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Ottomans (Middle East), Safavids (Persia) and Mughals (India) 1700's ... Heightened interests in Persia and both plotted to control oil fields ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch.%2012%20Sec.%202

Ch. 12 Sec. 2
  • The Partition of Africa

Before the Imperialism of 1800s
  • Ottoman empire ruled much of N. Africa
  • West Africa Usman dan Fodio, set up a
    successful Islamic state and inspired other
    Muslim reform movements
  • East Africa had long been influenced by Islam
    with profitable port cities
  • South Africa the Zulus emerged under ruthless
    leader Shaka
  • Sets off migrant wars and then the arrival of

European Contact Increases
  • Explorers push into the interior using the great
    African rivers (Niger, Nile, Congo)
  • Missionaries follow
  • Build schools, churches and medical clinics
  • But treat like children (paternalistic)
  • David Livingston best known
  • Met with less bias than other Europeans
  • Opposed slave trade (open up to Christianity and
  • Henry Stanley journalist sent to find him
  • Turned to economic interests of the African

African Scramble
  • 1871 King Leopold II (African king) hires Stanley
    to explore
  • Private interests of conquest and profit
  • Causes Britain, France, Germany to join scramble
  • Berlin Conference used to prevent conflict
  • Europeans met to agree on how to divide Africa
  • In the 20 years that followed
  • Partition most of Africa, take resources, little
    regard for Africans
  • Leopold expelled after horrors reported
  • Boer War
  • British acquired S. Africa, Boers resist after
    discovery of gold and diamonds
  • British win at great cost set up the Union of
    South Africa

  • Menelik II united rival princes and modernizes
    the country
  • Army fights off the Italians and remains
  • Western-educated African elite
  • Emerges and by early 1900s leaders are begin
    nationalist movements towards independence

Ch. 12 Sec. 3
  • Europe in Muslim Regions

Muslim Empires
  • 1500s
  • Ottomans (Middle East), Safavids (Persia) and
    Mughals (India)
  • 1700s
  • All in decline due to corruption and discontent
  • Muslim reform movements arose
  • Stressed spiritual devotion and strict rules on
    how to act
  • Some opposed foreign expansion in Muslim areas
  • In addition, faced threats from Western

Ottoman Problems
  • Ideas of nationalism spread from Western Europe,
    people from within the empire begin to rebel
  • Pashas wanted more power
  • Some look to Western ideas on reforming the
    government and its rigid rules
  • Sultans reject reform look towards autocracy
  • Young Turks (liberals) overthrew Sultan but WW I
    interrupts planned reforms
  • Nationalist tensions triggered a brutal genocide
    of Armenians (Christian) by the Turks (Muslim)
  • Accused of supporting Russian plans against

  • Early 1800s semi-independent province in Ottoman
  • Muhammad Ali Father of Modern Egypt
  • Introduced political and economic reforms
  • Built a well-trained modern army and conquered
    neighboring lands
  • Dies in 1849 with Egypt on its way to becoming a
    Middle Eastern power
  • Successors lack same skills
  • Suez canal built with high interest loans, cant
    pay off
  • Shares in canal bought by Britain leads to their
    control of Egypt as a protectorate

  • Russia
  • Wanted territory to protect its southern frontier
    and expand into central Asia
  • Britain
  • Wanted to protect its interests in India
  • Early 1900s discovery of oil
  • Heightened interests in Persia and both plotted
    to control oil fields
  • Persian government granted concessions and
    foreign powers sent troops to protect
  • Outraged nationalists split into two groups
  • Adopt western ways
  • Muslim religious leaders condemn Persian govt.
    and west