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Title: Dia 1


1
Haste A major cause for business crises and
conflicts
Juhani Anttila Academician, International Academy
for Quality Venture Knowledgist Quality
Integration http//www.QualityIntegration.biz ,
http//qiblog.blogspot.com juhani.anttila_at_telecon
.fi
September 20, 2007
2
Haste A major cause for business crises and
conflicts
  • Contents
  • Crises, conflicts and haste as phenomena in
    business environments
  • Observations from work researches
  • Human conflicts
  • Business crisis management
  • Learning from accomplished personalities
  • Asking Whys
  • Approaching strengthened performance

xxxx/2.9.2007/jan
3
Transition in crisis ()
7. INTEGRATION Confidence - New attitudes and
behavior became part of behavioral repertoire
Perceived competence
2. DENIAL Defensiveness - Retreat into false
competence. Denial of need to change
6. SEARCH FOR MEANING Curiosity - Trying to
understand how and why new behaviors are better.
3. INCOMPETENCE Anger, frustration and confusion
- Awareness that change is necessary
but unsure what to do.
5. TESTING Trying new approaches and coping with
risk of failure (trepidation)
4. ACCEPTANCE OF REALITY Sadness - Letting go to
past attitudes and behavior. Excitement - At
prospect of improved performance
1. IMMOBILISATION Shock - Mismatch
between expectations and reality
Beginning a transition
Time
() Ref. Adams al
3171/2.9.2007/jan
4
Orienting to business crisis
  • Crisis is a stage in a sequence of events at
    which the trend of future events - especially for
    better or for worse - is determined
  • Typically crisis relates to
  • A condition of instability or danger, as in
    social, economic, or political affairs
  • An unique situation that has reached an
    extremely difficult or dangerous culminating
    point
  • A time of great disagreement, uncertainty,
    suspense or suffering
  • Crisis is a turning point leading to a decisive
    change.
  • The word crisis originates from Greek krísis
    meaning decision.
  • One type of decision is also if one leaves
    undone a decision.

Dr. J. Juran, USA There is no real development
in oganizations without business crises.
Crises and conflicts are always in human minds
not in organizations. Often due to haste or
conflicts business situation develops to worse.
3155/9.9.2007/jan
5
Changing business environments are conductive to
increasing business crises and conflicts.
Modern business culture and operational
environments add the business crises and
conflicts and the importance to consider them
consistently in business management.
  • Uncertainty and ambiguity
  • Emergence and self-organizing networks of actors
  • Many heterigeneous global actors in virtual
    networks
  • All linked with everything else, all linkages
    not known
  • Pradoxal freedom of the actors (both-and
    instead of either-or)
  • Signifigance of immaterial issues (information,
    knowledge, services)
  • Informal learning and serendipity
  • Increased speed of activities and change
  • Signifigance of transaction phenomena
  • Complex responsive processes of relating
  • Simultaneous agility and maturity requirements
  • Immense pressure / stress of business leaders

Certainty and predictability
3369/2.9.2007/jan
(Refs.D Zohar, R D Stacey)
6
Activities in complex responsive processes of
relating
Innovation Creativity
Debate Zone of
Complexity
Trial Error
Low
Chaos Anarchy
Political control - compromise
Agreement
All kinds of activities may exist in business
processes.
Standards Guidance Monitoring
Experimenting
High
Certainty
High
Low
Appropriate management actions should be selected
based on the degree of certainty and level of
agreement on the issue in question.
3134/5.4.2006/jan
(Ref. Stacey, Ortner)
7
The Time Scissors - A Management Dilemma
Shortage of time (human resources) is a challenge
and risk for business success. Business leaders
have not time enough to think.
One may easily find examples from daily news how
human mistakes - mainly due to shortage of time -
have caused serious situations of crises.
Reaction time
Time needed at increasing complexities Time
available at increasing dynamics

