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DOE Office of High Energy Physics Report to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee


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Title: DOE Office of High Energy Physics Report to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee

DOE Office of High Energy Physics Report to
theAstronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee
  • Dr. Robin Staffin
  • Associate Director of Science
  • for High Energy Physics
  • May 10, 2007

A Wealth of Advice
  • Panel Reports to Topic(s) Reports Due or
  • EPP2010 National Research Council report on long
    term April 2006
  • priorities in the HEP program
  • P5 HEPAP New mid-scale initiatives June 2006
  • Dark Energy HEPAP AAAC Dark Energy
    techniques June 2006
  • Task Force (DETF)
  • Dark Matter Science HEPAP AAAC Direct Detection
    of Dark Matter July 2007
  • Assessment Group
  • (DMSAG)
  • University Grant HEPAP Review of the Grant
    Program July 2007
  • Program Subpanel
  • (UGPS)
  • NRC Beyond Einstein DOE NASA Which of the 5
    Beyond Einstein Sept. 2007
  • Program Assessment Missions should go first?

Particle Physics Planning and Prioritizing the
Scientific Program
  • EPP2010 Charge from HEP and NSF
  • Identify, articulate, and prioritize the
    scientific questions and opportunities that
    define elementary particle physics
  • Recommend a 15-year implementation plan with
    realistic, ordered priorities to realize these

Chief Recommendation The United States should
remain globally competitive in elementary
particle physics by playing a leading role in the
worldwide effort to aggressively study Terascale
EPP2010 Priorities
  • Terascale LHC
  • Fully exploit opportunities afforded bythe LHC
  • Terascale ILC RD
  • Do what is necessary to mount a compelling
    bidfor the ILC on U.S. soilCentral effort in
    U.S. plan.
  • Expand Particle Astrophysics and Unification
    (CMB, Dark Matter, Dark Energy)
  • Neutrinos and Proton Decay (internationally
    coordinated, staged program)
  • Precision Measurements (future B Factory, lepton
    flavor violation and rare decays, g-2, EDM)

HEP Budget Top Line
FY 2006 Actual (includes SBIR/STTR) FY 2007 Request FY 2007 Actual FY 2008 Request Percentage FY2007 Actual to FY2008 Request
HEP Base Budget 716.7 775.1 752 782.2 4.0
Base BES SLAC LINAC Operations Supplement 746.1 815.1 790 843.7 6.8
BES Supplement Terminates in 2008 with B Factory
FY2008 Macroeconomics
  • After a pause, new HEP construction projects will
    be ramping up.
  • NOvA (NUMI Off Axis Neutrino Appearance
  • MINERVA neutrino cross section measurements
  • Daya Bay neutrino experiment w/China
  • Dark Energy Survey (Stage 3) w/NSF
  • ILC RD is ramping up to a 60M request for
    FY2008, increased from 42M actual in FY2007
  • Conversion of Capital to Operating of the past
    decade is also over. Re-converting Operating to
    Capital has begun. Not an easy step.
  • Running the Tevatron, B Factory, and NUMI going
    full steam. Power and consumables costs
  • This is not a relaxed program, both in currently
    operating facilities and in preparing for the
    next decades activities. Neither is it

LHC to Start Up in 2008.
  • The LHC physics program is a broad attack on the
    Terascale the experiments should observe the
    Higgs boson at any feasible mass, and discover
    the new physics widely expected to supplant the
    Standard Model.
  • Approximately half of the US Experimental HEP
    community is working on building detectors at the
    LHC, commissioning the accelerator and preparing
    software for onslaught on the science
  • DOE is funding its LHC commitments to keep up
    with inflation
  • University support is recognized in this context
    (e.g. additional travel funds for universities,
    and modest student and postdoc support)
  • RD on future upgrades to maximize on original

Closing in on the Higgs at the Tevatron
Direct Tevatron searches are gaining on the SM
Higgs. Individual experiments rule out signal at
5 -10 times expected cross section with 1 fb-1.
With full data sample (8fb-1), average of
experiments (not done yet) and improvements in
analysis, can rule out SM Higgs if mass lt 180 GeV
or discover for mass lt 120 GeV.
ILC Progress
At the beginning of 2006, the Global Design Group
led by B. Barish had established a baseline
configuration to guide the Reference Design
Report (RDR) and costing process.
  • March (Bangalore) establish the organization
    for RDR and guidelines for change control, design
    and cost methods.
  • July (Vancouver) first look at costs and
    identification of areas where cost savings could
  • November (Valencia) freeze the design, start
    the final report and cost study.
  • February 07(Beijing) Release RDR and cost

