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Our place in the World: Clean water and sustainable energy'

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Title: Our place in the World: Clean water and sustainable energy'


1
Our place in the World Clean water and
sustainable energy.
  • Year 8 Science

2
Index
  • Lesson 1 Using sustainable energy robust
    technology to obtain water.
  • Lesson 2 Preparing a report.
  • Homework task 1
  • Lesson 2a Water machines
  • Lesson 3 Generating electricity
  • Lesson 4 Whats in the water? (part 1)
  • Lesson 5 Whats in the water? (part 2The
    report)
  • Lesson 6 Water pipes siphons
  • Lesson 7 Investigating the siphon
  • Lesson 8 How much energy does it take to lift a
    bucket of water?
  • Lesson 9 How much energy does it take to do
    work?
  • HOMEWORK task

3
Labcast
  • If you are producing a labcast or blog
  • Look at your teachers comments before you
    continue with your labcast.
  • Start each new section with a question as the
    title.
  • You can copy bits from this PowerPoint.

4
Lesson 1
  • Can we use sustainable energy robust technology
    to obtain water?

5
What are the issues?
  • About 1000 million people in the world (thats
    approx 1 in 5 people) do not receive enough food
    to lead fully productive lives
  • More than 1 in 10 people on our planet consume
    less than the critical minimum diet necessary
    to stay healthy and maintain body weight
  • A child dies of hunger every five seconds
  • 11 million babies and young children die each
    year from poverty-related disease
  • Nearly two million children die every year of
    illnesses related to unclean water and poor
    sanitation.
  • statistics from Centre for Alternative
    Technology, BBC news Plan International.

6
Equipment
  • Technical Lego sets (one set per group).
  • Technical Lego work cards.
  • Digital camera / video camera.

7
Objectives
  • To learn the mechanical principles involved in
    wind pumps.
  • Troubleshooting and improving the design.

8
Links
  • American style pump
  • Pump plumbing
  • Whats underground?
  • Wooden English pump
  • Turning the blades to face the wind
  • Plan
  • And finally

9
By the end of the lesson
  • Work in a group to make a model wind pump.
  • Prepare your model to be photographed.
  • Clear away Lego set correctly.

http//www.nelson.k12.va.us/MiddleSchool/electives
/TechEd/index.htm
10
Plenary
  • What changes could be made to the design in order
    to improve it?
  • Sharing what weve done.

11
Lesson 2
  • Lego wind pump
  • Preparing a report

12
Equipment
  • Photographs of Lego wind pumps
  • Internet access

13
Background
  • Nearly two million (2000000) children die every
    year of illnesses related to unclean water and
    poor sanitation.
  • Wind pumps can be used in some places to draw
    clean water from deep underground.
  • Wind pumps use sustainable energy.

14
Photo Links
  • http//content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/1/19
    /Manila_shanty.jpg
  • http//www.ens-newswire.com/ens/aug2007/20070807_o
    pensewermumbai.jpg
  • http//fotservis.typepad.com/photos/mother_india_c
    alcutta_var/slums.jpg

15
Whats possible?
16
Objectives
  • To focus on World needs for clean water.
  • To produce a persuasive report that includes
    information on the need for uncontaminated water
    and sustainable wind pump technology.

17
By the end of the lesson
  • Produce an interesting report about why there is
    a need to develop clean water supplies and how
    wind pumps work.
  • Need for uncontaminated water.
  • Need for sustainable energy.
  • Need for uncomplicated technology.
  • Quality scientific explanations.

18
Links
  • UNICEF
  • UNICEF 2
  • Disease Finding solutions to difficult problems.
  • Childinfo

19
Video input
  • Inspirations - Sustainability - A Lesson from
    Tanzania

20
Instructions
  • Produce a persuasive report that includes
  • Need for uncontaminated water.
  • Need for sustainable energy.
  • Need for uncomplicated technology.
  • How wind pumps work.
  • Use this web page to help with your research. You
    can view it on line, copy bits from it and use
    the links.
  • Wind pumps use sustainable energy.
  • http//content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/1/19
    /Manila_shanty.jpg
  • http//www.ens-newswire.com/ens/aug2007/20070807_o
    pensewermumbai.jpg
  • http//fotservis.typepad.com/photos/mother_india_c
    alcutta_var/slums.jpg
  • UNICEF
  • UNICEF 2
  • Disease Finding solutions to difficult problems.
  • Childinfo

21
Homework task 1
  • Complete your persuasive report.
  • Due next lesson.

THE WORLD NEEDS CLEAN WATER!
22
Plenary
  • Report back using selected reports.