1900
2000
0664/2.9.2007/jan
(Ref. K. Bleicher, D. Seghezzi)
8
From time to haste in business
Busy to keep occupied actively and attentively
engaged in work or a pastime ? business Timely
occurring at a suitable time seasonable
opportune well-timed Sudden occurring without
transition from the previous form, state, etc.
abrupt Agile quick and well-coordinated in
movement lithe active lively marked by an
ability to think quickly mentally acute or
aware Hasty unduly quick precipitate rash
brief fleeting slight superficial impatient
impetuous thoughtless injudicious
() Time (abstract) An indefinite continuous
duration, extent and point Time (personified)
An aged bald man (but with a forelock) carrying a
scythe and an hour-glass Speed Good luck,
prosperity, rapidity
3349/2.9.2007/jan
() Online Etymology Dictionary
9
Human performance in limits
Professor Pekka Niemi (the University of Turku)
() peoples mental performance and ability
to work often crumble precisely when things get
complicated, as this also means great
uncertainty.
3360/2.9.2007/jan
() Tieteen päivät (Science days) 2007
10
How people use their time and race against the
clock
  • Results from the time use research
  • People have enjoyed more leisure time in the
    last twenty years. However, as the proportion of
    people other than workers in the population has
    increased students and pensioners the leisure
    time of 18 to 64 aged people has factually
    declined.
  • Previously, the well-educated had more free time
    than those with less education. Today, those with
    education and responsible position work longer
    days than anyone else and have the least free
    time.
  • - Although statistics show that the amount of
    time spent in working per year has decreased, the
    total working time of those of working age has
    increased. Salaried work, work done at home and
    work-like activities have become confounded.
  • - Highly educated workers do more things
    simultaneously than others.
  • In many fields work pressures have become
    unbearable and recovering from them requires
    more time. This is often still combined with the
    pressures of the leisure time.
  • When we are pressed for time, we look for ways
    to use the time available more efficiently we do
    things faster, replace a time-consuming activity
    with one that we can complete faster, do many
    things simultaneously, or set up a tight schedule
    for getting things done. These measures very
    often only lead to a feeling of greater urgency
    and to life becoming even more constrained.

3361/2.9.2007/jan
11
Attitudes towards time have changed.
People have started talking more and more about
being busy. ? It has become a measure of
success. It has become a blanket excuse that one
can invoke with pride. Highly educated people
work long days, because their work is interesting
but also because long working days have a high
status nowadays.
3362/2.9.2007/jan
12
From haste to exhaustion at work
  • One obvious reason why people do not have enough
    time to do their jobs is that there are not
    enough of them in the workplace for the work that
    has to be done. The dog-eat-dog competition for
    profits and the absolute need to commit oneself
    to ones work easily lead to exhaustion.
  • One is more easily aware of delays and missed
    deadlines. In particular, many members of the
    middle class are caught in the squeeze of
    knowledge work. Technology puts a strain on what
    we can reasonably take in. Information technology
    has not solved problems but, rather, brought new
    ones. Due to information flood we cannot
    concentrate on our work proper. Research has
    shown that office workers typically have less
    than fifteen minutes of uninterrupted working
    time. Interruptions place stress on the brain.
    One gets the feeling that one never has the
    chance to finish anything properly.
  • Also the other negative aspects of working life
    uncertainty and unanticipated changes have
    increased, and middle management in particular is
    suffering more than most from stress-related
    symptoms and a fear of work exhaustion.

3363/2.9.2007/jan
13
Work exhaustion has negative effects
Often underlying work exhaustion there are the
excessive quantitative and qualitative demands of
a job. If these demands constantly exceed a
persons resources, the resulting stress can lead
to serious exhaustion. At this point, the person
experiences general and long-term fatigue, and
this feeling does not go away even during leisure
time. Those who are susceptible to work
exhaustion are often hard working and very
committed to their work, frequently demanding
more of themselves and taking on too much
responsibility. An exhausted worker takes a
cynical attitude towards his or her work and it
ceases to be enjoyable or sensible. These
workers professional esteem is eroded and they
begin to fear that they can no longer cope with
their work. This feeling increases
dissatisfaction, anxiety and various physical
ailments. Peoples personal relationships also
suffer. Night work causes shortage of sleep and
tiredness. One night without proper sleep
corresponds a serious state of drunkenness.
Alcoholic itself is also often involved with the
work exhaustion.
3364/2.9.2007/jan
14
Organizations (managers) have not enough time to
think
  • Entrepreneurial activity, management in
    particular, requires deep know-how and knowledge
    in many specialized areas, e.g., security,
    quality, and human resources development. If a
    business does not have the time to develop a
    profound understanding of these matters and their
    underlying bases, it will drift into inefficient
    and even negative development where management is
    concerned. What typically happens is that things
    are
  • Limited only to immediate bug fixes and cures of
    symptons
  • Done superficially or by buying the services of
    dubious outside experts
  • Allowed to drift, and everyone is quiet and hopes
    nothing bad will happen
  • A lack of time also causes business to lose
    their identity. What is more, there is no time
    for innovation either the sources of innovation
    dry up. According to Dr. Deming, one requirement
    for doing business successfully is a profound
    knowledge of the companys total operations in
    its business environment, of the actors involved,
    of how things fluctuate, and of changes and
    developments. Without this, the natural, even
    day-to-day operations of a company will be
    disrupted.