The schedule for ILC is under considerable
discussion, with technical milestones only a
piece of the issue. Ray Orbach at HEPAP in 2/07,
while restating the priority to achieve the ILC
based on its scientific promise, noted that based
on our experience, the time to reach
international agreements (site, shares,
organization) and time for RD and construction
would stretch out this timeline to the mid-2020s.
2005 2006 2007 2008
2009 2010
Global Design Effort
LHC Results
Baseline configuration
Reference Design/ initial cost
Technical Design
globally coordinated
ILC RD Program
International Management
SCRF A New Budget Category in FY08
  • High-gradient superconducting RF will have broad
    applications for new scientific facilities
    XFELs, ERLs, high intensity proton sources for
    neutrino factories, neutron sources, rare isotope
  • ILC a strong driver for extending SCRF
  • RD facilities for developing new cavity
    fabrication methods, surface processing,
    materials characterization.
  • Test facilities for single cavities, cryomodules,
    beam injection, RF, controls, and diagnostics.
  • Developing productive interactions with US
    industry to bring US capability to world

Technical Progress in SRF Cavities
The first multi-cell superconducting cavities
processed in the US in JLab (manufactured in
Europe) have been tested. One reached 42 MV/m
and one 30 MV/m. (ILC specification is 35 MV/m
for operation at 31.5 MV/m). Yield at these
higher gradients is a key challenge.
A single cell cavity at Cornell reached 54 MV/m
Earlier results from LANL suggested the existence
of a 4th neutrino species that does not interact
with the electroweak interaction. In a
long-awaited new result, the MiniBoone
collaboration has ruled out this possibility.
Dark Energy
  • The Long and Winding Road
  • NASA and DOE are jointly sponsoring a National
    Academy study Beyond Einstein Program Assessment
    Committee, due in September 2007, to advise
    NASA by identifying the highest priority among
    the five proposed NASA Beyond Einstein missions
  • Should this top priority be the Joint Dark Energy
    Mission (JDEM), DOE and NASA would propose to
    proceed with this mission.
  • DOE/HEP will also provide funding for dark energy
    concepts to support RD activities that can
    deliver advances in key areas identified by the
    Dark Energy Task Force report.
  • These concepts can be near or longer-term and can
    be ground and/or space-based.
  • Have 32 Dark Energy RD proposals decisions at
    the end of May

Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)
Science ? - Galaxy surveys, dark matter, dark
energy astronomy - June 2006 5th public data
release Now have data on 8000 square degrees of
sky, with 1,048,960 spectra. SDSS-I took data
since 1998 through June 2005 SDSS-II approved
through June 2008 and doing 3 surveys Sloan
Legacy Survey, SEGUE, and Sloan Supernova
Survey Collaboration 25 institutions around
the world Funding Sloan Foundation, NSF, DOE,
Japan, Germany, U.K., participating
institutions Future Collaboration is planning
SDSS-III with a baryon oscillation dark energy
study etc.
120 mega-pixel camera covers 1.5 square degrees
Recent Science News Jan.07 discovery of
dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way Feb. 07
Distant quasars live in massive dark matter halos
640 optical fiber spectrograph
2.5 m Telescope in Apache Point, New Mexico
VERITAS(Very Energetic Radiation Imaging
Telescope Array System)
  • Scientific Purpose Study of celestial sources
  • of very high energy gamma-ray sources in
  • the energy range of 50 GeV- 50 TeV search
  • for dark matter candidates
  • 4-telescope atmospheric Cherenkov array
  • Funding Agencies NSF, DOE contributions
  • from Smithsonian foreign institutions
  • Status VERITAS telescopes were installed at the
    Whipple Observatory Basecamp on Mt. Hopkins and
    started full engineering operations at the end of
    March 2007 while waiting for Kitt Peak access.
  • They have been approved for a 2 year engineering
    run at Whipple, through 2008.

Telescope 1
VERITAS Operating at Mt. Hopkins -
SPECIFICATIONSEnergy threshold
100GeV Angular resolution 4' Collecting area
5 104 m2
VERITAS Detections as of April 2007? Crab
Nebula, Blazars, Quasars, Radio Galaxy
Crab Nebula, 5s in 2 mins
mQuasar LSI61 303 Phase 0.63-0.71
mQuasar LSI61 303 Phase 0.75-0.88
Crab Nebula, Q2 Plot, 7hrs, 10g/min
Radio Galaxy M87
Blazar 1ES121830 z0.182
Blazar Mrk 421 z0.03
Blazar Mrk 501, z0.03 11 hrs, 0.8 g/min
Dark Matter Searches
Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS)
experiment Purpose direct detection of Weakly
Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPS) in Soudan
Mine in Minnesota
CDMS detector
Data-taking Full ops with 5 towers started in
2006 continues through FY07.
Results Worlds lowest exclusion limits on the
WIMP cross section.
Liquid Xenon Detectors We are currently
supporting Zeplin-II and Xenon-10 detectors now
taking data in Europe. They may have results
similar to CMDS-II 2005 this year.
Axion Dark Matter Search (ADMX) experiment at
Lawrence Livermore Lab in California testing
and commissioning in 2007.
DMSag Under discussion at this AAAC meeting
Pierre Auger high energy cosmic ray detector
array (collaboration w/NSF foreign partners)
Scientific goal is to observe, understand and
characterize the very highest energy cosmic rays.
Collaboration has 350 members from 18
countries Installed over 3000 km2 site in
Water Cherenkov surface detectors
Partial operations have started construction
expected to be completed in 2007. Current status
(as of end of April 2007) - All fluorescence
telescopes operating - 1307 (out of 1600)
surface Cherenkov detectors deployed, 1190 taking
data - Landowners issue for site access to
deploy final surface detectors should be solved
soon Collaboration is working on an Auger-North
design report
Fluorescence telescopes
James Cronin School for Outreach recently
Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST)
Mission with NASA
Primary Instrument Large Area Telescope (LAT)
-- Collaboration between NASA, DOE, France,
Italy, Japan, Sweden was managed at SLAC.
  • High energy gamma rays from space
  • Energy and direction from 20 MeV to
  • 300 GeV over wide field of view

