

  • this field has the same intellectual goals as
    their dry land colleagues to recover,
    reconstruct and interpret the past
  • complex and expensive
  • the excavation may involve shifting vast
    quantities of sediment, and recording and
    removing bulky objects as storage jars, metal
    ingots, and cannons

  • more than 100 sunken vessels have been excavated,
    revealing not only how they were constructed, but
    also many insights into shipboard life, cargoes,
    trade routes, early metallurgy, and glassmaking
  • the invention in recent times of miniature
    submarines, other submersible craft, and scuba
    diving gear has enabled divers to stay underwater
    longer, and to reach sites at previously
    impossible depths

  • industrial Archaeology
  • the study of buildings and other structures of
    the Industrial Revolution such as Victorian

  • Classical
  • relies heavily on written sources
  • until recently, Classicists have had relatively
    little interest in the minute economic,
    environmental, and social problems that absorb
    prehistoric archaeologists
  • art, architecture, literature, and history all
    come together in archaeology