3365/2.9.2007/jan
15
Blind leaders of the blind If the blind leads
the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.
(Matthew 1514)
2808/1.6.2004/jan
(Pieter Bruegel the Elder. The Parable of the
Blind. 1568. Oil on canvas. Museo di Capodimonte,
Naples, Italy)
16
Shortage of time is an individual human issue
  • If one feels shortage of time that may cause
    depending on the person and situation
  • Stress
  • Work pressure, harassment, and oppression
  • Burn out, a debilitating psychological condition
    brought about by unrelieved work stress,
    resulting in
  • Depleted energy and emotional exhaustion
  • Lowered resistance to illness
  • Increased depersonalization in interpersonal
    relationships
  • Increased dissatisfaction and pessimism
  • Increased absenteeism and work inefficiency

3353/2.9.2007/jan
17
Risk of the work exhaustion (BBI, Bergen Burnout
Indicator)
BBI
No of people
80
60
Team
Whole organization
Unit
Very low
Very high
Low
High
BBI Results above 125 clinical (max
150) 101-125 very high 76-100 high 51-75 low 2
6-50 very low under 25 no
BBI Measurement 25 factors
0046/1.9.2007/jan
18
A person working in his / her business process
environment
Intended business process Activities for
business targets and needs
Explicit knowledge and information
Conscious tacit knowledge Subconscious
knowledge (individual and collective)
Tacit knowledge
  • Internal mental process
  • Feelings
  • Appreciations (values)
  • Conflicts as business threat
  • internal mental conflicts
  • external relationship conflicts

3167/1.9.200/jan
19
Human business transaction
Human, Emotional
In
Out
Business, Rational
0060/1.9.2007/jan
(Ref. Kaset International)
20
Transacting people
  • Transactions
  • Crossing
  • Supplementing
  • Hidden

3358/1.9.2007/jan
21
Transaction analysis
At any given time, a person experiences and
manifests their personality through a mixture of
behaviours, thoughts and feelings. There are
three ego-states that people consistently
use Parent (P) A state in which people behave,
feel, and think in response to an unconscious
mimicking of how their parents (or other parental
figures) acted, or how they interpreted their
parent's actions. Adult (A) A state in which
people behave, feel, and think in response to
what is going on in the "here-and-now," using all
of their resources as an adult human being with
many years of life experience to guide them. This
is the ideal ego state, and learning to
strengthen the Adult is a goal of transaction
analysis. While a person is in the Adult ego
state, he / she is directed towards an objective
appraisal of reality. Child (C) A state in
which people revert to behaving, feeling and
thinking similarly to how they did in childhood.
3357/1.9.2007/jan
22
Emotional hooks
Society
Culture
Professional activity, colleagues
Environment
Meeting with other individuals
Private life, friends
Ones personality INTERNAL ELDER
Education and training

REALIZING ADULT

Conscious mind and being (now)
Stopper
Projections

Private subconscious Personal subconscious
contents
INTERNAL CHILD

Emotional hooks
Hidden intentions
Collective subconscious General laws of the
existence and life
2273/6.1.2002/jan
(Ref. Saaristo)
23
Conflicting people
Conflict situations are those in which the
concerns or interests of people appear to be
incompatible. In conflicts, an individual's
behavior can described along assertiveness
(extent to which the person attempts to satisfy
his own concerns) and cooperativeness (extent to
which the person attempts to satisfy the other
person's concerns).
Broadly used assessment tool for understanding
how different conflict-handling modes affect
interpersonal and group dynamics and respond to
conflict situations include
  • 1. Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument
  • Assessment modes
  • Competing
  • Accommodating
  • Avoiding
  • Collaborating
  • Compromising
  • 2. Kraybill Conflict Style Inventory
  • Assessment modes
  • Directing
  • Harmonizing
  • Avoiding
  • Cooperating
  • Compromising