Jan 06 - LAT instrument fabrication
complete May 06 - Shipped from SLAC to NRL
Sept 06 - Shipped to Phoenix for integration
on spacecraft Jan. 07 integrated on
spacecraft testing April 07 start final
environmental testing Oct. 07 ship to
KSC Dec 07 - GLAST launch scheduled
Large Area Telescope Oct. 2005
Dark Energy Planning Future
? Investigating future space and/or ground
telescopes in cooperation with NASA and NSF.
  • Panels/Reports
  • Dark Energy Task Force subpanel of AAAC HEPAP
    reported in June 2006
  • - recommended a mix of experiments with
    independent and complementary measurements to
    address dark energy.
  • HEPAP P5 prioritization subpanel recommended that
    DOE and NSF jointly pursue the Dark Energy Survey
    (DES) project, a small-scale ground-based
    experiment that can provide significant advances
    in our knowledge of dark energy in the near term
    in a cost-effective manner. P5 also recommended
    that RD be done for large-scale ground-based and
    space-based dark energy experiments to get them
    to a preliminary design stage.
  • NRC Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee
    (BEPAC) DOE and NASA funded study that will
    report in Sept. 2007 which of the five Beyond
    Einstein missions should go first.

HEP P5 Roadmap vs. FY2008 Request
  • Highest priority investigations at the energy
    frontier. These are the full range of activities
    for the LHC program and the RD for the ILC.
  • A near-term program in dark matter and dark
    energy, and specific neutrino measurements CDMS
    25 kg, DES, Daya Bay. Also, support long-term RD
    in these areas.
  • Construction of the NOvA experiment at Fermilab
    along with a program of modest machine
  • Support for LHC physics through university grants
    (26M) and LHC Research Program (50M)
  • ILC RD request at 60M, increased support for
  • Daya Bay fabrication begins in FY2008 (TPC 29M)
  • DES fabrication begins in FY2008 (TPC 20M)
  • CDMS 25kg to be considered for FY2009
  • Long-term RD for dark matter, dark energy,
    neutrinos continues
  • NOvA fabrication begins in FY2008 (delayed from
    FY2007 by CR). TPC Not to exceed 260M.
    Accelerator improvements to provide additional
    beam power to NuMI is included in project.

Subject to successful review of interested
DOE High Energy Physics FY05 DOE-funded FTEs in
Physics Research - University Program
Program faculty research scientists postdoc grad students techs, engineers
Theory 214.5 2.2 101.4 111.8
Experiments Accelerator based 270.1 81.1 236.1 306.2 11.4
Experiments Non-Accelerator based 43.3 17.4 27.9 47.0 0.9

FNAL Tevatron CDF 44.5 13.2 56.8 65.6 2.0
- Tevatron - Dzero 35.9 5.5 34.0 47.6 1.2
-- neutrinos 26.6 4.9 16.8 25.8 --
-- fixed target other 10.0 0.5 7.0 12.0 --
SLAC BaBar 45.0 8.8 42.8 72.8 0.8
BNL fixed target RHIC 2.5 4.4 1.9 0.9 0.1
Cornell - CLEO 9.4 1.0 7.7 11.4 --
JLAB Radphi, GlueX 0.4 -- 1.1 0.2 0.5
DOE High Energy Physics FY05 DOE-funded FTEs in
Physics Research - University Program
Program faculty Res. Scien Postdoc Students Eng/tech
CERN ATLAS 27.8 16.3 15.2 12.6 2.8
CERN CMS 33.9 21.8 29.8 20.0 3.4
CERN OPAL, NA48, NOMAD 0.8 -- 0.9 1.0 --
Japan K2K 2.8 1.6 3.2 4.0 --
Japan Belle, E391 6.1 1.0 9.0 13.2 --
Other BES, Zeus, KLOE 4.1 -- 3.2 6.0 0.2
Accelerator RD incl Mu-Coll 3.4 -- 2.2 0.7 --
Detector RD 3.6 0.7 2.2 5.3 0.3
Linear Collider RD Phys Det. 8.0 0.3 2.0 4.3 --
Future accel non-accel 5.4 0.9 0.2 2.9 --
Astro/Cosmo space 10.3 9.8 3.3 7.0 --
Astro/Cosmo ground, undergnd 20.7 4.6 14.3 23.2 0.2
Neutrino ground, underground 10.7 1.9 10.0 15.5 0.7