23
2a Water machines
  • Sustainable technology for irrigation

24
Equipment
  • Internet access
  • A4 plain paper

25
Objectives
  • Focus on the mechanics of simple machines for
    raising water from a well or river.

26
By the end of the lesson
  • Completed drawings ready to scan or display.

27
Instructions
  • Spend 10 minutes with your team to investigate
    the following web sites
  • Archimedes Screw
  • Shadouf
  • How stuff works
  • These are both simple methods of raising water.
  • Work with your group to produces several
    illustrated ideas for water lifting machines.

28
Lesson 3
  • Can we generate electricity from sustainable
    sources?

29
Equipment
  • Energy conversion demonstration.
  • Electric motors two per group.
  • Rubber bands (thin)
  • Crocodile leads four per group.
  • Power supply Transformers or batteries.
  • Ammeters one per group.
  • Dynamo demonstration rig.
  • DVD / MPEG video Renewable Energy Sources

30
Starter
  • Video input
  • Renewable Energy Sources
  • This video, taken from a Blue Peter Special
    report shows modern methods of generating
    electricity using wind and tidal turbines.

31
Objectives
  • To learn how electricity can be generated from
    sustainable energy sources.
  • To learn how to draw flow charts to represent
    energy flow.
  • To revise how to use captions to describe or
    explain.
  • To revise how to use an ammeter to measure
    electrical current.

32
Getting started
  • We usually get our energy from petrol or coal, or
    something like that.
  • Energy from moving air (wind) is sustainable.
  • What other sustainable energy sources are there?

Sustainable energy sources
33
Demonstration
  • Bike dynamo
  • A demonstration of a bike dynamo
  • A demonstration of the Energy Conversion kit.
  • Video clip BBC Multimedia Workpack for Science
    3. Clip 2 Renewable Energy Sources.

34
A pointless energy transfer
  • Set up the equipment as shown in the diagram.
  • Run the system. Does the generator produce
    electricity?
  • Copy the diagram.
  • Add a caption to describe or explain.

35
Plenary A useful energy transfer
  • Copy the diagram and complete the missing bits.

36
Homework
  • Complete todays presentation and check its at
    the right level.
  • Add in some examples of how sustainable turbine
    technology is being used in non-industrial areas
    of the World.

37
Sustainable technology Lesson 4
  • Whats in the water?
  • This lesson may take three or more sessions.

38
Teachers information.
  • This section will take two or more lessons and
    will need to be differentiated.
  • There are 5 experiments. These tests serve two
    purposes
  • Revise skills that will be needed on transfer to
    high school in year 9. This includes encouraging
    students to become autonomous in the selection,
    setting up and clearing away of equipment.
  • Focus on the factors that affect the cleanliness
    of water. Extra video materials provide a wider
    World view of the issues and solutions.

39
Equipment
  • Water samples (check with teacher or see notes
    below)
  • Microscopes one per group
  • Cavity microscope slides
  • Plastic pipettes
  • Evaporation dishes
  • 100 cm3 beakers 3 per group
  • Plastic drinking straws one per group
  • Plasticine small piece per group
  • Measuring cylinders
  • Filter paper funnels

40
Objectives
  • Revise how to use a microscope
  • Revise how to make and record useful
    observations.
  • Revise how to use a hydrometer and what the
    results mean.
  • Revise how to accurately measure volume and how
    this relates to fair testing.