Conflict resolution is to resolve a conflict.
Successful conflict resolution occurs by
listening to and providing opportunities to meet
each side's needs, and adequately address their
interests so that they are each satisfied with
the outcome. Conflict resolution aims to end
conflicts before they start or lead to verbal,
physical, or legal fighting. Conflict management
refers to the on-going long-term management
activity with intractable conflicts.
3359/1.9.2007/jan
24
Thomas Kilmann conflict behaviour modes
  • Assertive
  • behaviour

Competitive I win you lose
Collaborating I win you win
Compomising ½ win / win
Avoiding I lose you lose
Accomodating I lose you win
Cooperative behaviour
3371/7.9.2007/jan
25
The basic concept Crisis Management
  • Integrated crisis management
  • Coordinated activities to direct and control an
    organization with regard to business crises
  • Crisis management is a responsibility of the
    business management, and it is taking place
    through the managing actions of business
    leaders.
  • Experts have an assisting role in crisis
    management.

3164/7.9.2006/jan
26
Time, speed and agility in management standards
Management standards emphasize just in time or
just on time but not consider the shortness or
shortage of time. Time, speed and agility aspects
are poorly included in the recognized management
standards. ISO TC 176 has under consideration a
question how to take time, speed and agility into
account in the ISO 9000 standardization for
quality of management. In this context is also
considered other related aspect, e.g. networking,
innovation, collaboration, complexity, knowledge,
learning and serendipity.
3352/7.9.2007/jan
Ref. http//www.zef.fi/service/user/?q316
27
A framework for integrated business crisis and
continuity management ()
Time is an essential element in applying the
framework. Haste and shortage of time have
detrimental impact for managing business crises
properly. (NFPA 1600, Standard on
Disaster/Emergency Management and Business
Continuity Programs, 2004)
  • () http//www.gwu.edu/icdrm/publications/ShawTex
    tbook011105.pdf

3354/7.9.2007/jan
28
System standards should be used with
intelligence and wisdom
  • Inflexible, rigid, complex and formal systems may
    cause additional annoyance, stress and pressure
    in business operations and even carry out their
    primary purpose ineffectively and inefficiently.
  • Examples Too pedantically followed out
    standards based systems for quality, information
    security, airport security, etc.
  • Following out standards easily keep status quo
    and hinder innovative development and cannot
    provide help for crisis situations.
  • Systems defined by standards use best practices
    ( factually past practices) to realize and
    plan for generalized business needs and
    expectations. Real business events and incidents
    are, however, always unique, particular and
    single issues. Acute cases are remedied
    afterwards (post-wisdom).

An incident' is any event which is not part of
the standard operation and which causes, or may
cause, an interruption or a reduction in the
operation. The objective of incident management
is to restore normal operations as quickly as
possible with the least possible impact on either
the business or the user, at a cost-effective
price. ()
3350/2.9.2007/jan
() Ref. ITIL
29
Model of a consistent business management
Deming (Shewhart) Cycle
  • P Planning
  • D Doing
  • C Checking
  • A Acting
  • Applying PDCA model
  • Rational control (operational)
  • Continual rational small step improvement
    (operational), Kaizen approach
  • Innovative breakthrough changes (strategic)
  • PLANNING
  • Business and management models
  • Business plan
  • Approaches and methodology
  • ACTING
  • Preventing actions
  • Improving actions
  • Re-engineering
  • Communicating
  • Recognizing and rewarding

A P C D
  • CHECKING
  • Assessing the performance
  • Reviewing the performance
  • DOING
  • Deploying the approach and achieving the results
  • Controlling operational performance
  • Corrective actions

Breakthrough management is the key area for
crisis management.
2343x/15.9.2006/jan
30
Humes Guillotine
  • From how things are, one cannot draw
    conclusions how things should be.
  • Only factual statements can follow from
    exclusively factual statements.
  • Between the factual premises and the practical
    conclusions there is a gap, bridgeable only by a
    persons willingness to engage in relevant
    activity or practice.

