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Introduction of INWEPF and A Landmark Discussion

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Introduction of INWEPF and A Landmark Discussion. Kazumi YAMAOKA ... 'Inundated cultivation' with abundant water can reduce labor investment such as... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction of INWEPF and A Landmark Discussion


1
Introduction of INWEPF and A Landmark Discussion
The 7th International Seminar on PIM
13-18 June 2004, Tirana Albania kyamaoka_at_nkk.affrc
.go.jp
  • Kazumi YAMAOKA
  • Chief, Laboratory of Agricultural Water
    Management
  • National Institute for Rural Engineering (NIRE)
  • Japan

2
Presentation Outline
  • Introduction of a Landmark Discussion
  • Water Productivity and Economic Externalities of
    Agricultural Water Use
  • Conclusions of Discussion
  • Introduction of INWEP
  • International Network for Water and Ecosystem in
    Paddy Fields

3
Rice - Produced in Humid Regions Where Annual
Precipitation Exceeds 1,500mm
  • Definition of Targeted Area Rice Paddy
    Agriculture in the Asian Monsoon Region

4
Rice - Produced in Humid Regions Where Annual
Precipitation Exceeds 1,500mm
  • Definition of Targeted Area Rice Paddy
    Agriculture in the Asian Monsoon Region

5
The Worlds Biggest Water User
  • Definition of Targeted Area Rice Paddy
    Agriculture in the Asian Monsoon Region

Paddy Field Irrigation in the Asia Monsoon Region
Accounts for About Half of Global Fresh Water Use
for All Purpose
6
  • Water Productivity of Rice Paddy Agriculture in
    the Asian Monsoon Region

In case of irrigation in arid/semi-arid regions
or in upland fields…
The most efficient irrigation uses a minimum
amount of water to maintain regular crop growth,
i.e. a just amount of water being
evapo-transpired by crops ? More crop per
drop means reducing water use
regularly
7
Water circulation through paddy field
irrigation(model)
  • Water Productivity of Rice Paddy Agriculture in
    the Asian Monsoon Region

Contrary in case of irrigation in paddy fields
in humid regions…
8
  • Water Productivity of Rice Paddy Agriculture in
    the Asian Monsoon Region

Paddy fields in humid regions…
  • During normal period in the wet season

Farmers use more than a minimum amount of water
to maintain regular crop growth because the value
of abundant water is extremely low
Inundated cultivation with abundant water can
reduce labor investment such as…
9
  • Water Productivity of Rice Paddy Agriculture in
    the Asian Monsoon Region
  • To turn over the clay-rich soil
  • To control weeds
  • To manage water allocation among numerous farmers
  • To maintain fertility of farmlands
  • To prevent farmlands from erosion caused by heavy
    rain fall
  • To prevent farmlands from fall in yield by
    repeated cultivation (Alternation between
    anaerobic and aerobic microbes maintains
    bacterial balance in soil)
  • To prevent farmlands from the buildup of salts in
    the soil, and etc….

10
  • Water Productivity of Rice Paddy Agriculture in
    the Asian Monsoon Region
  • During severe dry spells in the wet season
  • Farmers temporarily invest additional labor
    force to reduce using highly valuable water as an
    emergency measure
  • Collective and reciprocal water management
    reduces it much more dramatically than they do it
    selfishly
  • ? Incentive to farmers to join in a
  • Collective and Reciprocal Irrigation
    Management

High Substitutability between Water and Labor
11
Actual Water Saving Ratios for Agricultural Water
Use during Severe Dry Spell (Reduced proportion
of water discharged from Makio reservoir,
Aichi-Yousui)
  • Water Productivity of Rice Paddy Agriculture in
    the Asian Monsoon Region

12
(Reduced proportion of water discharged from
Makio dam, Aichi-Yousui)
  • Water Productivity of Rice Paddy Agriculture in
    the Asian Monsoon Region

Dramatical Reduce of Agricultural Water
Use through Collective and Reciprocal PIM
Reserved volume of water versus Water-saving
ratio in Makio dam (1973-2002)
13
Malaysian experience on utilizing rain fall by
shifting the period of cultivation
  • Water Productivity of Rice Paddy Agriculture in
    the Asian Monsoon Region