41
Video input
  • BBC Science in Action disc 1 DVD - Life
    processes living things / Microbes (20 minutes)
  • BBC Class clips 1 / Microbes and disease (video
    clips)

42
Getting started
  • Work together to make a list
  • What substances might be in a sample of water?

HAZARD! Microbes in water could cause disease.
Wash hands. What other safety precautions should
we consider?
43
Introduction
  • Suitable title and date
  • Collect 3 or 4 samples of water.
  • Collect equipment as you need it
  • Microscope one per group
  • Cavity microscope slide
  • Plastic pipette
  • Evaporation dishes
  • 100 cm3 beakers 3 per group
  • Plastic drinking straw one per group
  • Plasticine small piece per group
  • Measuring cylinder
  • Filter paper funnel

44
MICROSCOPE
Whats in the water?
  • WATER TEST 1

45
Microscope
  • Look closely at each water sample using a hand
    lens or microscope.
  • Describe what you see in each sample.

EXTENDING YOUR LEARNING
46
Extending your microscope observations
  • This is extension learning for some students.
  • There are many things you may observe is a water
    sample (living, dead or never alive).
  • Use the following links to get you started
  • Bacteria (one) (two)
  • Algae
  • Amoeba
  • Parasites
  • Protozoa

47
Packing away
  • Clean your microscope carefully put it away.
  • Wash up and clear away the rest of your
    equipment.
  • Wash hands wipe work surfaces.

48
Plenary
  • Sharing observations. One or more groups to
    report.

49
Microscope evaluation
This table can be printed for fixing into
exercise books of copied to use in electronic
reports.
50
USING A FILTER
Whats in the water?
  • Water test 2

51
Filtration
  • Filter each sample. What is left on each filter
    paper?

How will you make this test fair? Record how much
solid was left from each sample.
52
What are the key variables?
  • Independent variable
  • How much water?
  • How much dirt on the filter paper
  • Different water samples
  • Has the water been stirred or not?
  • The type of filter paper

Dependent variable
Control variables
53
Packing away
  • Put the used filters into the bin.
  • Wash up and clear away the rest of your
    equipment.
  • Wash hands wipe work surfaces.

54
Filtering evaluation
This table can be printed for fixing into
exercise books of copied to use in electronic
reports.
55
Plenary
  • Sharing observations. One or more groups to
    report.

56
How clear is the water?
Whats in the water?
  • Water test 3

57
Clarity
  • How clear is each sample?
  • Hold a piece of white card behind each sample.

Fair testing
58
What are the key variables?
  • Independent variable
  • How much water?
  • How well you can see through
  • Different water samples
  • Has the water been stirred or not?
  • The container

Dependent variable
Control variables
59
Observations
  • Record how clear each sample was.
  • You could give marks out of ten for clarity.

60
Packing away
  • Put the used filters into the bin.
  • Wash up and clear away the rest of your
    equipment.
  • Wash hands wipe work surfaces.

61
Clarity evaluation
This table can be printed for fixing into
exercise books of copied to use in electronic
reports.
62
Plenary
  • Sharing observations. One or more groups to
    report.

63
Dissolved substances
Whats in the water?
  • Water test 4

64
Information
  • When water contains dissolved substances, it is
    more dense.
  • Things float higher is denser water.
  • Which one shows the salty water? ?

65
Dissolved substances
  • Place a hydrometer in each sample.
  • How many mm of straw are above the water.
  • What do the results show?

66
What are the key variables?
  • Independent variable
  • How much water?
  • The hydrometer
  • Different water samples
  • How high does the hydrometer float?
  • The container

Dependent variable
Control variables
67
Dissolved substances evaluation
This table can be printed for fixing into
exercise books of copied to use in electronic
reports.
68
Whats left as the water evaporates?
Whats in the water?
  • Water test 5

69
Evaporation
  • Allow some filtered water from each sample to
    evaporate in a shallow dish or use the water
    bath method.
  • Next lesson observe what is left in the dish.

70
What are the key variables?
  • Independent variable
  • How much water?
  • Different water samples
  • Whats left behind after evaporation?
  • The evaporation dish

Dependent variable
Control variables
71
Finishing up
  • This lesson will conclude next session.
  • Label your evaporation dishes and leave them on a
    window sill.
  • Clean your equipment carefully put it away.
  • Wash up and clear away the rest of your
    equipment.
  • Wash hands wipe work surfaces.