Business problems, crises or conflicts cannot be
solved only by facts.
(Ref. David Hume 1711-1776, Immanuel Kant
1727-1804)
0692/3.9.2007/jan
31
Facts knowledge for managing business activities
Wisdom - myths - values
Intervention Plan / Act
Knowledge - explicit records - tacit
knowledge (know-how, competence)
Reflecting and deciding
Information
Ba

Analysing
You get what you measure
A
P
Data
C
D
...
Measuring
Environments
Effects
Facts
The performance reality of the company business
processes
0609/25.3.2006/jan
32
Haste may lead to superficial and erroneous
measures
- Misperception - Inappropriate emotional
response - Rational analysis based on incorrect
data - Intervention based on incorrect data
Business event
Expectations, Prejudgments
Observation
Reaction
(Sensation, Perception, Description)
Impulse, Intervention
Judgment
(Cognition, Analysis, Evaluation)
(Volition, Decision, Action)
New business event
GOALS 1) Learn to distinguish inside yourself
observations, reactions judgments and
impulses to act
(intervene) 2) Identify biases in how you
handle each of these processes
(Ref. Edgar H. Schein)
3356/1.9.2007/jan
33
Time is felt in a personal way.
Time is the key issue. I hate meetings and
pointless memo writing. Meetings do not get
things done, people do. You know, you can work
with something for four hours and achieve
nothing. Someone else can finish it in 15
minutes, if theyre focused. Thats the key.
Jorma Ollila, Nokia, Finland
  • I am a great believer that if you cant get
    something done in 50 hours a week you probably
    cant do it in 150. I do not really plan my
    daily performance. It reduces your freedom. I
    hate regimented planned days. You are always
    thinking about business where you are. A planned
    day may restrict creativity. Robert E. Shaw,
    Shaw Industries, USA

We are being unproductive because we are in the
activity trap running into meetings, making
telephone calls, going for lunch, and being
active all of the time. Ricardo Semler, Semco,
Brazil
3351/7.9.2007/jan
34
Learning from most accomplished people of the
world
Martti Ahtisaari, President of Finland Akito
Arima, Professor in physics, Japan Paulo Evaristo
Arns, Cardina Archibishop, Brazil Rafidad Aziz,
Minister and economist, Malaysia Hector Babenco,
Film director, Argentina, Brazil Susan Caroline
Bambrick, Theatre director, Italy Luciano
Benetton, Entrepreneur, Italy Georges Blanc,
Restaurant owner and chef, France Oriol Bohigas,
Architect, Spain Jan Carlzon, Prsesident of SAS,
Sweden Robert de Castello, World record athlete,
Australia Dennis Connor, Yachtsman, Cup winner,
USA Ivo Cramer, Choreographer, Sweden Lindsay
Fox, Entrepreneur, Australia Kjell Fredheim,
Executive vice president of SAS, Norway Paulo
Freire, Educator, Brazil Valery Gergiev, Artist
and conductor, Russia Michel E. Heinecke,
Businessman, USA, Thailand Masanari Iketani, CEO
of Tokyo steel, Japan
Mariss Jansons, Orchestra conductor,
Norway Cheong Choong Kong, CEO of Singapore
airlines Tom Lasorda, Baseball team manager,
USA Lars Löfgren, Theatre manager,
Sweden Fumihiko Maki, Architect, Japan Wilma
Mankiller, Principal in chief, Indian Cherokee
nation, USA M.P. Narayanan, Chairman of Indian
coal, India Curt R. Nicolin, Indusrialist,
Sweden Arne Naess, Mountain climber, Norway Jorma
Ollila, CEO of Nokia, Finland William G. Pagonis,
Commanding General, USA Anand Panyarachun,
Minister, top business executive, Thailand Ieoh
Ming Pei, Architect, USA Esa-Pekka Salonen,
Conductor, Finland Ricardo Semler, Businessman,
Brazil Robert Shaw, Business leader, USA Dick
Smith, Adwenturer, entrepreneur,
Australia Bert-Olof Svanholm, CEO of ABB,
Sweden Mike H. Walsh, CEO of Tenneco, USA
3355/1.9.2007/jan
(Ref. Bjelland, Dahl Partners)
35
Personal world-class performance
WORLD CLASS PERFORMANCE
Focus
Mastery
Intensity
Integrity
  • Awareness
  • General and multi-
  • disciplinary awareness
  • Contextual awareness

AWARENESS
Personal
Inter- personal
Action
Ethical
Openness in learning / receptiveness
0850/3.9.2007/jan
(Ref. Bjelland, Dahl Partners 1993)
36
"They see what we do not see." ()
() Otto Mäkilä 1939, Turku art museum, Finland)
1592/3.9.2007/jan
37
Lao Tsu () Tao-Te Ching, Poem 26 Lightly
strong