Avoiding January and February, extremely dry
period for cropping in 1997 while full years
cropping in 1976 (Single crop in 1968)
Precipitation and Double-cropping period in Muda,
Malaysia
Mean monthly precipitation
1968
1976
1997
Month
14
  • Water Productivity of Rice Paddy Agriculture in
    the Asian Monsoon Region

Water Productivity Equation
WPC/D Amount or value of crop production
(Output) Amount of water use (Input)
  • The higher value of water, i.e. competitiveness
    of water use gives more significance of
    discussions on water allocation
  • We should be more careful to use this indicator
    to compare between regions where competitiveness
    of water use is greatly different

15
  • Water Productivity of Rice Paddy Agriculture in
    the Asian Monsoon Region

Rice Paddy Agriculture in the Asian Monsoon
Region Must Increase...
  • Water productivity during severe dry spells when
    the value of water becomes higher
  • Water use flexibility during normal period in the
    wet season to reduce farmers labor investment
  • Yield and farmers income through utilizing the
    unused water resources in the wet season

Through Collective and Reciprocal PIM
16
Collective and Reciprocal Participatory
Irrigation Management Maximizes Amount of Water
Use Regularly
  • Economic Externalities of Agricultural Water
    Use

It provides a large amount of economic
externalities such as…
17
1st Multiple Use of Irrigated Water by Local
People
  • Economic Externalities of Agricultural Water
    Use
  • Aquaculture
  • Duck raising
  • Bathing, cooling, washing, cleaning
  • Navigating, transporting
  • Drinking, and etc….
  • It brings supplementary incomes and convenient
    lives to local people in addition to their
    agricultural economy

18
2nd Multifaceted Socio-economic Benefits to the
Public
  • Economic Externalities of Agricultural Water
    Use
  • Preserving Ecosystems and Bio-diversity
  • Stabilizing downstream river flow
  • Mitigating damage by flooding
  • Recharging groundwater aquifers
  • Preventing land slide and soil erosion
  • Landscaping, recreation
  • Melting and flushing snow, fire prevention and
    fighting
  • Succeeding culture and ritual, and etc….
  • They increase social/economic welfare/surplus for
    the public through farmers activities

19
Rice Paddy Agriculture in the Asian Monsoon
Region Must Encourage...
  • Multiple use of irrigation water
  • Investment and official support to irrigation by
    taking into account its broad economic
    externalities
  • Incentives to farmers to join in and sustain a
    collective and reciprocal PIM


20

International Network for Water and
Ecosystem in Paddy Fields ( INWEPF )
21
1. Overall Goals
  • Securing Stable Food Supply
  • Alleviating Poverty
  • Sustaining Water Use
  • Harmonizing with Nature
  • Developing Sustainable Rural Societies

2. Objectives
  • Establishing a Flexible Platform for
  • Exchanging and integrating Information
  • Fostering partnerships

3. Target Area
Where rice is a major concern for production
and consumption
22
4. Framework
  • a) Open for
  • Government, International Organization,
  • Civil society, Individual Researcher etc
  • b) Linkage among three components
  • 1) Research
  • 2) Policy/Action
  • 3) International cooperation
  • c) Four means to achieve outcomes
  • 1) Steering Meeting 2) Virtual
    Meeting
  • 3) General conference 4) Working groups

23
Framework of INWEPF
Research
Information
Support and Action
INWEPF
Steering Meeting
Working Group
Conference
Virtual Meeting
Support and Action
Information
Information
Support and Action
International Cooperation
Policy / Action
24
The Informal Preparatory Meeting for INWEPF Date
February 3rd and 4th, 2004 Venue Tokyo, JAPAN
  • Participants from
  • Bangladesh, Cambodia, China,
  • Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines,
  • Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka,
  • Thailand, Japan
  • ADB, CGIAR, FAO, ICID,
  • IMPIM, IRRI, IWMI, JBIC,
  • JICA, JIID, JIRCAS, KARICO,
  • NIAES, NIRE, PAWEES,
  • UNU, WB

25
Activities for 1st INWEPF Meeting
Informal Preparatory Meeting Date February
3rd and 4th, 2004 Venue Tokyo, JAPAN
Virtual Meeting Prioritization of actions and
agenda http//www.inwepf.dc.affrc.go.jp
1st INWEPF Steering Meeting Date November 1st
and 2nd, 2004 Venue Tokyo, JAPAN
26
Thank you for your attention
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