72
Evaporation evaluation
This table can be printed for fixing into
exercise books of copied to use in electronic
reports.
73
Homework
  • Next lesson will be about reporting your results.
    Use homework time to check your results and make
    sure they are sensible.

74
Sustainable technology Lesson 5
  • Whats in the water?
  • Making a report

75
Equipment
  • Book version
  • Labcast version
  • Handouts printed from this PowerPoint.
  • Access to coloured paper, felt pens, etc.
  • Scissors glue.
  • Access to a computer if possible.
  • Access to a computer
  • Video cameras

76
Objectives
  • Work effectively in a group to share ideas and
    support each others learning.
  • Think logically about each test and collate
    observations.
  • Learn how to put several observations together to
    produce a report.

77
Video input
  • Technology for Life - World Water A technical 15
    minute programme about water including water
    purification in developing countries and flooding
    in the UK. Using this video will extend the time
    required to produce reports. The programme shows
    the way engineers work in teams to research and
    solve problems.
  • Use the first section of the video that deals
    with providing clean water where low-tech
    solutions are necessary.

78
Organising your work
79
By the end of the lesson
  • A written and diagrammatic report detailing what
    your group found in the water.
  • The results of each test.
  • Photographs??
  • A conclusion that explains what you found in each
    sample.

80
Homework
  • Complete your report.

81
Sustainable technology Lesson 5a
  • Catchups

82
Starter
  • Sharing some of the reports produced so far.

83
Instructions
  • Use this session to bring your reports fully up
    to date.

84
Plenary
  • Sharing some of the finished reports.

85
Lesson 6
  • Water pipes and siphons

86
Equipment
  • Flexible tube (about 600mm long). Various
    different bores.
  • Plastic jugs (2 per group)
  • Measuring cylinders
  • Timers

87
Objectives
  • To learn about the siphon and how it works.
  • To learn how to measure the flow rate of water in
    cm3 per minute.
  • To learn what variables (factors) affect the flow
    rate.

88
Expectations
  • By the end of the lesson you will have
  • Drawn a diagram with a caption of the siphon.
  • Measured the rate of flow in cm3 per minute.
    (cm3/min)
  • Listed the variables that might affect the rate
    of flow.

89
Instructions
  • Set up the siphon as shown.
  • Measure the rate of flow How much water flows in
    6 seconds?

90
Calculations
  • You know how much water flows in 6 seconds.
  • Ten times as much water will flow in 60 seconds
    (a minute).
  • Record the flow rate in your report.

91
Variables plenary
  • Work in pairs using a whiteboard.
  • What variables might affect the flow rate?
  • Be ready to report back.
  • Record your list of variables in your book.

92
Work check Show of hands
  • By the end of the lesson you will have
  • Drawn a diagram with a caption of the siphon.
  • Measured the rate of flow in cm3 per minute.
    (cm3/min)
  • Listed the variables that might affect the rate
    of flow.

93
HOMEWORK TASK
  • Complete your diagram, caption and list of
    variables.

94
Lesson 7
  • Investigating the siphon

95
Equipment
  • Timers
  • Plastic jugs
  • Measuring cylinders
  • Plastic rules
  • Flexible pipe various bores and lengths

96
Objectives
  • To revise systematic measurement repeating
    measurements for accuracy.
  • To revise the idea of investigating two or more
    variables.
  • To revise using scientific explanations that
    include reference to forces and energy.

97
Expectations
  • By the end of the lesson
  • Two sets of results (where you have investigated
    two variables).
  • A full explanation that explains the results to
    both sets of results.
  • If time, graphs to clearly illustrate your
    results.

98
How to structure your investigation.
  • Questions I want to investigate.
  • Variables.
  • Method (instructions).
  • Results
  • Graphs
  • Conclusion.

99
HOMEWORK TASK
  • Complete your explanation.
  • Produce graphs that clearly illustrate your
    results.

100
Lesson 8
  • How much work does it take to lift a bucket of
    water?

101
Equipment
  • This activity may take three lessons
  • Pulley sets and string
  • 1kg masses
  • Force meters
  • Metre rules

102
Starters
  • Use a mini whiteboard to draw a well.
  • Show how a rope is used for pulling the bucket up
    and letting it down.