Gravity is the root of lightness stillness is
the ruler of movement.Therefore a wise prince,
marching the whole day, does not go far from his
baggage wagons. Although he may have brilliant
prospects to look at, he quietly remains in his
proper place, indifferent to them. How should
the lord of innumerable chariots carry himself
lightly before the kingdom? If he do act
lightly, he has lost his root if he proceed to
active movement, he will lose his throne.
3366/5.9.2007/jan
() c. 600 B.C.E.
38
Arjunas crisis Kill the relatives
As a business leader you must do your duty. They
must win their enemies although they were your
nearest relatives. Therefore get up. Prepare
to fight and win glory. Conquer your enemies and
enjoy a flourishing kingdom. They are already put
to death by My arrangement, and you, O Savyasaci,
can be but an instrument in the fight. (Ref.
Gita 11-33) ()
3368/1.9.2007/jan
() The Bhagavad Gita
39
Sun Tzu () Attack your own plans

SunTzu gave the advice that to win the battle one
should not attack the enemy but the enemys plan.
Today we find ourselves asking what that plan
is. In the business world, the situations we face
are often polarized to the point where we see
competitors as the enemy. This attitude runs
contrary to old as well as modern principles,
which steer us toward networked, win-win
cooperation. You are our own worst enemy with
your dyed-in-the-wool thoughts, principles and
procedures. These are what must be overcome. The
important thing is to develop ourselves and
develop what we do to keep operations viable. In
terms of modern team sports, one could say that
the goal is not to beat your opponent but
yourself. The key is to overcome stagnated ideas
and detrimental routines.
3367/5.9.2007/jan
() c. 544 BC 496 BC
40
Self-management
  • Being aware of ones own spiritual
  • process and its performance in business
    environments and recognizing
  • limitations of rationality
  • significance of non-rationality
  • effect of irrationality
  • Considering situation unbiased
  • quieten down for observing purely (senses and
    mind)
  • becoming clearly conscious of ones own
    intentions and opportunities
  • liberating intuition to creativity and rational
    decision-making
  • Acting straightforwardly without prejudice
  • using all knowledge, information, abilities, etc.
  • focusing to the essentialities
  • acting with sincerity and empathy
  • communicating naturally
  • Developing continually oneself in practical
    everyday activity
  • seeing ones identity and duty and the relevant
    operating environment
  • enhancing understanding
  • organizing own time and activity
  • using beneficial tools and skills

1739/23.8.2007/jan
41
Paradox of speed in business management
  • A prerequisite for increasing speed is to stop
    ()
  • to think and understand the situation
  • to create premises for speed
  • Systemic capacity for reflecting to have time.
    Mental models mental systems, the collective
    mind of the company.
  • But how to get in practice busy business leaders
    to stop a while!

2043/2.9.2007/jan
() Danah Zohar
42
Getting to the root cause through 5 Whys
  • The 5 Whys is a simple problem-solving technique
    that helps users to get to the root of the
    problem quickly. Made popular in the 1970s by the
    Toyota Production System, the 5 Whys strategy
    involves looking at any problem and asking
    Why? and What caused this problem?
  • Example
  • Why is our client, Hinson Corp., unhappy? Because
    we did not deliver our services when we said we
    would.
  • Why were we unable to meet the agreed-upon
    timeline or schedule for delivery? The job took
    much longer than we thought it would.
  • Why did it take so much longer? Because we
    underestimated the complexity of the job.
  • Why did we underestimate the complexity of the
    job? Because we made a quick estimate of the time
    needed to complete it, and did not list the
    individual stages needed to complete the project.
  • Why didn't we do this? Because we were running
    behind on other projects. We clearly need to
    review our time estimation and specification
    procedures.

3370/3.9.2007/jan
43
Action Compass
What?
Who?
When?
Why?
How?
Where?
(Ref. Model-Netics)
0001m/10.5.2007/jan
44
Systemic management of business resources
  • Managing based on system recognition and
    feedback loops.

Stop to think
Plus ca change, plus c'est la même chose
(Ref. Repenning Sterman)
3077/2.9.2007/jan
45
Deepness in knowing and learning
1. Know
Passive knowing, reproducing, and quoting
knowledge produced by others
2. Comprehend
Finding meanings, interpreting facts, inferring
cause consequence
3. Apply
Active applying knowledge in new situations,
solving problems
Recognizing and explaining patterns and meanings,
seeing parts and wholes
4. Analyze
Composing knowledge, creating new ideas,
predicting and drawing conclusions
5. Synthesize
Assessing value and making choices and
recommendations for innovative reforming,
critiquing attitudes and beliefs
6. Evaluate
6. Metacognitive skills to understand how the
learner learns. Awareness of ones own knowledge
and ability to understand, control, manipulate,
and making own ideas questionable
3252/21.1.2007/jan
(Ref. Bloom, Mayer)
46
Informal learning
Informal learning Joe Cross Informal learning
The other 80 http//internettime.com/Learning/The
20Other208025.htm_Toc40161533 Serendipic
learning Parasitic learning Teemu Arina
Serendipity 2.0 Missing third places of
learving http//tarina.blogging.fi/2007/06/23/sere
ndipity-20-missing-third-places-of-learning/comme
nts
3330/20.6.2007/jan
47
Old learning theories
  • Cognitivism takes a computer-like information
    processing model. Learning is viewed as a process
    of inputs, managed in short term memory, and
    coded for long-term recall. Knowledge is viewed
    as symbolic mental constructs in the learner's
    mind, and the learning process is the means by
    which these symbolic representations are
    committed to memory.
  • Pragmatism (similar to cognitivism) states that
    reality is interpreted, and knowledge is
    negotiated through experience and thinking.
  • Behaviorism and cognitivism view knowledge as
    external to the learner and the learning process
    as the act of internalizing knowledge.
  • Objectivism (similar to behaviorism) states that
    reality is external and is objective, and
    knowledge is gained through experiences.
  • Constructivism suggests that learners create
    knowledge as they attempt to understand their
    experiences. Constructivism assumes that learners
    are not empty vessels to be filled with
    knowledge. Instead, learners are actively
    attempting to create meaning. Learners often
    select and pursue their own learning.
    Constructivist principles acknowledge that
    real-life learning is messy and complex.
  • Interpretivism (similar to constructivism)
    states that reality is internal, and knowledge is
    constructed.

(Ref. G. Siemens)
3303/20.3.2007/jan
48
Innovative collaborative networking in three
dimensions
3169/20.9.2006/jan
(Ref. Peter Gloor COIN Collaborative
Innovation Network))
49

Continuous strengthening an organizations
managerial basis for confronting challenges
Performance excellence
Attitudes, interests, and beliefs
Awareness and sensibilities
(1) Guiding ideas
Domain of change
Skills and capabilities
Domain of action (business activity) ()
(3) Innovative management infrastructure
(2) Theory, methods, and tools
1325x/15.2.2004/jan
(Ref. P. Senge, Learning organization)
50
Crisis management ensuring organization's
performance improvement
The universal curve of transition ()
7. INTEGRATION Confidence - New attitudes and
behavior became part of behavioral repertoire
Business performance
6. SEARCH FOR MEANING Curiosity - Trying to
understand how and why new behaviors are better.
2. DENIAL Defensiveness - Retreat into false
competence. Denial of need to change
3. INCOMPETENCE Anger, frustration and confusion
- Awareness that change is necessary
but unsure what to do.
5. TESTING Trepidation - Trying new approaches
and coping with risk of failure
4. ACCEPTANCE OF REALITY Sadness - Letting go to
past attitudes and behavior. Excitement - At
prospect of improved performance
1. IMMOBILISATION Shock - Mismatch
between expectations and reality
Beginning a transition
Time
() Ref. Cranfield School of Management
3171/20.9.2006/jan
51
Conclusions
  • Business crises are turning points in a decisive
    change of business priorities.
  • Conflicts of interests and uncertain business
    environments aggravate decision-making and
    -implementing in crises situations.
  • Haste is waste in itself and additionally a
    remarkable factor to generate business crises and
    conflicts.
  • Haste should be taken seriously as a threat to
    business performance and sustainable success.
  • Crisis management should be integrated with in
    normal business management activities by the
    business leaders responsibility.
  • Sound management practice by using profound
    knowledge is a steadfast basis in confronting
    business crises.
  • Effective and transparent communication and
    learning through collaboration increase holistic
    business awareness and abilities to cope with
    business crises and conflicts.
  • Ultimately all business systems and their use are
    based on and impacted by decisions of authorized
    and powerful individuals and relationships
    between involved people.

3173/2.9.2007/jan
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