103
Objectives
Click here for advanced objectives
  • To investigate how pulleys can be used to help
    with lifting.
  • To learn how to rig up a pulley system.

This will be a double or treble lesson.
104
Advanced objectives
  • To learn how to calculate work and power.
  • To investigate how pulleys can be used to help
    with lifting.
  • To learn that work and power can be measured.

This will be a double or treble lesson.
19 November 2009
104
105
Video input
  • BBC Science in Action disc 5 DVD / Energy
    transfer
  • NOTE Check the suitability of this video clip.

106
By the end of the double lesson
  • You will be able to rig up a pulley system.
  • You will know how pulleys can be used to move
    heavy things.
  • You will have produced a report with text,
    diagrams, photographs and graphs.
  • Advanced
  • You will be able to calculate work.
  • You will be able to calculate power.

107
Setting up the pulley systems
Guide sheet
Experiment and get some results. Use the guide
sheet to complete this assignment.
You might be able to try 4 or more pulleys.
108
Questions
  • When I lift the load, how much force does it
    take?
  • When I lift the load 0.1metres (10cm), how far do
    I pull the string?

BASIC RESULTS ADVANCED RESULTS
109
Basic results
110
Advanced results
Could you use Excel to tabulate the results and
the FORMULA FUNCTION to calculate WORK and POWER?
111
Work power
  • Work force (N) X distance (metres)
  • Power work time (sec)

LIFT THE LOAD 0.1metres Work the reading on the
force meter X how far you pull the string. Power
work time (sec) the quicker you do work,
the more power you apply)
112
Calculations
  • Work force (N) x distance (metres)
  • The unit of work is Newton-metres or Joules
  • Power work time (seconds)
  • The unit of power is the Watt

113
Finishing up
  • I can rig a 3 pulley system.
  • I know that pulleys can help in lifting.
  • Advanced
  • I can calculate work.
  • I can calculate power.
  • I can present my work as a coherent report.

114
Lesson 9
  • How much energy does it take to do work?

115
Equipment
  • Plywood pieces of different lengths as follows
  • 150mm x 100mm
  • 250mm x 100mm
  • 350mm x 100mm
  • Clinometers
  • Force meters
  • 1kg masses
  • Metre rules
  • Mini-whiteboards, pens erasers.

116
Objectives for today
  • Revise the idea of doing work and the energy it
    takes.

117
Using a ramp
Discuss how using a ramp helps with loading.
What if you used a longer ramp?
118
Try it
Does the length of the ramp make a difference?
Use the equipment to try it.
19 November 2009
118
119
Advanced try it
Does the length of the ramp make a difference?
Can you make measurements? WORK?
19 November 2009
119
120
Results???
121
Work and ramps
  • Title date in your book (or labcast).
  • Draw a diagram (2D) of a ramp being used to load
    something into a truck (or import a photo).
  • Add a caption to explain how a ramp is useful.
  • Then describe the effect of using a longer ramp.
    Add in results and graphs if you can.

Click HERE for guidesheet
122
Recording / Homework task
  • Copy your results into your exercise book.
  • Redraft your description into your exercise book.
  • Complete as homework.

123
Plenary
  • Blokey lifts a washing machine into the back of a
    van.
  • Blokeys mate lifts an identical washing machine
    into an identical van using a ramp.
  • Who has done the most work?

124
Levers
  • Lesson 10

125
The fence post
OBJECTIVES Learn about levers and what difference
the length of the lever makes. Learn how leverage
(torque) is measured in Newton Metres. Design and
conduct your own investigation.
126
Deadline
  • You will probably not complete this in one
    session.
  • Use session 1 and homework to design the test and
    try out a few ideas.
  • Use session 2 to complete the test and record
    conclusions.

127
Investigating pulling
  • You could make a model fence post and investigate
    how much force it takes to pull it over.
  • How much force does it take if you pull at the
    top of the post?
  • How much force does it take if you pull half way
    down?
  • Design your investigation and get some results.
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